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E. CAPPS, PH.D.,LL.n. T. E. PAGE, utt n. 
W. H. D. ROUSE, LiTT.D. 











Printed in Great Britain. 


Introduction — 

Life. . . . . . . 



The Major Works , . . 


The Minor Works 


MSS. and Authorities for the Text . 


Recent Editions of the Greek Text and 

other Works ..... 


Abbreviations ...... 


Life of Josephus ...... 


Against Apion 


Index 1.^ General ...... 


„ \\., Biblical Passages .... 


Map of Galilee 

To face 412 



The autobiography which appears in this volume 
renders unnecessary any detailed life of the author. 
But, as that work mainly relates to a period of only 
six months, and needs to be supplemented by other 
notices which appear in the War or elsewhere, the 
facts may here be briefly summarized. 

Son of a priest and with royal blood in his veins 
on the mother's side, Joseph ben Matthias was born 
in the year of the accession of Gaius (Caligula) 
A.D. 37-38. Pontius Pilate had been recalled from 
Judaea in the previous year ; Herod Agrippa I had 
just received his liberty and kingdom from the new 
Emperor. The lad's memory might perhaps recall 
the scenes of excitement aroused in Palestine by the 
attempt of Caligula to erect his statue in the Temple, 
when the outbreak of war was narrowly averted 
(a.d. 40-41). Of his education he tells us of his 
precocious talents which, at the age of 14, brought 
learned Rabbis to consult him ; how at 16 he entered 
on what may be called his short university course, 
when he studied the tenets of the three national 
sects ; how he followed this up by three years of 
ascetic life in the wilderness, and how, on returning 



to Jerusalem at the age of 19. he threw in his lot 
with the Pharisees. Of his early manhood one out- 
standing event is related, his visit to Rome at the 
age of 26 or 27 in the year 64. It was the year of 
the burning of Rome and the persecution of the 
Christians, but whether those events preceded his 
arrival is unknown, and no inference can be drawn 
from his silence as to his attitude to Christianity. It 
is idle to conjecture whether, beyond its ostensible 
object — the hberation of certain Je^^•ish priests — 
this \'isit to the capital had any ulterior motive. It 
impressed him, at any rate, with a sense of Rome's 
in\-incibility ; and on his return to Judaea, where he 
found his countrymen heading for revolt, he vainly 
endeavoured to pacify the war party. The turbulent 
state of the country soon brought Cestius Gallus, the 
Governor of SjTia, upon the scene. His unaccount- 
able ^^ithdrawal from Jerusalem, when almost within 
his grasp, was followed by the disastrous rout of his 
Roman legions in the defiles of Bethhoron in the 
autumn of 66. The irrevocable step had now been 
taken and hasty preparations were made for the 
impending war. 

The young priest aged 29, on what qualifications 
does not appear, was, with two others, entrusted with 
an important commission in Galilee, if not the actual 
command of the district. The opening scenes of the 
Galilaean campaign in a.d. 66-67, which fill most of 
the pages of the Life, are difficult to follow^ , and the 
policy and aims both of Josj^phus and of the Jerusalem 
leaders are far from clear./ We have two accounts of 
this period, both biased and in some details incon- 
sistent. In the Life we have the author's defence 
against a rival Jewish historian, who accused him and 



the Galilaeans of being responsible for the revolt 
(§ 340) ; in the Jewish War we have a shorter account 
written under Roman patronage. In the War 
Josephus is represented as having been appointed 
general of Galilee from the first (B. ii. 568) ; in the 
Life we are merely told that his commission was to 
induce the hotheads to lay down their arms (Vita 29, 
cp. 77). In a recent suggestive but rather fanciful 
work (see p. xix below) Herr Laqueur lays stress 
on this difference and supposes that Josephus acted 
tdtra vires in assuming the supreme command of 
Galilee, and that this accounts for the attempt of 
Johnof Gischala to get him superseded/'Howeverthat 
may be, he was suspected of harbouring designs of 
betraying the country to Rome, He may have hoped 
to avert war by compromise, but events moved fast 
and forced him to identify himself with the war 
party. On the advance of Vespasian from Antioch 
he finally resolved to stand a siege in the fortified town 
of Jotapata. Of the forty-seven days' siege, the fall 
of the town (July 67), his capture by the Romans after 
a narrow escape from being murdered by his com- 
panions in hiding, and his prophecy of Vespasian's 
rise to imperial power, he has given a graphic account 
in the third book of the Jewish War. 

Henceforth, in Roman hands, his life was tolerably 
secure. Military operations were delayed during 
the eventful year 68-69, which saw the death of 
Nero and, in rapid succession, the promotion of three 
Emperors. In July 69 Vespasian's legions took the 
law into their own hands and proclaimed him 
Emperor. One of the first acts of the new Emperor 
was the liberation of Josephus whose prediction had 
now come true. Accompanying Vespasian to Alex- 



andria, Josephus returned thence N^ith Titus to the 
siege of Jerusalem. Here his ser\ices as interpreter 
and mediator were in constant requisition. He was 
now, he teUs us, between two fires : bitterly hated 
by the Jews and suspected of treachery by the 
Romans whenever they met ^vith a reverse. 

Of his life in Rome, after the fall of Jerusalem 
(a.d. 70), and the various pri%ileges bestowed on 
him by the Flavian Emperors, he gives us a brief 
sketch. Awarded the rights of Roman citizenship 
and a lodging in the priuata aedes of Vespasian, he was 
among the first to be placed on the " civil list " 
instituted by that Emperor (V. 423 ; Suet. Vesp. 18). 
He v^-itnessed the triumph of Vespasian and Titus, and 
must have seen the new Rome arising from the ashes 
in which the fire under Nero and the civil war had 
left it ; the new buildings including the Colosseum, 
the Fora of Vespasian and Titus and the Temple of 
Peace. Still dogged by Jewish hatred, he, ynih 
unfailing tact, succeeded in retaining the imperial 
favour, even of Domitian, and eluding his foes. The 
date of his death is unkno^\Tl, but he outlived 
Agrippa II (V. 359) who, according to Photius, died 
in A.D. 100. From Eusebius (Hist. EccL iii. 9) we 
learn that his statue was erected in Rome and his 
works placed in the public librarv. 

His domestic hfe had its matrimonial troubles. 
He was married at least three times, being deserted 
by one v.'ife and divorcing another (F. 415, 426 f.). 


The Major Works 

During the leisure of his Ufa in Rome Josephus 
produced the four works which have come down to 
us : the Jewish War, the Antiquities, the Life, and the 
treatise Against Apion. 

The two major works will call for further remark 
in the sequel. Here it will suffice to say that he 
must have at once taken in hand^his History of the 
War ; that the first (lost) draft was written in Aramaic 
for the benefit of the natives of Upper Syria {B. i. 3) ; 
that, being penned in Vespasian's former palace by 
his pensioner, it was probably of the nature of a 
manifesto " inspired " by his imperial patrons, and 
intended as a warning to the East of the futility of 
further opposition ; that the second, doubtless fuller, 
edition in Greek was composed with the aid of literary 
assistants (Ap. i. 50) and appeared towards the end of 
Vespasian's reign, between a.d. 75 and 79. 

Some sixteen years elapsed before the appearance 
of his next work, the Antiquities, in a.d. 93-94. The 
interval must have been spent in collecting materials 
for this magnum opus. But another cause may have 
contributed to this long break in his literary output. 
Domitian was the enemy of literature and the position 
of historians in particular was precarious ; -svriters 
such as Tacitus, Pliny, and Juvenal preferred to 
remain silent throughout his reign. Deprived of his 
imperial patrons, Josephus now found another in a 
certain Epaphroditus, who is probably to be identified 
with a grammarian, possessor of a large library and 
writer on Homer. To him Josephus dedicates all 
his later works. 

At the close of the Antiquities (xx. 267 f.) the author 



tells us of two further literary projects : (1) a sum- 
mary sketch of the war and the after-history of his 
nation ; (2) " a work in four books concerning God 
and His being, and concerning the Laws, why some 
things are permitted to us by them and others are 
forbidden." Neither work apparently was eyer 
published ; but the second. " On Customs and 
Causes," as he elsewhere calls it. had. as may be 
inferred from the mention of four books and scattered 
allusions in the Ajiiiquities to its contents, taken 
shape in his mind and been partly drafted. The 
attribution to Josephus by Eusebius (H.E. iii. 10) 
and others of the so-called Fourth Book of Maccabees 
is erroneous. 

The Minor Works 

The two minor works contained in this yolume are, 
at least in their present form, the latest of our 
author's ^^Titings. The translator has here abandoned 
chronological order : but it is perhaps appropriate to 
place the Autobiography in the forefront. More- 
over, the question of its date has recently been 
re-opened and Laqueur's theory, mentioned below, 
would, if sound, justify the position of priority 
assigned to it. The second of the minor works is 
conveniently grouped with the first. 

These two works were issued in old age, when the 
author was upwards of 63, early in the second century 
under the Emperor Trajan. The Life is brought 
down to the second century by the allusion (§ 359 f-) 
to the appearance of a rival history of the War 


after the death of Agrippa II, which, we are told, 
occurred in a.d. 100. The Contra Apioiiem is in any 
case later than 9^? the date of the A?itiqmties, to 
which reference is made (i. 1, 54< ; ii. 287). But this 
work also contains an allusion (i. 46 ff.) to rival 
historians of the War, and, although no names are 
here mentioned, the person principally attacked is 
doubtless the same Justus who is named in the Life. 
The Contra Apionem may therefore likewise be 
assigned to the beginning of the second century. 

The two treatises form a strange contrast ; we see 
our author at his worst and at his best. Both are 
controversial, one being an apologia pro vita, the other 
p?'o gente sua. But in style, arrangement, and treat- 
ment they are so different that one would hardly 
suppose them to be contemporary productions from 
the same pen. 

Vita. — The Life is an appendix to the Antiquities, 
and to a second or later edition of the Antiquities. It 
did not appear in the first edition. This is the 
natural inference from the concluding paragraphs 
of Ant. XX. The larger work has two endings. In 
the first the author writes (§ 259) '- " Here I will end 
my Archaeology,'' and then, after some recapitulation 
and self-advertisement, he proceeds (266) : " But 
perhaps it will not be taken amiss if I append a brief 
statement about my family and career while persons 
still survive either to refute or to corroborate what 
I say." Then comes the second conclusion, beginning 
(267) : " But here I will close the Archaeology ; " and 
the precise date of writing follows, " the 13th year 
of Domitian and the 56th year of his own age," that 
is, A.D. 93-94. The Life, however, mentioned in the 
previous section, as already stated, did not appear 



until after 100. Clearly we have here two perora- 
tions ; but the author has reversed the order usual 
in prefaces to separate editions of modern works. 
The original ending has been allowed to stand, but 
he has prefixed to it the conclusion of his second 
edition, leading up to his new matter, the Auto- 

The event which occasioned this appendix was the 
publication of a rival history of the Jewish War by a 
compatriot, Justus of Tiberias, who accused Josephus 
of causing his native city (Tiberias) to revolt from 
Rome (§ SS6fF.). The damaging criticisms of Justus 
were calculated to endanger, not only the sale of 
Josephus's works, but even his secure position at 
Rome. They called for an immediate rejoinder. 
The Life, then, by no means answers to its name ; 
it is not a complete biography. The bulk of it is the 
author's defence of his conduct during the half-year 
of his command in Galilee before the siege of 
Jotapata. To this, brief sketches of his youth in 
Palestine and his later years in Rome have been 
added as prologue and epilogue. The work, in 
which the author indulges his vanity to the full, is, 
alike in matter and in manner, the least satisfactory 
of his -s^Titings. The weakness of his boasted 
strategy is on a par %\-ith the crudity of the style. 

A theory has recently been propounded which would 
go far to explain the latter defect. Herr Laqueur 
maintains that the kernel of the Fita is not among 
the latest, but the very earliest work of our author, 
written at the age, not of 65, but of 30. In his 
opinion, it is an official report of his conduct of affairs 
in Galilee, drafted, before the siege of Jotapata, for 
submission to the Jerusalem authorities. It is his 



defence against the charge brought against him by 
John of Gischala and others of aiming at a rvpavvls. 
This theory is based partly on the disproportionate 
space devoted to the Gahlaean period, partly on a 
comparison of the parallel accounts in the Life and 
in the War in the few passages where they overlap. 
Laqueur attempts to prove that the Life presents the 
older and more trustworthy account. This unliterary 
report, of which no use was made at the time, was in 
after life utilized to meet the attack of Justus, and, 
\vith a little revision, worked up into an auto- 
biography. It is an attractive theory. That Josephus 
should have kept some contemporary record of his 
period of office appears not improbable. /if Laqueur 
were right, we should have an interesting relic of our 
author's style of composition before he came under 
the influence of his literary friends in Rome. If, as 
appears probable, the whole work is really late, the 
lack of literary finish must be due to hasty production, 
unaided by his former assistants (cf. Ap. i. 50). 
The theory seems, in fact, to break down owing to the 
numerous links of style which connect the Lije as a 
whole wdth the last book of the Antiquities, suggesting 
contemporaneous or nearly contemporaneous com- 
position. Laqueur's thesis, in that case, is only 
tenable on the supposition that the youthful 
" report " was ^vritten in Aramaic. 

Phrases which are peculiar to the alleged " early " 
portions of the Life and to Ant. xx. are : (pojSos ovrt fierpios 
V. 22, 148 (cp. 122), A. xx. 47 ; Kardyvwaiv (pepeiv tlvl V. 93, 
A. XX. 83 ; rapaxas {-y)v) KaraaTeWeiu V. 103, 244, 369, A. XX. 
174 ; d)s elSop (Is olov KaKwv rjKOVcri. /neyedos V. 170, A. XX. 123. 
Among other words and phrases peculiar to the two books 
are : ovk {ov^h) dwoSeova-a (d/cpo)7r6Xea;s " as large as " V. 
246, jI, XX. 130, dTrocrroXTj, did 0t\tas dcptKeadat^ irbpov (jwrr^pias 
evpeadaL V. 14, A. XX. 54, Trpoaraaiav inaTeveadai. V. 115, 393, 



A. XX. 238, crvpavaTreideLv V. 424, j1. XX. 35, crvpedpiov KO-di^eiv 
V. 236, 368, A. xx. 200, rdtip imaToXiop ircaTeveiv V. 356, 
A. XX. 183. 

Contra Ap'ionem. — As a set-off to the Life, the 
treatise Contra Apionem. in two books, is the most 
attractive of our author's works ; exhibiting a Avell 
designed plan, great Hterary skill, an intimate 
acquaintance with Greek philosophy and -poetry, 
together with a sincere and impassioned zeal for his 
country's religion. The title fnot the author's) is not 
very happily chosen ; Apion being merely one 
representative of Israel's enemies. Older titles were 
" On the antiquity of the Jews " (not sufficiently 
distinctive) and " Against the Greeks." Designed 
as a reply to criticisms on the Antiquities and a refuta- 
tion of current prejudices, the M'ork contains an 
apologv for Judaism ^\'ith a demonstration of the 
antiquity of the race. It gives an interesting insight 
into the anti-Semitism of the first century. The 
^vriter challenges the extreme antiquity claimed by 
the Greeks ; accounts for their silence on Jewish 
history ; marshals an array of evidence (Egyptian, 
Phoenician, Babylonian, and Greek) for the antiquity 
of his o^YTi nation ; successfully rebuts the malignant 
and absurd fictions of the anti-Semites ; and con- 
cludes with a globing defence of the lawgiver and 
his code, his lofty conception of God being contrasted 
\\'ith the immoral ideas current among the Greeks. 
Numerous quotations from lost ^\Titings give this 
work a special value. 



mss. and other ancient authorities for the 
Greek Text 

(a) For the Life : — 

P Codex Palatinus (Vatieanus) Graecus 14, cent. 

ix. or X, 
R Codex Regius (Parisinus) Gr. 1423, cent. xiv. 
A Codex Ambrosianus (Mediolanensis) F. 128, 

cent. xi. 
M Codex Mediceo-Laurentianus, plut. Ixix., cod. 

10, cent. XV. 
W Codex Vatieanus Gr. 984, a.d. 1354. 
Eusebius {Hist. Eccles. iii. 10) quotes §§ 361-364; 
we have also occasional excerpts made in the 
Byzantine era. 

The MSS. may be roughly divided into two groups 
P(R) and (A)MW, in which R and A are inconstant 
members. A as a rule sides with MW ; R frequently 
joins that group or stands alone. Of the two modern 
editors, Niese bases his text mainly on the oldest ms., 
P ; Naber puts greater faith in the readings of the 
group AMW. 

All textual critics of Josephus must gratefully 
acknowledge their indebtedness to Niese and their 
dependence upon the evidence collected in his 
edition. Yet one may respectfully question whether 
he has established a definitive text. As Naber has 
remarked, he seems to have somewhat overrated the 
valueof a single ill- written Ms.,and the true text or the 
nearest approximation to it is sometimes relegated to 
his apparatus criticus. The difficulties which confront 
the editor of Josephus arise from a comparative 



paucity of ancient mss., the inconstancy of some 
Mss., which renders grouping uncertain, and the fact 
that corruption has often affected the text of all. 
Each variant has to be considered on its merits ; 
and there is considerable scope for conjectural 
emendation, on which many eminent scholars have 
exercised their ingenuity. If Niese over-estimated 
the value of P, Naber seems to have rehed too 
exclusively on AMW. Speaking generally, the 
present MTiter ventures to think that the true text 
in this book is as a rule to be looked for in P, R, or A ; 
the combination PRA is rarely in error. MW in 
numerous passages present a manifestly inferior and 
" doctored " text ; yet elsewhere, especially if 
supported by P, their evidence cannot be neglected. 
The text printed belov\', while based on the labours 
of Niese and Naber, is the outcome of a careful and 
independent investigation of the ms. evidence in all 

(b) For the Contra Apionem : — 
Here we are dependent on a solitary imperfect 
MS. viz. 

L Codex Laurentianus plut. Ixix. 22, cent, xi, 

of which all other extant mss. appear to be copies. 
For the long lacuna common to all the mss. (Book II 
§§ 52-113) we are compelled to have recourse to the 
old Latin version made by order of Cassiodorus, the 
minister of Theodoric (ed. C. Boysen in the Vienna 
Corpus Scriptorum Eccles. Lat. vol. xxxvii., I898). 
Here the restoration of the underlying Greek, which 
the Latin translator has not always understood, is a 
difficult task. Numerous valuable quotations are 
made by Eusebius. The text seems to have passed 


through various stages of corruption, which began 
even before his time, and glosses have occasionally 
crept into the text of cod. L. In Niese's judgement 
the relative value of our authorities is (1) Eusebius, 
(2) the Latin version, (3) cod. L. The editio princeps 
of the Greek text (Basel, 1544) is of first-rate import- 
ance and seems to be derived in part from some 
MS. unknown to Niese. 

Recent Editions of the Greek Text 

B. Niese. Editio major (with full apparatus criticus)^ 

6 vols. Berlin, 1887-1889. 
B. Niese. Editio minor (text only), 6 vols., Berlin, 

S. A. Naber (text, based on Bekker's edition, with 

useful concise adnotatio critica), 6 vols,, Teubner 

series, Leipzig, 1888-1896. 

Other Works 

For the Lije the reader may consult, with dis- 
crimination, the suggestive but speculative work of 
Richard Laqueur, Der judische Historiker Flavins 
Josephus (ein biographischer Versuch auf neuer quellen- 
hitischer Grundlage), Giessen, 1920. 

For the Contra Apioriem there is a full commentary 
by J. G. Miiller (Basel. 1877) and a French translation, 
with valuable notes by the editor, in (Euvres completes 
de Flav. Josephe traduites en Frangais sous la direction 
de Theodore Rei?iach, tome vii. fasc. 1 (Paris, 1902). 




A. =A?itiquitates Judaicae. 
Ap. = Contra Apionem. 

B. = BeUum Judaicum. 
V.= Vita. 

cow/. = conjectural emendation. 

ed. pr. = editio princeps (Basel, 1544). 

Eus. {II. E. ; P. E.) = Eusebius (Historia Ecclesiastica ; 

Praeparatio Evangelicd). 
«W. = inserted by. om. = OTmt. 

Conjectural insertions in the Greek text are 
indicated by angular brackets, < > ; doubtful ms. read- 
ings and apparent glosses by square brackets, [ ]. 

The smaller sections .introduced by Niese are 
shown in the left margin of the Greek text. Refer- 
ences throughout are to these sections. The chapter- 
division of earlier editions is indicated on both pages 
(Greek and English). 

Alii lahorauerunt ; and the present translator here 
gratefully acknowledges his constant indebtedness 
to the work of numerous scholars of various nation- 
ahties, notably Benedict Niese, Theodore Reinach, 
and (for the Life and the War) Robert Traill. The 
older translation of Wilham Whiston has also been 
occasionally consulted. 

He further desires to acknowledge the kind per- 
mission of the editors and pubhshers of Judaism and 
the BeginJiijigs of Christianity (Routledge) to use for 
this Introduction portions of a lecture included in 
that volimae, which he delivered at Jews' College, 
London, in 1923. 




^^^'^ mxHuor BIOS 

1 (1) 'E/xot §€ yivos icTTLV ovK aoriixov, dAA e^ 
lepeojv dvcodev Kara^e^r^Ko?. ajdTrep 8' rj^ nap 
iKaGTOis aXkr] ris eVrtv evyeveias viroOeGLs, ovtojs 
77a/)' TjfJLLV Tj rrjs UpcDGVvTjs jJLeTOVGLa reKjJi'qpLOV 

2 iuTLv yevovs XafJLTrporrjrog. ifiol 8 ov fjbovov 
i^ Upeow eurlv to yivos, aAAa /cat €K rrjs TTpcorr]^ 
e(j)rjiJiepihos tcov elKOGLreGudpcov , ttoXXtj Se Kav 
Tovro) SLa(l)opd, koL row iv ravrrj Se (^vXd)v eK rrjs 
dplorrjs. vTrdpxoJ 3e xrat rod ^auiXiKov yevovs 
diTO rrjs fjLTjrpos' ol yap Aoajjiajvalov TralSes, chv 
eyyovog eKeivTj, rod edvovs tjij^cov errl pLr^KLorov 

^ ^(povov rjpxi^pdrevaav /cat i^aaiXevGav. epoj 8e 
rrjv BiaSox'jv. o rrpoTTamTOS 7]p.di)V 2t/xcov o 
^'eAAo? eTTLKaXovfievog- ovros iyevero /ca^' ov 
Kcapov rip)(_i€pdr€VGev St/xcovos" ap^t^epiajs 6 ttols, 
OS irpchros dpx^^pi<J^v 'YpKavos chvopLdodrj. yi- 

4 vovrai 8e rd) ^\XXa) St/xcoyt 77at8es' ivvea' rov- 
rcvv iorlv ^lardcas 6 H^atou^ Xeyofievog. ovros 
Tjydyero rrpos ydfjiov dvyarepa lojvdOov dp'^^iepiojf, 
rod rrpdjrov eV rd)v 'Acra/xcovatoL) rraihojv yevovs 

^ 5' i] Xiese : 07/ (5e) 3iss. 
2 c.ll. "E(pL\iov, 'H^Xt'ou. 

° i.e. that of Jehoiarib (1 Chron. xxiv. 7). In A. vii. 366 
Jos. states that the division of the priests into twenty-four 



(1) My family is no ignoble one, tracing its descent rtdigree. 
far back to priestly ancestors. Different races 
base tlieir claim to nobility on various grounds ; 
with us a connexion with the priesthood is the hall- 
mark of an illustrious line. Not only, however, were , ' 
my ancestors priests, but they belonged to the first 
of the twenty-four courses " — a peculiar distinction 
— and to the most eminent of its constituent clans.; 
Moreover, on my mother's side I am of royal blood ; 
for the posterity of Asamonaeus,^ from whom she 
sprang, for a very considerable period were kings, 
as well as high-priests, of our nation. I will give 
'. the pedigree. My great-grandfather's grandfather 
was Simon surnamed Psellus.'^ He was a con- 
temporary of the high-priest Hyrcanus, the first 
of the name to hold that office, previously held 
by his father Simon. Simon " the stammerer " 
had nine children, one of whom, Matthias, known 
as the son of Ephaeus, married the daughter of 
Jonathan the high-priest, w^ho was the first of the 
line of Asamonaeus to attain to the high-priesthood,^ c. 153 b.c. 

" families " continued to his day. On the contrary Ap. ii. 
108 (extant only in the Latin version) speaks of four courses 
{frihus) only. 

^ The Hasmonaeans or Maccabees, called after an 
eponymous hero Hashmon. 

" (.e. " The Stammerer." •* 1 Mace. x. 21. 



dpxi^parevGavTOS , rod dheX(f)Ov ^lijoopos '^^PX" 
Lepeojg' /cat yiverai Tralg aura) ^lardias 6 Kvpros 
iTTLKXrjdeis, dpxovros 'YpKavov rov irpcoTov ivi- 

5 avrov. rovrov yiverai lojcrrjTTog evaroj krei rrjs 
'AAe^aySpa? dpxyjs, koL ^Icogtjttov ^[arOlas /3acrt- 
XevovTOS ^ Xpx^Xdov to heKarov, ^lardla he eyoj 
ro) Trpdjrqj rrjs Tatov Kaicrapos" rjyefjLoviag. e/xot 
Se TTOiSes eluL rpels, 'YpKavos /xev o TTpeu^vraros 
erei rerdprco rrjs OveGTraaiavov Katcrapos' 'qyepLO- 
vias, ejSSojjLOj 8e ^lovaroSy evdrco Se Aypimrag. 

6 r7]v [xev ovv rod yevovs rjpbcov SiaboxTJ^, cos ev rals 
SrjfjLoalais SeXrois dvayeypapbjjievrjv evpov, ovrojs 
TTapariOeixai, rois hia^aXXeiv rjfjids TreipoJixevois 
Xalpeiv (fypdcras. 

7 (2) '0 rrarrfp Se fxov ^lardias ov hid fiov-qv rrjv 
evyeveiav e.TTiu'qp.os rjv, dXXd rrXeov Sta ttjv oiKaio- 
(Tvvqv eTTrjveLTO, yvajpifitoraros d)V ev rfj fxeyiarrj 

8 TToXei ra)v Trap* rjpuv rols 'lepoaoXviMrais . eyd) 
he GVfJLTraihevofJLevos dheX(f)qj Mar^ta rovvofia, 
yeyovei ydp p.oi yvrjauos e^ dp.(f)olv rwv yoveojv, 
els fjLeydXrjv Trachelas rrpovKOTrrov errlhoGiVy pivrjfxr) 

9 re Kal GVveGei hoKwv hia(j)epeiv . en h avrirraLS 
ow TTepl reGGapeGKaiheKarov eros hid ro (j^iXoypap.- 
jjjriTOV 1)770 TrdvTcov eTTrjvoviJi-qv , Gvviovrojv aet rojv 
dpx^^P^<-^v KOL rd)V rrjs TToXecos rrpujrojv vnep rod 
rrap e'/xou rrepX rcov vop.lp.cov dKpu^eGrepov n 

10 yvcJovai. rrepl eKKalheKa he err] yevopuevos e^ov- 
Xi]dr)V row Trap* rjpblv alpeGeojv ep^Treiplav Xa^elv 
rpels S' elolv avrai, ^apuGalojv pLev rj Trpojrr] /cat 
2aSSou/<:ata>v r] hevrepa, rplrr] 8' 'Ecrcrryycu^', Kadojs 
TToXXdKLs elnopLev ovrojs ydp coopirjv alpi^GeGdai 

11 rT]v dplGrr)V_ el Traaa? KarapddoLpn. GKXr]payoj' 

THE LIFE, 4-11 

and brother of Simon who also held that office. 
Matthias, in the first year of the reign of Hyrcanus, c 135 B.f-. 
had a son Matthias, surnamed Curtus " ; who, in 
the ninth year of the reign of Alexandra, begot c. vo b.c 
Joseph, and he, in the tenth year of the reign of 
Arehelaus, Matthias, to whom I was born in the c. a.d. g. 
year in which Gains Caesar became Emperor. I ^•'^- 37-8. 
have three sons : Hyrcanus, the eldest, born in the 
fourth, Justus in the seventh, and Agrippa in the <'• ^^i^- ^a 7; 
ninth year of the reign of Vespasian Caesar. With 
such a pedigree, which I cite as I find it recorded 
in the public registers, I can take leave of the would- 
be detractors of my family. 

(2) Distinguished as he was by his noble birth, Education. 
my father Matthias was even more esteemed for 
his upright character, being among the most notable 
men in Jerusalem, our greatest city. Brought up 
with Matthias, my own brother by both parents, 
I made great progress in my education, gaining a 
reputation for an excellent memory and understand- 
ing. While still a mere boy, about fourteen years a.d. 51-'2. 
old, I won universal applause for my love of letters ; 
insomuch that the chief priests and the leading men 
of the city used constantly to come to me for precise 
information on some particular in our ordinances. 
At about the age of sixteen I determined to gain a.d. 53-1. 
personal experience of the several sects into which 
our nation is divided. These, as I have frequently 
mentioned,^ are three in number — ^the first that of 
the Pharisees, the second that of the Sadducees, 
and the third that of the Essenes. I thought that, 
after a thorough investigation, I should be in a 
position to select the best. So I submitted myself 

« "Hump-back." " See B. ii. 119; A. xiii. 171,xviii. 11. 



yj]G(i<s ovv ifjbavrov kol ttoAAo, TTovrjdels tcls" rpels 
hirjXdov Kol ijL-qhe rrjv ivrevOev efj^Treipiav LKavrjV 
ejjbavrqj vofiicras elvau, rrvdoixevos riva Bavvovv 
Gvofia Kara rr^v ipi^fjiiav SuarpL^eLV, iod'qri jjbev oltto 
SevSpojv ;Ypa>/x€voy, rpo(f)T]V 8e rrjv avropLarcjs 
(f)VoiJb€vrjv 7Tpou(j)ep6p.evov , ipv^poj Se vSari rr]v 
rjjjbdpav Kal rrjv vvKra rroXXaKLS Xovofievov Trpog 

12 dyvetav, t,rjXajTrjs iyevopbTjv avrov. kol hiarpiibas 
Trap" avTOJ iviavrovs rpels Kal rrjv iTnOvjiiav 
reXeiojoas €tV rrjV ttoXlv v7TeGrp€(f)OV. ivveaKai- 
SeKarov S erog e;i(;ajy rjp^dfji'qv [re] TroXcreveorO at 
rfj OapLGaLOJv alpeGei KaraKoXovdojv , t) rrapa- 
rrXrjGLOs icm rfj Trap "Y^XXtjul Y^rojiKji XeyofievQ. 

13 (3) Mer cIkogtov Se /cat eKrov iviavrov ci's" 
PcQfjLTiv fjLOi GVV€7T€G€V dva^TJvai Sid TTjv XexdrjGQ- 

IxevTjv aLTiav. Kad ov )(p6vov Or^At^ ri]? lovSacas 
€7TeTpo7T€V€v, Upel^ Tivas GVVT^deis ifJLOi KaXovg 
Kayadovs Sta puKpdv Kal rr]V TV)(ovGav alriav 
hiqGas €ls TTjV 'Pco/X7]y €7r€pnfj€, Xoyov v(f)€^ovrag 

14: TO) Katcrapt. olg iyoj rropov €vp€GdaL ^ovXofjievo? 
Gojrripias i /xaAtcrra Se 7Tv66p.€vos on Kairrep iv 
KaKols dvres ovk irreXdOovro rrjg et? ro delov 
€VGe^eiaSy hiaTpi(j)OLVTo Se gijkol? Kal Kapvoig, 
a(f)LKoijLijv etV TTjV 'Pdyjjbrjv noXXd KLvSvv€7JGag Kard 

15 BdXaGGav. j^armGdlvros ydp r][jbow rod ttXolov 
Kara fieGov rov 'ASptW, irepl e^aKOGiovs rov 
dpiOpLov ovres St' oAt^s" ttj? vvKrds ivrj^dp^eda, /cat 
7T€pi ap)(oiJL€vrjv -qpbepav €7Ti(j)avevro£ 'qpXv Kara 
deov rrpovoiav K.vp-qvaiKov rrXoiov, (f>ddGavres rovg 
dXXovs iyo) re Kai rives erepoi Trepl oyhor^Kovra 


THE LIFE, 11-15 

to hard training and laborious exercises and passed 
through the three courses. Not content, however, 
with the experience thus gained, on hearing of one 
named Bannus, who dwelt in the wilderness, wearing 
only such clothing as trees provided," feeding on 
such things as grew of themselves, and using frequent 
ablutions of cold water, by day and night, for purity's 
sake, I became his devoted disciple. With him I 
lived for three years and, having accomplished my 
purpose, returned to the city. Being now in my a.d. oc-t. 
nineteenth year I began to govern my life by the 
rules of the Pharisees, a sect having points of re- 
semblance to that which the Greeks call the Stoic 
school. .-.-^--^ 

(3) Soon after I had completed my tAventy-sixth ^ '^'Jsit to 
year it fell to my lot to go up to Rome for the reason c. a.d. oi. 
which I will proceed to relate. At the time when 
Felix was procurator of Judaea, certain priests of my 
acquaintance, very excellent men, were on a slight 
and trifling charge sent by him in bonds to Rome 
to render an account to Caesar. '^ I was anxious to 
discover some means of delivering these men, more 
especially as I learnt that, even in affliction, they 
had not forgotten the pious practices of religion, 
and supported themselves on figs and nuts.<^ I 
reached Rome after being in great jeopardy at sea. 
For our ship foundered in the midst of the sea of 
Adria, and our company of some six hundred souls 
had to swim all that night. About daybreak, through 
God's good providence, we sighted a ship of Cyrene, 
and I and certain others, about eighty in all, out- 

" Made of leaves or, perhaps, bark. ^ Nero. 

" To avoid eating etSwXo^i^ra, i.e. meat left over from 
heathen sacrifices ; cf. 1 Cor. viii. 



16 GVfjLTTavres dveXrjcf^OrjiJLev elg ro rrXolov. hiaaojOeis 
8' els rrjv -S.LKaidp'x^eiav , rjv YlonoXovg 'IraAot 
KaXovGiVy hid cfiiXlag dfj^LKOfJLTjv WXirvpoj, [jLLfio- 
Xoyog d' tjv ovtos jjAXiura} toj SepowL KaraOvpAog, 

lovdalos ro yevos, Kai hi avrov YloTrrraia^ rfj rod 
Kataapo? yvvaiKL yvojpiu8els Trpovooj ojs rd)(iGra 
TrapaKaXeaas avrr^v rovs lepels XvOrjvai. jieydXcov 
he hojpeojv Trpds rfj evepyeGia ravr'rj rv)(d>v Trapd 
rrjs UoTTTraLag V7Teurpe(l)0V er^l rrjv OLKeiav. 

17 (-i) l^araXajJi^dvoj S' rjhrj veojrepLGfjLcijv dpxds kcu 
TToAAoL'S" eTTL rfj ^PojpLaLOJV dTTOGrdaei fieya c^po- 
vovvras. KaraGreXXeiv ovv eTreipojfiriv rovs Gra- 
GLOjheLS Kai fieravoelv eTreiOov, TroLTjGafjLevovs Trpo 
o4>daXiidjv rrpos ovs 7roXep.rjGOVGiv , on 'VoJiiaiojv 
ov Kar ejiTTeLpiav p.ovov TToXejiiKrjV aAAa Kai /car 

18 evrvy^iav eXarrovvrai, kcl jitj Trporrerojs kol Travra- 
rraGiv dvoTjrojs rrarpiGi kol yeveals koI G(f)LGLV 
avrols rov Trepl row eG^drow KaKow Kivhvvov 

19 err aye IV . ravra 8' eXeyov Kal XiTrapojs eveKeip^-qv 
aTTorpeTTOJV, hvGrv)(eGrarov 'qpZv rov rroXepLOV rd 
reXog yevTjGeGd at 7Tpoopo'jp.evos. ov p.rjV erreiGa' 
TToXv ydp Tj row d'TTovo'qdevrow eTreKpdrrjGev pLavla. 

^0 (o] \eLGas ovv {jltj ravra Gvvexojs Xeyow hta 
jjLLGOVS a(f>LKOLp.rjv Kal vrroipLag ws rd rwv TToXepLLOJv 
(hpovow Kal KLvhvvevGOj Xrj(f)dels vtt^ avrow dv- 
aLpeOrjvai, e^op^ev-qs r'jh'q rrjs W-vrcovlas, drrep rjv 

21 (f)povpiov, els ro evhoripoj lepov i3776;!^ojp7]cra. pierd 

^ Bekker : Ka\\\\L<rTa mss. 
^ The MSS. read IIoTrXi'a or lloairrfta ; and so below. 

^ At the X.-W. corner of the temple, which it dominated ; 
so called by Herod after Mark Antony. The "castle" of 
Acts xxi. 34. 

THE LIFE, 16-21 

stripped the others and were taken on board. 
Landing safely at Dicaearchia, which the Italians call 
Puteoli, I formed a friendship with Aliturus, an actor 
who was a special ftivourite of Nero and of Jewish 
origin. Through him I was introduced to Poppaea, 
Caesar's consort, and took the earliest opportunity 
of soliciting her aid to secure the liberation of 
the priests. Having, besides this favour, received 
large gifts from Poppaea, I returned to my own 

(4) There I found revolutionary movements already The eve of 
on foot and widespread elation at the prospect of ^'''^'"' 
revolt from Rome. I accordingly endeavoured to 
repress these promoters of sedition and to bring 

them over to another frame of mind. I urged them 
to picture to themselves the nation on which they 
were about to make war, and to remember that they 
were inferior to the Romans, not only in mihtary 
skill, but in good fortune ; and I warned them not 
recklessly and with such utter madness to expose 
their country, their families and themselves to the 
direst perils. With such words I earnestly and 
insistently sought to dissuade them from their 
purpose, foreseeing that the end of the war wovdd 
be most disastrous for us. But my efforts were 
unavailing ; the madness of these desperate men 
was far too strong for me. 

(5) I now feared that my incessant reiteration of 
this warning would bring me into odium and the 
suspicion of siding with the enemy, and that I 
should run the risk of being arrested by them and 
put to death. I therefore sought asylum in the 
inner court of the Temple ; the fortress of Antonia " 
being already in their hands. When Menahem and 



Se rrjv avalpeGiv Mavar]/xou koL tow Trpcorow rov 
XrjorpLKov GTL(f)ovs VTTe^eXOojv rod lepov ttolXlv rols 
apxi€p€VGLv KOL rots TrpojTOLs Tcjjv ^apiGaiojv 

22 ovvSierpt^ov. <j)6^0£ 8' ovn fierpios et^i^ey T^/xas" 
opojvras rov fiev Srlf-iov iv rols orrXois, avrol 8' 
bvres ev o-rropoj n TTOirjGOJiiev , Kai rovs veajrep terras' 
rravecv ov Swapbevor TrpoS-qXov 8' rjpblv rod Ktvhvvov 
TTapeGrojroSy GvyKaraveveLV p.ev avrojv rals yvui- 
pLaLS eXiyopi€v , Gvve^ovXevopbev 8e pjiveiv e</)' avrojv 
Kat rovs rroXepLLOVs irreXQovras^ idv, Iva rod 

23 SiKaLw? avraip€LV OTrXa TTLGrcv evpcovraL. ravra 
8 irrpdrropiev iXrritovres ovk et? piaKpav Kecrrtov 
(jiera /LteyaAryS" hvvdp.eoj? ava^dvra TravGeiv rov 
vecorepiGp^ov . 

24 (6) '0 8 iTTeXdojv KOL GVfi^aXdw pidxi] ivLKt^dr] 
TToXXojv row pL€r^ avrov rreGovrojv . /cat yiverai ro 
\^€Griov rrroLGjia Gvpb(f)opd rod GvpLiravrog rjpLwv 
eSvovs' eTnjpOrjGav yap i-rrl rovroj pidXXov ol rov 
TToXepLov dyaTTTjGavres kol vLKTjGavres^ rovs 'Poj- 
Uiaiovs €LS reAos" TJXTTLGav, rrpoGyevopbev-qs Kal 

25 erepa? nvog roLavrr]S air las. ol rds rripi^ rrjs 
TiVplas TToXeis KaroLKOvvres rovs Trap' lavrols 

\ovhaiovs GvXXap.^dvovres gvv yvvac^l Kal reKvots 
avrjpovv, ovoepbLav avrols airiav emKaXelv €)(ovr€S' 
ovre yap em PojpLaiajv airoGraGei veojrepov n 
7T€(f)povrjK€Gav ovre rrpos avrovs eKelvovs ex^pov t) 

26 €7t1^ovXov . ^KvBorroXlraL 8e Trdvrojv aGe^eGrara 
Kal TTapavopbojrara Sierrpd^avro' irreXdovrojv yap 

^ r.l. aireXdbvTas. ^ Perhaps viK-qaeLv should be read. 

<• Cf. B. ii. 433-448. Menahem, with some irregular 
troops, took the lead of the anti-Ptoman party, and was 
then murdered by a rival faction. 


THE LIFE, 21-26 

the chieftains of the band of brigands had been 
put to death " I ventured out of the Temple and once 
more consorted with the chief priests and the leading 
Pharisees. We were, however, in a state of great 
alarm ; we saw the populace in arms and were at a 
loss what to do ourselves, being powerless to check 
the revolutionaries. In such obvious and imminent 
peril we professed to concur in their views, but 
suggested that they should make no move and leave 
the enemy alone if he advanced,^ in order to gain the 
credit of resorting to arms only in just self-defence. 
In so doing we had hopes that ere long Cestius*' would 
come up with a large army and quell the revolution. 
(6) He came indeed, but in the engagement which 
ensued was defeated with great loss.^ This reverse Defeat of 
of Cestius proved disastrous to our whole nation ; ^.n. ("t' 
for those who were bent on war were thereby still 
more elated and, having once defeated the Romans, 
hoped to continue victorious to the end. To add 
to this, they had a further ground for hostility. 
The inhabitants of the surrounding cities of Syria 
proceeded to lay hands on and kill, with their wives Massacres 
and children, the Jewish residents among them, residents' in 
without the slightest ground of complaint ; for they Syria. 
had neither entertained any idea of revolt from 
Rome nor harboured any enmity or designs against 
the Syrians. The most outrageous and criminal 
action of all was that perpetrated by the natives of 
Scythopolis.^ Being attacked by hostile Jews from 

^ Text and meaning uncertain ; perhaps " allow the 
enemy to retire." A Roman garrison was besieged in 
Jerusalem, forced to capitulate, and then treacherously 
murdered : B. ii. 44.9 flf. 

" Governor of Syria. <* B. ii. 499 ff. 

* Bethshan (of the Old Testament), mod. Beisan. 



a'UTols 'louSatojy e^ojQev TToXe^iow, rov? Trap 
avrols ^lovdaiovg ef^idoavro Kara rcov 6}xo(j)'uXojv 
orrXa Aa^Belv, orrep iarlv 'qfxlv dOejJLtrov, Kai pier 
eKeivojv crvp^jSaXovres eKparrjaav rcov eTTeXOovrcDV 
irreLdr] S' eviK-qaav, iKXadopuevoL rij? Trpos rovs 
ivoLKovs Kal uvp.p.d'xpvs TTLareoJS navras avrovs 

27 SiexpTJcravro TroAAas" pLvpidSas ovras. opboia h 
€7raOov Kal ol r-qv Xap^auKov 'louSaiot KaroLKOVvreg. 
dXXd 7T€pl p.€V rovrojv aKpt^earepov ev rals Trepi 
rod ^lovha'iKov TToXipLov ^l^Xols SeSrjXcoKapLev vvv 
8' avrojv €7T€pLvrja9riv (^ovXopievos rrapaarrjaai rolg 
avayLvojGKOvuiv on ov rrpoaipeuis eyevero rod 
TToXejiov rrpos 'Pco/xatous' 'loi'datot?, dAAa to ttXIov 
dvdyKTj . / 

28 (~) SLKTjOevros ovv, ojs echapev, rod Kecrrtof, 
row 'lepoGoXvjXirojv ol rrpajroi deaodp^evoi rovs p^kv 
XrjGrd? dpia rols veojrepiurals ev7Topovpi€vovs 
ottXojv, heiuavres 3' avrol pbrj dvoTrXoi KaOeGrrjKore? 
vrro)(€LpiOL yevcovrac rols ix^pols, o Kau piera ravra 
Gvve^T], Kal 7Tvd6pL€V0L rTjv TaXiXauav ovttoj Trduav 
'PojpbaLa>v d(f)€ardvaL, pbepog 6 avrrjs rjpepbelv kriy 

29 7Te[JL7T0VGiv e'jbe kgI Svo dXXovs row lepeojv KaXovs 
Kdyadovs d.vbpas, ^lojdCapov^ Kai \ovoav, Tret- 
Govrag rovs rrovqpovs KaradeGOai rd orrXa Kai 
SiSd^ovras ojs €Griv dpbeivov rols KpartGrois rov 
edvovs avrd riqpelGBai. k^/vojGro ok rovroLS act 
pikv €X€iV rd OTrXa rrpos rd jMeXXov krocpLa, Trept- 
pL€V€LV Sk rt TTpd^ovGLV 'Pco/xatot pbadelv. 

30 (8) Aaf^dw ovv eyoj rds vrroQ-qKas ravras d(f)- 

^ I'd. 'Iu:^apoi'. 


THE LIFE, 26-30 

another quarter, they compelled their own Jewish 
residents to bear arms against their compatriots, 
which we are forbidden to do, and with their 
assistance engaged and defeated the invaders ; and 
then, after the victory, with no thought of the 
allegiance due to fellow-citizens and confederates, 
put them all, to the number of many thousands, to 
the sword. The Jewish residents in Damascus met 
with a similar fate. I have given a more detailed 
account of these incidents in my volumes on the 
Jewish War ; " and I merely allude to them here 
from a desire to convince my readers that the war 
with the Romans was due not so much to the 
deliberate choice of the Jews as to necessity. 

(7) After the defeat of Cestius, already mentioned. Mission of 
the leading: men in Jerusalem, observing; that the f°^^P^!"'^ 

o , . ' ,p to Galilee. 

brigands and revolutionaries were w^ell provided 
with arms, feared that, being without weapons them- 
selves, they might be left at the mercy of their 
adversaries, as in fact eventually happened. Being 
informed, moreover, that the whole of Galilee had 
not yet revolted from Rome, and that a portion of 
it was still tranquil, they dispatched me with two 
other priests, Joazar and Judas, men of excellent 
character, to induce the disaffected to lay down 
their arms and to impress upon them the desirability 
of reserving these for the picked men of the nation. 
The latter, such was the policy determined on, were 
to have their weapons constantly in readiness for 
future contingencies, but should wait and see what 
action the Romans would take. 

(8) With these instructions I came into Galilee. 

« B. ii. 466 ff., 559 if. For the phraseology cf. Ap. ii. 287. 



LKOjXTjV €t? rr^v VaXiXaiav. /cat SeTTc^coptras" ^ev ovk 
iv oXiycp TTepl ttjs TrarpiZos dywvi Kadearajras 
evpov, SiapTrdcrai KeKpiKorcov avrr^v tcov VaXiXaLOJV 
Sto, TTjV irpos 'Pojpbaiov? iKeivaav cj^iXiav kol on 
Kecrrtoj TaXXoj rqj rrjs Hvpuas rjyeiiovevovri Sc^tav 

31 T€ KOL TTLGTiV 7TpOT€iV€iaV . dAAo, TOVTOVS jlEV iyOJ 

TTavras^ dTrrjXXa^a rod cf)6^ov, Treioa? VTrep avrow 
rd ttXtjOt] kol iTTLrpeipas ggo.kis deXovcn SiaTrep,- 
rreodai Trpds' rovs €V Aojpot? oiKeiovs op^rfpeijovrag 
Keartoj* rd Se Acopa rroXcg iorlv rrjs ^OLViKrjs. 
rovs iv Tt^eptaSt 8e KaroiKovvras evpov icf)^ oTrXa 
K€X0Jpr]K6ra? rjSrj St alriav roiavr-qv. 

32 (9) SraCTets" rpet? '^crav Kard ttjv ttoXlv, /xta puev 
dvSpojv evGX'TjP'OVOJV, rjpx^ S' avrrjs ^lovXiog KciTreA- 

33A0S". ovTos 8r) /cat ol gvv avroj rrdvres, 'HpoSSr^s* 
6 MtapoO /cat 'Yipojh'qs 6 rod TapLaXov /cat Kopufjos 
6 Tov l\ojiipov' l\piG7Tos ydp dS€X(f)6s avrov, rod 
pbeydXov ^aGuXecos yevop^evos nore eirap^os, iv rats 
tStats" Kr-qoeGLV irvy^o^vev rripav rod ^lophdvov 

34 TTavres ovv ol 7TpoeLpr]p,€voL Kard rov Kaipov eKelvov 
e/x/xeVety GVve^ovXevov rfj Trpos rov£ 'Poj/xatous" 
/cat rov ^acrtAea mGreL. rfj yvcopbTj 8' 01) gvv- 
rjp€GK€ro IltcrTos' irapayop^evos^ vtto 'loi^crrou rod 

35 TTaihos' /cat ydp rjv (j)VG€i ttojs iTnpLavqg. -q Sevripa 
Se GraGis i^ aGrjp^Qrdrojv GvveGrrjKvla TToXepbelv 

36 €KpLV€V. lodoros S o IliGrov irals, 6 rrjs rpiriqs 
piepihos rrpojros, vrreKpLvero fxev evSota^etr npos 
rov TToXepiov, veojrepojv 3 iTredvpieL TrpaypLarwv, iK 
rrjs piera^oXrjs olopuevos Suva^ti^ iavro) rrepi- 

37 770t7]CT€ty. rrapeXOow ovv els piioovs St8acr/C€tv 

^ iravTos conj. Niese. ^ So the editio prinrcps : mss. dtd. 

^ Dindorf : wapayevo/jLeuos mss. 


THE LIFE, 30-37 

I found the inhabitants of Sepphoris in great distress Condition 
concerning their native place, which the Gahlaeans °j ) sep^^ 
had decided to pillage because of their leanings pi'oris: pio- 


towards the Romans and the overtures of loyalty 
and allegiance which they had made to Cestius 
Gallus, the governor of Syria. I, however, entirely 
allayed their fears, by exerting my influence with 
the populace on their behalf, and by the per- 
mission which I gave them to communicate as 
freely as they chose with their fellow-citizens, who 
were held as hostages to Cestius at Dora, a city of 

The inhabitants of Tiberias, on the other hand, (ii.)Tiberia.s: 
had, I found, already proceeded to hostilities under factions. 
the following circumstances. 
": (9) There were three factions in this city. The 
' first consisted of respectable citizens, headed by 
Julius Capellus. He and his associates, Herod 
son of Miarus, Herod son of Gamalus, and Compsus 
son of Compsus (I do not include his brother 
Crispus, formerly prefect under the great king," as 
he was absent on his estates beyond Jordan) were 
at that time unanimous in recommending the city 
to continue its allegiance to the Romans and the 
king.^ These views were not shared by Pistus, 
who, besides the malign influence of his son Justus, 
had a strain of madness in his nature. The second 
faction, composed of the most insignificant persons, 
was bent on war. Justus, son of Pistus, the ring- 
leader of the third party, while feigning hesitation 
on the subject of hostilities, was really eager for 
revolution, reckoning that a change of government 
I would bring him into power. So he came forward 

" Herod Agrippa I. ^ Agrippa II. 



irreLpdro ro rrXrjOog oj? r] rroXis del rrjs YaXiXatag 
dp^€L€V €7TL y€ TOW Yipojbov XROvcov rod rerpapxov 
Kol KTLGTOV yevofJLevov, [^ovXTjOevros avrov rr^v 
T.err(f)Ojpirow ttoXlv rfj Ti^epLeow VTraKovetv, drro- 
^aXelv^ be to rrpajTeXov avTovs [JL-qSe em tov 
fjaaiXeojs 'Aypt7777a tov Trarpo?, hiap.eZvaL he Kai 

38 pLexpi ^tjXlkos npoeoTajJiivov tt]? lovhalag. vvv 
he eXeyev avTOVS rjTVXTjKevai toj veojrepcp hojpeav 
WypLTTTTO. hoQevTas V7t6 Sepcovo?' ap^ai yap evOvs 
TTjV pLev 11e7T(f)OjpLV, eTTeihr] 'Pco/xatots" VTTrjKOVcrev, 
rrjs TaXiXalas, KaTaXvOrjvai he Trap avTols ttjv re 

Sd ^aGLXiK'qv TpaTTetav Kat ra ap)(eia. raura Kai 
irpos TOVTOLS ere pa TToXXd Kara ^auiXeajs AypiTTTra 
Xeyojv VTTep tov tov hrip.ov etg ttjv aTTOGTaatv 
epeOiGai, rrpoaeTidei vvv eivai Kaupov apap^evovs 
OTrXa Kai TaXtXaiov? avpLpbaxovg rrpocrXa^ovTas — 
dp^eiv yap avTow Ikovtcov hui to rrpos tovs 
^eTr(f)OjpLTas pbloros VTrdpxov^ avTols, otl ttjv Trpos 
'PwpiaLOV? TTLGTLV hia(j)vXauGOVGiv — iJLeyaXji X^'-P'- 

4<J rrpos TTjv vvrep avTOJV Tcp^ajplav TpaTreGOat. TavTa 
Xeycov TTpoeTpeipaTO to TrXrjOog' tjv yap LKavos 
hrjp^aywyelv Kai tojv dvTiXeyovrojv rd ^eXTioj 
TTepielvai yo'qTeia kol aTrdTrj ttj hid Xoyojv. Kai 
ydp ovh^ drreipos rjv Traiheiag Trjg Trap^ "EAA^^crtv, 
fi dappcDV eTTex^iprjaev Kai ttjv luTopiav tcov npay- 
fiaTOJV ToiJTOJV dvaypd<i>eLV cvg to) Xoycp tovtco 

41 rrepLeaopievos ttj? dXrjdeias. dXXd rrepi p.ev tovtov 
TOV dvhpos, ojs (^avXos tov ^lov iyeveTo Kat w? ovv 
TO) dheX(f)a) puKpov helv KaTaaTpo(j)rjs atrio? VTfTjp^ev, 

42 TTpoXovTOS TOV Xoyov hrjXojGopiev. TOTe he TTelaag 
6 'louCTTo? TOVS TToXiTas dvaXa^eZv ra oTrXa, rroX- 

THE LIFE, 37-42 

and endeavoured to instil into the people that their 
city had always been tli^ capital of Galilee, at least 
under its founder, Herod the tetrarch, whose intention 
was that the city of Sepphoris should be subordinate 
to Tiberias ; and that even under King Agrippa 
the elder they had not lost this primacy, which had 
continued until Felix became procurator of Judaea. 
Now, however, he continued, they had had the 
misfortune of being handed over by Nero as a 
present to Agrippa the younger ; Sepphoris, by 
submission to Rome, had forthwith become the 
capital of Galilee and the seat of the royal bank 
and the archives. To these and many other dis- 
paraging remarks upon King Agrippa, calculated to 
incite the people to revolt, he added : " Now is the 
time to take up arms and join hands with the 
Galilaeans. Their hatred of Sepphoris for remaining 
loyal to Rome will make them willing recruits. Now 
is your opportunity, with ample forces, for revenge." 
This harangue had its effect on the mob ; for he was 
a clever demagogue and by a charlatan's tricks of 
oratory more than a match for opponents with 
saner counsels. Indeed he was not unversed in 
Greek culture, and presuming on these attainments 
even undertook to write a history of these events, 
hoping by his presentation of the facts to disguise 
the truth. »But of this man's general depravity and 
of the fact that to him and his brother our ruin was 
almost entirely due, I shall adduce proof in the course 
of this narrative." On this occasion Justus, having 
prevailed on the citizens to take up arms and forced 

« Cf. §§ 88, 279, 336-367, 390-3, 410. 

^ aiTO^aXkeiv mss. ^ Dindorf : vrrapxeiv mss. 

VOL. I c 17 


Xovs he Koi {JLYj OeATjcravras avayKauas, i^eXdojv 
orvv TrdcjLV rovroig efiTnfjLTrprjGLV ras re Yadaprjvojv 
Kal 'Itttttjvojv KcofJiag, at Sr] fjbedopLOi rij? Ti^epidSog 
Kol rrj? row Y.kv8o7toXltojv yrjs irvyxdvov K€Lp.€vai. 

l,j (10) Kat Tt^epta? p.€v iv roLovroLg tjv, tol rrepl 
TL(JXo.Xa §6 ^^X^ '^^^ rpoTTOv rovrov. 'lojdwrjs 6 
Tov Ajjovei, rwv ttoXltow rtvas opow Std rrjv 
aTTGaracnav nqv arro Paj/xatoji^ iieya (jipovovvras 
Karexeiv avrovg eTreipdro Kat rrjv ttlgtlv tj^lov 

44 SiacfyvXarreiv. ov fj,rjv rjSvvn^drj Kairoi ttolvv Trpo- 
Ovfiovfievos. TO, yap rrepL^ edvq, TaSaprjvol Kal 
Ta^aprivoi, ^ojyavaloi^ Kal TvpiOi, rroXXrjv dOpoi- 
oavres SvvapLLv Kal rols rtcr;!^aAois" irreLdTTeuovres 
Xafx^dvQVGi ra Ticj-xf^Xa Kara Kpdros, Kal TTvprro- 
Xyjoavre? elra he Kal TrpoGKaTaaKdipavre? el? tt^v 

4o OLKelav dvetev^av . lojdvvqs de irrl tovtoj rrap- 
o^vvOels OTrXiCei rrdvrag rov? /^er' avrov Kal avp,- 
^aXdjv Tolg TTpoetp-qiievoLg edveoiv Kara Kpdros 
ivLKTjGe, rd re TiGX^^Xa Kpetrrova rrdXiv dvaKrioas 
reixeGLV vrrep aGchaXelag rij? eig VGrepov coxvponGev. 

46 (11) YdfxaXa he TTiGreL rfj rrpos 'VojpLaiovs 
evefieive hi air lav roiaijr-qv. OlXlttttos 6 'la^et/xou 
rrals, erraoxog he rod ^aGiXeojs 'AyptTTTra, Gcodels 
rrapd ho^av Ik rrjs ev 'lepoGoXv/jiOis ^aGiXiKrjS 
avXrjS TToXiopKovpLevqg Kal hLa(f)vy(jjv elg erepov 
eveTTeGe KLvhvvov, ojore vtto ^lavarjiiov Kal row 

47 Gvv avroj XrjGrojv dvaipeBrjvai' hieKOjXvGav he 
Ba^vXojviOL rtve? Gvyyeveig avrov ev 'lepoGo- 
Xvp^oig ovres Trpd^ai rovs XrjGrd? ro epyov. erri- 
fielvag ovv rjfjiepag reGGapas 6 ^lXlttttos eKel rfj 
TTejiTTrrj cbevyeu TrepiOerfj ;!^p7^cra/x€yos" KopLj] rod fir] 
KardhrjXos yeveGdai, Kal TrapayevojJLevos etV nva 

THE LIFE, 42-47 

many to do so against tlieir ^vill, marched out with 
all his followers and set fire to the villages, belonging 
to Gadara and Hippos, which lay on the frontiers of 
Tiberias and of the territory of Scythopolis. 

(10) Such was the position of affairs at Tiberias ;(iii.)Gis- 
at Gischala the situation was as follows. John, son '^ ^^ 

of Levi, observing that some of the citizens were 
highly elated by the revolt from Rome, tried to 
restrain them and urged them to maintain their 
allegiance. His earnest efforts, however, proved 
unavailing ; for the inhabitants of the neighbouring 
states, Gadara, Gabara, Sogane and Tyre, mustered 
a large force, stormed and took Gischala, burnt and 
razed it to the ground, and returned to their homes. 
Incensed at this outrage, John armed all his followers, 
made a determined attack on the aforesaid peoples 
and defeated them. He then rebuilt Gischala on a 
grander scale than before and fortified it with walls 
as a security for the future. 

(11) Gamala remained loyal to Rome under the (iv.) Gairiaia 
following circumstances. Philip, son of Jacimus, King ben Jaci- 
Agrippa's lieutenant, after miraculously escaping ™^^'^- 
v.ith his life from the royal palace at Jerusalem, w^hen 

it was besieged, was exposed to the further peril of 
being slain by Menahem and his brigands." The 
latter were, however, prevented from accomplishing 
their purpose by some Babylonian kinsmen of Philip, 
who were then in Jerusalem. Here he remained 
for four days and on the fifth escaped, disguised by 
a wig, and reaching one of the villages under his 

« Cf. B. ii. 556 f. ; 433 ff. 

^ Emended. The 5iss., in lieu of the two latter names, 
have Jiapayaveoi. or the like. 



row iavTov kojiiow Kara rovg opovs Fa/xaAa rod 
(f)povpLOV KeiixevTjV Tre/XTret Trpo? nvas rojv vtt 

48 avrov rrpoGrdcrcrojv oj? avrov d(f)iKe<jdai. . / ravra 
S' avrov evvoo'6iX€VOV eiirrohit,€i ro delov IttI ov/jl- 
(f)€povrL' pLTj yap rovrov yevo/xevov Travrojs av 
oLTToXcoXeL. rrvperov hrj KaraG'x^ovros avrov e^at- 
^viqs ypaxpas emaroXas rols rraiGlv 'AyptTrTTo, Kal 
^epevLKTj hihojGLV row i^eXevOepojv nvl KOfill^eLV 

49 TTpos Ovapov. rjv S' ovrog Kara rov Kaipov eKclvov 
6 rrjv ^aoiXeiav Slolkow, Karaarrjordvrojv avrov 
rcbv ^auiXeow' avrol yap el? Brjpvrov d(l)LKvovvro 

oO vrravrrjcraL ^ovXofievoL Kecrrtoj. Xa^ow ovv 6 
Ovapos rd rrapd ^^lXlttttov ypdp^ixara Kal rrvdo- 
[levog avrov hiaG€GO)udai ^apiojs rjveyKev, a;^petos' 
ro XoLTTov avros vofiitow (^avelodac rols l^aocXevcnv 
d(j)LKOiJiivov rov ^lXlttttov. rrpoayayow ovv els ro 
ttXtjOos rov rds errioroXas Kopnuavra Kai rrXaaro- 
ypa<j)iav imKaXeaas, ipevSeaOaL re (hrjoas avrov 
arrayyeiXavra ^lXittttov ev rols ^lepoGoXvp^OLS fierd 

51 row lovhaLOJV 'Pojp.aLOLs rroXefxeZv drreKreivev. jitj 
VTTOorpeifjavros Sr] rov e^eXevOepov ^lXlttttos drro- 
po)V rrjv alriav Sevrepov eKTrepLTTec jier emoroXcov 
TTaXiv rov drrayyeXovvra rrpos avrov n ro ovfM^e- 

52 ^TjKos e'l-q rqj aTToaraXevrL, hi o j^pahvveiev. Kal 
rovrov de Trapayevo/Jievov 6 Ovapos GVKo^avriquas 
dvetXev. Kal yap vrro row ev Katcrapeta Hvpojv 
enrjpro /xeya (j^povelv, dvaipeOrjaeudai fiev Xeyovrojv 
V7t6 Poj/xatojy rov XypiTirrav hid ras vtto \ovhaiojv 
piaprvpias,' X-qipeodai S' avrov rrjV dpx^jv €« 
^acriXeow ovrc Kal ydp tjv ofJLoXoyovpLevoJS d 

^ The .Aiss. add r'rjv ^cXiTnrov ; probably there is a lacuna 
in the text. 


THE LIFE, i7-52 

jurisdiction on the confines of the fortress of Gamala, 
sent orders to some of those under his command to 
join him. . . . His designs, however, were, fortunately 
for liimself, frustrated by Providence ; else he would 
undoubtedly have perished. Being seized with a 
sudden attack of fever, he wrote to the younger ^ \ 
Agrippa and Berenice a letter which he delivered to 1 
one of his freedmen to convey to Varus ^ ; Varus ' 
having at the time been appointed administrator of Varus, tie 
the realm by the kinsf and his royal sister, who had V^^-^°^ °*^ 
gone to Berytus to wait upon Cestius, The receipt 
of Philip's communication, acquainting him of his 
escape, caused Varus great vexation, as he supposed 
that, now that Philip had arrived, their majesties 
would have no further use for his own services. He 
accordingly brought the bearer of the letter before 
the people and accused him of forging it ; he added 
that he had mendaciously reported that Philip was 
fighting against the Romans with the Jews in 
Jerusalem, and then put the man to death. Philip, 
at a loss to explain the failure of his freedman to 
return, dispatched a second with further letters and 
to bring him word what had happened to cause the 
delay of his first courier. He, too, on his arrival was 
slain by \arus on some groundless accusation. For 
Varus had been led to entertain great expectations 
by the Syrians of Caesarea, who asserted that 
Agrippa, on the indictment of the Jews, would be 
put to death by the Romans, and that he, as of 
royal lineage, would succeed to the throne. As a 

<* Lit. " the children," sc. of Agrippa I., his former chief. 
^ Called Noarus in B. ii. 481 ff. 

^ fiaprvplas cod. R : the other mss. have afxapTias, " for the 
crimes of the Jews." 



Ovapog ^aGiXiKov yevovg, kyyovos ^oefJLOv rod 

53 TTepl rov Ai^avov rerpapxovvrog . Std rovr^ ovv 6 
Ovapos rv(f)OViJL€Vos tols P'^v eTnaroXas Trap iavro) 
Kareo-x^ev p.rjxo.vojp.€vo9 p,rj ivrvx^lv rots ypdjipbaai 
rov ^acTiXda, rag i^oBovg Se Trdaag icfypovpeu, p.rj 
hiaSpd? ns riTTayyeiXeie ro) ^acrtAet ra 7Tparr6p,€va. 
Kol hrj p^aptCofxei-'os' rots' Kara rVjV Ys^aiudpeiav 

54 Y^VpOLg TToXXoVS TUJV lovhaiojV d7T€KTeiV€V. i^ov- 

Xi'jd'q he Kal [lera row ev Baravata TpaxoiViTwv 
dvaXa^ow rd oTrXa irrl rovg iv 'EACjSaravots' Ba^v- 
Xcxjviovs ^lovhaiovs y ravrrjv yap ttjv TrpoGrjyopiav 

55 exovuLVy opfiTjuai. KO.Xloas ovv row Kara rrjv 
KatCTCtpetay 'louSaiojv ScoSe/ca roijs SoKip^wrdrovg 
TTpoaeraGGev avroZs dcpLKop^evoLS elg 'Ear^arava 
TTpos rovs iK€L KaroiKovvTas ainojv opLocpijXovs 
elireZv on Ovapos, aKOVGas vpt^ds €7tI ^aGuXea 
/xeAAetv 6pp,dv Kal p.'q TTiGrevGas , 7r€7Top,(f)€V rfp^ds 
7T€LGovTas vp^ds TO, ovrXa KaradeGOai' rovro yap 
avTO) T€Kp,rjpLov €G€G9aL Kal rov KaXojg p,rj ttlg- 

56 Teucrat rots' Trept vfJLow XeyovGiv. cVeAeue Se Kal 
Tovs Trpcorovs avrwv dvSpas i^hopbrJKovra Tre/XTiety 
a7ToX.oyr]GOfievovg rrepi rrj? eTrevqveyp.evqs alrias. 
iXdovres ovv ol SojSeKa rrpos rov? iv 'E/^^arayots" 
6p,o(f)vXovs Kal KaraXa^ovres avrovs p.-qhev eirl 
vewrepiGp^o) (jypovovvras krreiGav Kal rov? i^hop.'q- 

57 Kovra Tre/XTretv. ot he prjhev vrroTrrevGavres roLov- 
rov otov ep^eXXev drro^rjGeGdai e^aTreoreiXav . Kara- 
^aivovGiv h ovroL pLerd row hcoheKa TrpeG^eojv el? 

" The highlands east of the Sea of Galilee, viz. Batanaea 
(Bashan) and the volcanic district of Trachon or Trachonitis 
(Todxwj' = " roug-h ground " : mod. El Lej.l), were exposed to 
Arab raiders. To protect the district, which lay on the 


THE LIFE, 52-57 

descendant of Soemus, who had been a tetrarch in 
the Lebanon district, Varus 's royal extraction was 
universally admitted. Inflated with these lofty 
ambitions Varus Mithheld the letters and contrived 
to prevent their perusal by the king ; guards being 
posted at all the exits from the tovv^n, so that none 
should escape and report his proceedings to him. 
Moreover, to ingratiate himself with the Syrians of 
Caesarea, he put many of the Jews to death. 

He had a further scheme of uniting with the His mas- 
people of Trachonitis in Batanaea in an armed attack Babylonia! 
on the " Babylonian Jews," as they are called, in '^^^^s- 
Ecbatana." He accordingly summoned twelve of the 
most esteemed of the Caesarean Jews, and instructed 
them to proceed to Ecbatana and tell their com- 
patriots in that city that a report had reached Varus 
that they intended to march against the king ; he 
did not credit this report, but had sent this embassy 
to urge them to lay down their arms ; he would 
regard their compliance as proof that he was right in 
attaching no weight to the current rumours. He 
further ordered them to send seventy of their leading 
men to answer the charge which had been laid 
against them. The twelve, finding on their arrival 
at Ecbatana that their compatriots were innocent of 
any revolutionary designs, urged them to dispatch 
the seventy ; they, with no suspicion of the fate in 
store for them, sent them off and the deputies 
travelled down with the twelve envoys to Caesarea. 

direct route from Babylon to Jerusalem, Herod the Great 
settled in Batanaea a colony of Babylonian Jews under 
Zamaris, grandfather of the Philip named in the text; A. 
xvii. 23 ff. Ecbatana is not the city in Media, but one of 
the forts built in this region. A different version of the 
above narrative is given in B. ii. 481 ff. 



TT-jV l\aL<ja.p€Lav. VTravrrjCras ovv 6 Ovapos /xera 
TTis j^aGLXtKTJs hwafieajs gvv toZs Trpea^eGiv Trav- 
ras a.77€Kr€LV€v kol ttjV TTopeiav errl rovg iv 'E/<:/3a- 

58 Tavoi? 'louSatou? eTTOLelro. (jyOduas 8e rig €K tcov 
i^SopL-qKovra uojQel'S CLTrrf/yeiK^v avrols, KaKelvoi 
ra oTrXa Xa^ovres (Jvv yvvai^l Kal t€Kvols els 
Fa/xaAa ro (hpovpiov vTrexojprjaav, KaraXurrovres 
ra? KojfJLas ttoXXojv dyadow rrXi'ipeis Kal ^ogkyj- 

59 iidrojv TToAAa? fivpidhas ep^oucras'. OtAtTTTros- 8e 
Trvdofievos ravra Kal aijTog elg YdpiaXa to (f)po'upLOV 
rjK€v. TTapayevofjiivov Se Kare^oa ro ttX-^Oos, 
dpx^Lv avTov TTapaKaXovvres Kal TToXefxeiv Trpds 
Ovapov Kal rovs iv rfj Kataapeta Hvpovg' 8t- 
eSeSoro^ yap vtto tovtojv tov ^auiXea Tedvdvai. 

60 ^lXlttttos S' avTOJV Karelx^ '^^? opfjid?, vrrofjufiv^- 
GKOJV Tojv re tov ^auiXeajs €ls avTovs evepyeoicov , 
Kal r-qv PojjjLaLOJV SirjyovfMevog oarj tls €Gtlv tj 
bvvapLLS , GVfichepeLV ovk eXeyev dpaadai rrpos rovrovg 

61 TToXefMOv, Kat reXos erreLGev. 6 be j^aoiXevs ttvOo- 
li€vos on Ovapos iieXXei tovs eVt ttjs Katcrapeta? 

\ovhaiovs GVV yvvai^l Kal t€kvols TToXXds ovTas 
fivpLabas avaipelv iqpApa /xta, /xeraTrep-Trerai rrpos j^ 
avTov, Alkovov Mddtoj^^ Trep^ipas avTOj SudSoxov, 
ojg iv dXXoLs iSrjXojGafiev . 6 be ^lXlttttos TdfiaXa 
TO (f)povpLov KaTeGxev Kal ttjv Trepi^ ^ojpav TTLGrei 
TYJ Trpos PojpLaLovs ipL/JLevovGav. 

62 (12) Erret b els ttjv TaXiXaLav d(j)LK6pLrjV iyoj 
KaL Tavra rrapd tow aTrayyeiXdvTOJV epLadov, ypd(f)aj 

^ oieoeooTo Bekker : oiaoeooKro and oceoex^'^o >r5S. 
- TTpos is omitted by Bekker. 
^ C.I. yiovooiov. 

THE LIFE, 57-62 

They were met by the royal troops under Varus, who 
put them all to death, including the envoys, and 
proceeded on the march against the Jews of Ec- 
batana. One of the seventy, however, escaped, and 
got ahead of him and brought the news to his country- 
men ; whereupon, seizing their arms, they withdrew 
with their wives and children to the fortress of 
Gamala, leaving their villages full of abundant 
stores and stocked with many thousand head of 

On hearing of this Philip also entered the fortress 
of Gamala, the people of which on his arrival 
vociferously called on him to assume the command 
and make war on Varus and the Syrians of Caesarea, 
who, according to a rumour which was afloat, had 
assassinated the king. Philip sought to restrain 
their impetuosity ; reminded them of the benefits 
which the king had conferred upon them ; dilated 
on the formidable power of the Romans and the 
inexpediency of entering upon war with such an 
enemy ; and in the end succeeded. The king, His super- 
meanwhile, hearing that Varus intended to massacre 
in one day the Jewish population in Caesarea, 
numbering many thousands, including women and 
children, recalled him and sent Aequus Modius 
to take over the command, as I have elsewhere 
related." The fortress of Gamala and the surround- 
ing district were retained by Philip and thus 
preserved their allegiance to Rome. 

(12) When, on my arrival in Galilee, I was informed 
of the above position of affairs, I wrote to the San- 

« Cf. B. ii. 483, where Varus's deposition is mentioned, but 
not the name of his successor. For the sequel see § 179 ff. 
below. "^■ 



rqj avveSploj row 'IcpocroAu/xtroiv Trepl totjt ojv Kai 
Tt ixe 7TpdrT€iv KeXevovuLv ipcxjroj. ol 8e TrpoGixeivai 
TTapeKciXecrav koL tovs cru/XTrpecr^ets", €t deXoiev, 
Karaaxovra rrpovoLav TroL-qGacrdai rr^s FaAtAaias-. 

63 ol he GViirrpeG^eLS evrrop-qGavres rroXXow )(prjp.aT(jjv 
Ik row hihoixivojv avrols SeKarcov, as ovres Upels 
6(f)€LXop.evas OLTTeXdfJb^avov, ei's" ttjV olKeiav vtto- 
GTpi(l)€LV yrjv eKpivav efiov 8 avrovs rrpoGfJielvaL 
rrapaKaXeGavTos ecus ov ra Trpayjiara KaraGrrj- 

64 Gojfiev, 7T€idovTaL. dpas ovv fjber^ avrojv drro rfjs 
SeTr^ojptrojv rroXeoj? elg KOjfJL'qv rivd ^rjOpLaovg 
XeyofJLevqv, cxTrep^oucrav Tt^epiddos crraSta reGGapa, 
TTapayLvofiai, Kal TTepufjas ivrevdev j-ovs] irpos riqv 
Ti^epieajv j^ovXrjv Kal rov? irpojrovs rod h-qp^ov 

65 rrapeKaXovv dchiKeGQ ai Trpog pL€. Kai Trapayevo- 
[jidvow, iX'qXvdei Se gvv avroZs Kal ^lovGrog, eXeyov 
VTTO rod KOLvov rojv 'lepoGoXvparcDV rrpeG^evGai 
pLerd roTjrojv 7T€7r6pi(f)6aL rrpos aurous", 7T€lgojv 
KaOaipedrjvaL rov oIkov rov vtto Ylpojoov rod 
rerpdp)(ov KaraGKCvaGOevra, l,cpcov pLop(f)dg k^ovra, 
row vopLOJV ovrojs n KaraGKevdl,€iv aTrayopevovrajv y 
Kal TTapeKdXovv avroijs idv rjpbds fj ra^os rovro 

66 TTpdrreiv. irrl rroXv p,ev ovv ol Trepl rov KaTreAAav 
Kal rovs rrpujrovs avrdw emrpirreiv ovk rjOeXov, 
^Lai,6pL€V0L 8' U(/)' rjpbdw GvyKarariOevrai. (pdavei 
8' ^IrjGOVS 6 rov Za7r(/)ta rrals , ov rrjg rd)V vavrdJv 
Kal rojv drropojv GrdGeojs rrpajrov €(f)api€v dp^aiy 
TTapaXa^djv nvas TaXiXaiovs Kal rrjv iraGav avXrjv 
IpuTTp-qGas, TToXXdjv OLopievos €V7Top-qG€LV i^ avrrjg 
Xpripidr OJV, eTreihiq rivas o'lkojv opo(f)ds Kexpvcroj- 

67 /xeVas" elSev. Kal SajpTraGav noXXd Trapd yvwpbrjV 
rrjV rjpberepav irpd^avres' 'qp^els yap pier a r-qv irpos 

THE LIFE, 62-67 

hedrin at Jerusalem and asked for instructions how Conference 
I should proceed. They advised me to remain at with°tiie 
my post and take precautions for Galilee, retaining leading men 
my colleagues, if vdlling to stay. My colleagues, and ensuiiig 
having amassed a large sum of money from the •^i^^oi'^^rs. 
tithes which they accepted as their priestly due, 
decided to return home ; but, on my request, con- 
sented to stay until we had brought matters into 
order. I accordingly set out with them from head- 
quarters at Sepphoris and came to a village called 
Bethmaus, four furlongs distant from Tiberias, and 
from there sent to the council and principal men of 
that city, requesting them to come to me. On their 
arrival, Justus being among them, I told them that 
I and my associates had been commissioned by the 
Jerusalem assembly to press for the demolition of 
the palace erected by Herod the tetrarch, which 
contained representations of animals — such a style 
of architecture being forbidden by the laws " — and I 
requested their permission to proceed at once with 
the work. Capella ^ and the other leaders for a long 
while refused this, but were finally overruled by us 
and assented. We were, however, anticipated in 
our task by Jesus, son of Sapphias, the ringleader, 
as already stated,^ of the party of the sailors and 
destitute class. Joined by some Galilaeans he set 
the whole palace on fire, expecting, after seeing that 
the roof was partly of gold, to obtain from it large 
spoils. There was much looting, contrary to our 
intention ; for we, after our conference with Capella 

* Exod. XX. 4. 

^ Or Capellus, as in § 3-2 above. 

" Not previously mentioned ; the reference is apparently 
to the mention of " the second faction of insignificant 
persons " in § 34 above. 



l\a7T€,XXav Kal rovg rrpojrovs Tt/Septecov o/xtAtav elg 
r'qv dvoj YaXiXatav O-tto BrjdfMaojv av e)(^co priu ayiev . 
avaipovoLV h ol Trepi rov li^crovv rravras rov? 
evoiKovvra? "EAAT^va? ogol re rrpo rod TioAe/xou 
yeyovetorav avrcJijv €)(dpoL. 
63 (13) Ilv66p.€VOS S' iyco ravra 77apaj^vp6i]u 
G<^6hpa, Kal Kara^cig et? Tu^epiada Trpovoiav eiG- 
TiveyKdpurjv rojv j^aGiXiKcLv GKevuw oGa hvvarov 
■qv Tovs dpTTOLGavras d(f)€XeGdaf Xvxyiai 8' TjGav 
\\opivBLai ravra Kal rpdTr6L,aL rcov ^aGiXiKajv Kal 
aGrji-iov dpyvpiov GraOfJios LKavos. rrdvra S oGa 

69 TTapeXa^ov , (hvXdGGeiv roj ^aGiXel eKpiva. puera- 
rrepLijjdpLevos ovv rovs Trjs ^ovXrjg TrpcLrovs SeKa Kal 
KaTTeAAav rov WvrijXXov rd GKedrj TrapeScoKO., 
pLTjdevl 7rapayy€iXas irepoj ttXi-jv ip^ov hovvai. 

70 l\.dKeld€V €L£ rd FtCT^^aAa Trpos rov "Icodwr/V 
pLerd Tojy Gvp^TTpeG^ewv dcfuKopLTjv ^ovXopevog 
yvojvai ri rrore (f)pov€l. Kareldov 8' a-urov rax^oj? 
veojrepojv opeyop^evov Trpaypbarcov /cat rrj? apx'QS 

71 eTTiOvpLLav k^ovra. TrapeKaXei yap /xe rov \\.aLGapos 
Girov K€Lp,€vov iv rals rrfs dvcodev TaXiXaias Kcop,aLs 
e^ovGiav avro) Sovvat iK(f)opriGaL' OeXetv ydp 
€(f)aGK€v €i£ imGK€vrjV row rrjg Trarpihos rei^ow 

72 avrov ayaAcDcrai. Karavo'fjGas he iyoj rrjv emx^L- 
prjGLv avrov Kal ri hiavoolro TrpdGGecv, ovk €(j)-qv 
avrqj Gvyx<^p^^v' ^ ydp 'PojpbaLOLs avrov ivevoovpurjv 
(f)vXdrr€LV rj ipavrqj, Sid ro Kal rrjV i^ovGuav row 
eKel rrpaypidrow avros rrapd rod kolvov rojv 

73 ^lepoGoXvpLtrow 7T€7TiGrevGdai. p,rj Treldajv Se /xe 
TTepl rovrojv €7tl rovs GvpLTrpeG^eig irpdirero' /cat 
ydp rjGav aTrpovo-qroi rwv eGopbevow Kal Xa^elv 
iroLp,6raroL. ^deipei hk xP'''ll^^^'-'^ avroijs i/jr}(f)L- 

THE LIFE, 67-73 

and the leading men of Tiberias, liad left Bethmaus 
for Upper Galilee. Jesus and his followers then 
massacred all the Greek residents in Tiberias and 
any others who, before the outbreak of hostilities, 
had been their enemies. 

(13) On hearing of these proceedings I was 
extremely indignant and went down to Tiberias and 
devoted my energies to recovering from the plunderers 
as much as I could of the palace furniture, namely, 
some candelabra of Corinthian make, royal tables, 
and a large mass of uncoined silver. I decided to 
keep all that I obtained in trust for the king, and 
accordingly sent for ten of the principal councillors, 
with Capella, son of Antyllus, and committed the 
property to their charge, with injunctions to deliver 
it to none but myself. 

From Tiberias I went with my colleagues to stratagems 
Gischala to meet John, whose attitude I desired to Gischaia. 
ascertain. I soon discovered that he was eager for 
revolution and ambitious of obtaining command. 
For he requested me to authorize him to lay hands 
on the imperial corn stored in the villages of Upper 
Galilee, professing a desire to expend the proceeds 
on the repair of the walls of his native town. De- 
tecting his ultimate design and present intentions, I 
declined his request ; as the authority entrusted to 
me by the Jerusalem authorities extended to that 
district, I intended to reserve the corn either for the 
Romans or for my own use. Unsuccessful with me 
he turned to my colleagues, who were blind to coming 
events and quite open to receive money. These he 



Gaodai Trdvra rov gItov avroj rrapaSodrjvaL rov 
iv rfj avTov eTrapxi-O- Ketfievov. Kayoj {jlovos t^ttoj- 

14: jjLevos V7t6 Svo^ r7]v rjGV)(Lav r)yov. Kal hevrepav 
^lojdwrjs i7T€iGe(f)€p€V rravovpyiav e^iq yap 'lou- 
Salovs rovs ttjv ^lXlttttov Katcrapetay KaroLKOvvras, 
GvyKeKXeiGfievovs Kara. rrpoGTayrjV rov jSacrt- 
Xitos VTTO MoStou^ rov ttjv SwaGreiav Stot/cowro?, 
7T€77op.(j)ivaL TTpos avTov TTapaKaXovvra? , eTretS?) q-uk 
exovGLV eXaiov cb ■)(plGOvraL^ Kadapov, iroirjGdpievov 
TTpovoiav evTTopiav avrol? rovrov TrapaGx^tv, fjbr] 
8t' dvdyKrjV ^KXX'qviKO) ;)(poS/^evot rd vofJLLjJLa Trapa- 

Ib ^aivajGiv. ravra h ouv vrr evGe^elas eXeyev 
'IcodwTjg, dt' aLGXpoKepSeiav Se ^aycpcorar-nv. 
yivcfjGKOJV yap rrapd puev eKeivois Kara rrjv Katcra- 
peiav rovs Stjq ^€Grag hpaxp^TjS pads TTOjXovpAvovs , 
iv he roLS TiGxdX^oLs rovs oySorjKovra ^eoras 
SpaxP'OJV reoGapwv, rrdv ro kXacov ogov tjv eKeZ 
hieTTepujjaro , Xaf^ojv i^ovGiav kol Trap' ep.ov ro 

76 Soaretv ov yap Ikow errirperrov, dXXd hid (f)6^ov 
rov aTTO rov ttXtjOovs, pi^r^ kojXvojv KaraXevGdeirjv 
VTT^ avrojv. Gvyxcji>p'qGavros ovv p.ov TrXeiGruiv 
XpTj [Jidr ojv 6 ^lojdvvrjS e/c rijs KaKOvpy'as ravriqs 


77 (14) Tovs Se GVfi7Tp€G^€Ls aTTO rcxjv TLGxdXwv 
aTToXvGas els rd ^lepoGoXvpia rrpovoiav eTroLovpLTjv 
ottXojv re KaraGKevrjs Kal TToXecov exvporr^ros. 
p.era7reiJHpdfievos Se rwv XrjGrojv rovs dvSpeiord- 
rovs d(j)eXeGdai puev avrwv rd OTrXa ovx olov re 6V 
iojpcoVy erreLGa Se ro TrXrjOos piLGdo(f)opdv avrols 
7rapex€iv, dpLeivov elvai Xeyojv eKovras dXiya hihovai 

•"^ So, doubtless correctly, the editio prinreps: the mss. 
have L'7ro5i>s, " shpped away and." 


THE LIFE, 73-77 

bribed to vote that all the corn stored in his province 
should be delivered to him. Unsupported and out- 
voted by the other two, I held my peace. 

This knavish trick John followed up with a second." 
He stated that the Jewish inhabitants of Caesarea 
Philippi, having, by the king's order, been shut up 
by Modius, his viceroy, and having no pure oil for 
their personal use, had sent a request to him to see 
that they were supplied with this commodity, lest 
they should be driven to violate their legal ordinances 
by resort to Grecian oil.^ John's motive in making 
this assertion was not piety, but profiteering of the 
most barefaced description ; for he knew that at 
Caesarea two pints ^ were sold for one drachm, 
whereas at Gischala eighty pints could be had for 
four drachms. So he sent off all the oil in the place, 
having ostensibly obtained my authority to do so. 
My permission I gave reluctantly, from fear of being 
stoned by the mob if I withheld it. Thus, having 
gained my consent, John by this sharp practice made 
an enormous profit. 

(14) At Gischala I let my colleagues return to Josepims 
Jerusalem and proceeded to take measures for the !i|s"coir'^ 
provision of arms and the strengthening of the leagues. His 
fortifications of the towns. I also summoned the tranquillize 
most stalwart of the brigands and, seeing that it Gahiee. 
would be impossible to disarm them, persuaded the 
people to pay them as mercenaries ; remarking that 
it was better to give them a small sum voluntarily 

« With §§ 74 f. cf. B. ii. 591 f. (details rather different). 

'' Foreign oil was forbidden, according to one Talmudic 
authority, as likely to be tainted by unclean vessels. Cf. A. 
xii. 120. " Sextarii. 

^ vTTo MoSt'oi' Holwerda: virodiKov .irss. Cf. § 61 with 49. 
^ t\l. "x^priaovTai. 



fxaXXov Tj ras KTrjoeig diapTTaLOfievas vtt avroiv 
73 TTepiopdv. KOL Xa^ow Trap' avrojv opKovs firj 
d(f)L^€GdaL TTporepov els ttjv -^^ajpav, eav pLTj /xcra- 
kXtjOcoglv Tj orav rov [jllgOov pbrj XdBojGLV, aTTeXvGa 
rrapayyeiXas p^'QTe 'Pcu^atots" rroXefielv fJLrjre rots" 
TTepioiKois' elprjveveudai yap rrpo iravrcnv rrjv 

79 FaAtAatay ic^povrtiov. rovg 8 iv riXet rajv FaAt- 
Xalojv, OGOV i^SofjL-qKovra rravras, f^ovX6fJL€vog iv 
rrpocfxiGeL cfxAta? Kaddrrep oiJbrjpa rrjs rriGTeajs ^X^'-^> 
(jyiXovg re kol GVveKh-qjxovs iTroL-qGdfJL'qv, eiri re 
KpiGei'S TTapeXaji^avov Kai jjuerd yvojfj.rjg rrjs eKeivcov 
rds dTro(l)dGeLS eTTOiovjxiqv, p^rjre TTporrerela Treipoj- 
jjLevos rod hiKaiov SiapiaprdveLv KaOapeveiv re^ 
rravros err " a.vraZs X'qp.fxaros . 

80 (15) Ylepi rptaKOGrov yovv eros V77ap)(^ow, iv ch 
Xpovcp, fcdv a7Te)(i]raL ris row TrapavoiMow ejri- 
dvixLuw, hvGKoXov rds iK rov cfiOovov Sia^oXds 
(jyevyeiv, aAAco? re kol <e7r'>^ i^ovGtas ovra pLeydXr^s, 
yvvoLKO. }iev TraGav dvvj^piGrov i(^vXa^a, rrdvrcov 
he rwv hioop^evcov ojs p^r] )(pfiiojv Karecl)p6vrjGa' 
dXX ovde rds o(f)eLXopievas pLOL ws lepei SeKaras 

81 aTTeXapL^avov rrapd row Kopbitovrojv . iK pbevroL 
row Xa(f)vpow pbipos^ rovs Hvpovs rovs rds Trepi^ 
rroXeis KaroiKovvras VLKTjGas eXa^ov, a Kal els 
'lepoGoXvpLa rols GvyyeveGiv opLoXoyoj TreTTop^^evai. 

82 Acat St? piev Kard Kparos eXow HerrSojplras, Ti^e- 
ptels rerpaKiSy Ta^apels'^ d' ciTra^, Kal rov lojdvvTjV 
TToXXdKLs iTTif^ovXevGavrd {iol Xaf^ow V7TO)(^eipiov , 
ovr avrov ovre nvds row TTpoeiprjpievojv idvu)v 
erL[jbojprjGapbr]v, ojs Trpo'Cow 6 Xoyos TrapaGr-qGei. 

^ T€ Bekker : oe mss. ^ v.l. eu. 

^ ins. Bekker. * ixepovs 3iss. 


THE LIFE, 77-82 

than to submit to raids upon their property. I then 
bound them by oath not to enter the district unless 
they were sent for or their pay was in arrear, and 
dismissed them with injunctions to refrain from 
attacking either the Romans or their neighbours ; 
for my chief concern was the preservation of peace 
in Gahlee. Wishing, moreover, under the guise of a council 
friendhness, to retain the Gahlaean authorities, some °^ ^•"-^•^"^y- 
seventy in all, as hostages for the loyalty of the 
district, I made them my friends and companions 
in travel, took them as assessors to cases which I 
tried, and obtained their approbation of the sentences 
which I pronounced ; endeavouring not to fail in 
justice through precipitate action and in these 
matters to keep clear of all bribery. 

(15) I was now about thirty years old, at a time Protestation 
of life when, even if one restrains his lawless passions, '^^ ^"^^o^'^y- 
it is hard, especially in a position of high authority, 
to escape the calumnies of envy. Yet I preserved 
every woman's honour ; I scorned all presents 
offered to me as having no use for them ; I even 
declined to accept from those who brought them 
the tithes which were due to me as a priest. On the 
other hand, I did take a portion of the spoils after 
defeating the Syrian inhabitants of the surrounding 
cities, and admit to having sent these to my kinsfolk 
in Jerusalem. And though I took Sepphoris twice 
by storm, Tiberias four times, and Gabara once ; 
and though I had John many times at my mercy 
when he plotted against me, I punished neither him 
nor any of the communities I have named, as the 
course of this narrative will show. To this cause I 

^ ra/Sapets Niese (after cod. P, Tapa^ds): the other mss. 


VOL. I D 33 


83 8td rovr^ olfxai koI tov deov, ov yap XeXrjOaaiv 
avTOV ol TO. Seovra rrpdrrovres, koI Ik Trjs eKetvcov 
pvaacrOal fxe x^'-P^^ ^"^ /xera ravra ttoXXoIs 
TTepiTTeGOvra Kivhvvois 8ta</>uAa^at, rrepi (hv varepov 
oLTrayyeXoviiev . 

84 (16) Tocravr-q 3' rjv rj Trpos /^e rod ttXtjOov? tojv 
YaXiXaiOJV evvoia kol tt'lgtl'S, Jjcrre Xri(jid eiuojv 
avrojv Kara Kpdros row rroXecov, yvvaiKow 8e Kai 
tIkvojv dvhpanohi(j6ivTOJV , ovx ovrojg rat? eavrcov 
eTTecrreva^av uvp^cjiopals ajuirep rrjs ip.rjs ic^povriaav 

85 Gwrrjplas. ravra 8' opcov ^lojdvvqs e(j)06vqGey /cat 
ypd(f)€L rrpos /x€ rrapaKaXojv eTnrpiijjai Kara^avri 
XpriaauOai rols ev Tt^epta8t OepfioXs u8acrt rrjs rod 

86 Gajjiaros ev€Ka deparreias. Kayoj [irjSev VTTOTrrev- 
aas rrpd^eiv avrov TTovrjpov ovk eKcaXvaa' rrpos 
8e Kal rols rrjs Ti^epidhos rrjv hioiKr^uiv vtt efxov 
7T€7nur€V}JL€vois /Car' ovop.a ypdcjioj KaraXvaiv erot- 
fxauai ro) ^Icodwr] /cat rols dcl)L^op.€VOLS gvv avrco, 
Trdvrojv re rwv eTTLTrjbeiojv a^doviav Trapaax^lV' 
Sierpi^ov Se Kara rov Kaipov eKelvov iv kojjjl'q rrjs 
VaXiXaias rj TrpoGayopeijerai Kaya. 

87 (17) '0 8' ^Icodvvrjs dcf^LKopievos els rrjv T i^epieojv 
TToXiv eireide rovs dvOpojTTovs aTTourdvras rrjs Trpos 
lie TTioreaiS rrpoGriOeuOai avrqj. /cat TroAAot rrjv 
TTapdKXrjGLV rjSeoJS eSe^avro, veojripow ettlOv- 
jjLovvres atet rrpay/Jidrcov /cat (f)VG€i Trpos p-€ra^oXds 

88 eTTLrr^Seicos exovres /cat GrdGeGi x^i^povres' fidXiGra 
8e lovGros /cat o Trarrjp avrov Ilt'crros" (LppLi^KeGav 
anoGTavres ifxov rrpoGdeGOai roj ^Icjodvvr]. Sl€KCx)- 

89 Aucra 8' avrovs (f)ddGas. rJKev yap dyyeXos p^oL 
TTapd St'Aa, ov iyoj KaOeGrdKetv rrjs Tc^epidSos 
GrpaTr)y6v, ojs rrpoelTTOV^ rr]v rojv Tt^epteojv 

THE LIFE, 83-89 

attribute my deliverance out of their hands by God — 
for His eye is upon those who do their duty — and my 
subsequent preservation amid the numerous perils, 
to be related in the sequel, which I encountered. 

(16) The affection and loyalty towards me of the Popularity 

1 p /"« Ti 11 1 1 • • • ofJosepluis 

people or (jaliiee were sucli that, when then' cities excites 

were taken by storm and their wives and children '^°^"''^*^^'^^' 

enslaved, their lamentations over their own calamities 

were not so deep as their concern for my safety. 

Observing this, John's envy was aroused and he 

wrote to me for permission to come down and take 

the hot baths at Tiberias for the good of his health .« 

Having no suspicion of any malign intention, I not 

only did not prevent him, but went so far as to write 

separate letters to those w^hom I had entrusted with 

the administration of Tiberias, to prepare a lodging 

for him and any who might accompany him, and to 

make every provision for them. My quarters at the 

time were at a village of Galilee called Cana. 

(17) On his arrival at Tiberias, John attempted to John pi o- 
induce the inhabitants to abandon their allegiance "editfon at 
to me and attach themselves to him ; and there were I'lbenas. 
many who, ever craving for revolution, by tempera- 
ment addicted to change and delighting in sedition, 
gladly responded to his invitation. In particular 
Justus and his father Pistus w^ere eager to desert 

me and go over to John. My speedy action, how- 
ever, thwarted their plans. For a messenger reached 
me from Silas, whom, as I have already mentioned,^ 
I had appointed governor of Tiberias, bringing word 

« With this and the sequel cf. B. ii. 614 if. 
^ Not in this work ; but see B. ii. 616. 



yi^ojfJL'qv oLTTayye/^J^ajv KafMe OTrev^ecv TTapaKoXchv 
^pahvvavros yap vtto rrjv irepojv i^ovcriav yevq- 

90 GeaOaL^ rrjv ttoXlv. evrv\djv ovv rots ypafjijiacn 
rod HiiXa Kal hiaKoaiovs avaXa^ojv avhpas 8t oAtjs" 
Trjg vvKTos TTjv TTopeiav iTTOiovixrjV , TrpoTrc/x'v/^a? 
ayyeXov tov rr]V ip^rfv Trapovuiav rots €V rfj TtjSe- 

91 pidSt GYjiiavovvra. Trpon he 7rX-qaiat,ovTos ipLov rfj 
TToXei TO TrXrjOog VTT-qvTLalev /cat ^Icodvvqs avv 
avrols' OS koL Travv [xe rerapayp.evojs aoTraoa- 
p,€vos, heiaas fJ^rj els eXey^ov avrov rrjs Trpd^eojs 
dcfuKOfjLevqs drroXeadai KLvBvvevar], VTre-x^ajp-qoe fxera 

92 GTTOvhris els tt^v eavrov KardXvGiv . Kayoj Se yevo- 
pi,€Vos Kara ro GrdhioVy rovs nepi epA Gcop^aro- 
(f)vXaKas aTroXvGas ttXtjv ivos, koI jierd rovrov 
KarfiG')(djv heKa row OTrXiroJV, hrjiJL-qyopelv errei- 
pojjirjv TO) TrXrjOeL row T if^epiewv gtcis im rpiyy^ov 
rivos vijj-qXov, rrapeKaXovv re fxr] ovrojs avrovs 

93 Ta^eojs d(/>tcrraa^af KardyvojGiv yap avrols otGeiv 
rrjv pLera^oX'qv, ko.1 roj p.erd ravra rr po'iGr ap^evcp 
8t' VTToipLas yevTjGeGdai SiKaias, ojs pbTjSe r-qv rrpos 
eKelvov TTLGriv (f)vXa^6vra>v. 

94 (18) OvTTOJ Se p.oL Travra XeXdXxjro, Kai rivos 
e^TjKOVGa row OLKeLOJV Kara^aiveiv KeXevovros' ou 
ydp p.01 Kaipov etvai (i)povrLl,eiv rrjs Tvapd Ti^epLeojv 
evvoiaSi dXXd Trepl rrjs ISlas Gojrriplas Kai ttojs 

95 rovs ixOpovs eK(hvyoj. TreTTo^^et S o lojavvris 
row TTepl avrov oTrXirow eTTiXe^as rovs Tnarordrovs 
eK row ;YtAtajv olirep rjGav avrco, /cat irpoGera^ev 
rols 77 eiJLcj) 6 eloLv dveXelv pL€ Tre7TVGp,evos ojs ehjv 

96 /xera row olKeiow pLep^ovoofxevos . tjkov 8 ot Trep,- 
(f)devres, Kav i77e77pd)(eLGav rovpyov, el piT] rod 
rpiyxov Odrrov dcf)aX6p.evos eyw pier a rod GOjpLaro- 

THE LIFE, 89-96 

of the intention of the citizens and exhorting me to 
make haste, since, if I delayed, the town would pass 
into the hands of others. Having read Silas's 
dispatch I mustered two hundred men and marched Josephus, 

1^ . 1 , 1 T .. 1 ,•/• recalled to 

all night long, sending a courier in advance to iniorm Tiberias, 
the people of Tiberias that I was coming. As I 
approached the city at dawn I was met by the 
population, including John, who saluted me in 
evident confusion and, fearing that the exposure 
of his proceedings would endanger his life, hastily 
retired to his lodging." On reaching the stadium 
I dismissed my bodyguard, except one man whom 
I retained along with ten soldiers. Then standing 
on a high parapet ^ I endeavoured to address the 
crowd of citizens. I urged them not to be so hasty 
in revolting ; such fickleness would be a blot on their 
character, and they would justly be suspected by a 
future governor, as likely to prove equally disloyal 
to him. 

(18) I had not completed my speech when I flees for hi; 
heard one of my men bidding me come down, as it Tadchaeae. 
was no time for me to be thinking of the loyalty of 
the Tiberians, but of my own life and how to elude 
my foes. John, on hearing that I was left isolated 
with my personal attendants, had selected the most 
trustworthy of the thousand armed men at his 
disposal and sent them with orders to kill me. They 
duly arrived and would have done their business, 
had I not instantly leapt from the parapet, with 

" In B. John feigns sickness and sends a representative to 
meet Josephus. 

* i?. " on a hill six cubits high." 

^ Niese : yepeadaL mss. 



(f)vXaKos laKoj^ov Kal vtto tlvos T i^epiioos 'Hpd>- 
hov 7TpouavaKOV(jjiG6€is , ohriy-qdels vtto tovtov 
€7TL rrfv XiiJLViqv Kal ttXo'lov Xa^6p.€vos /cat eTn^d?, 
TTapa 66^av rovs ix^povs hiacjivyajv ets" TapLy(^eas 
d(j)LK6pb'qv . 

97 (19) Ot §e TrjV rroXiv raiJTiqv KaroLKOVvres cos" 
€7Tv6ovro TTjv TOW Tij^epiiojv aTTiuriav G(j)6hpa 
TTapoj^vvOrjcrav . apTrdaavre? oijv rd orrXa rrapeKd- 
Xovv G(l)ds dy€LV irr^ avrovg' deXeiv yap €(f)aGKOv 
vnep rod Grpanqyov hiKas Xa^elv rrap^ avrojv. 

98 ^i^yyeXXov be rd yeyovora Kal rols Kard rrjv 
FaAtAatay Trdcrty/ ipediGai Kal toijtovs Kard roJv 
TtySepteojy did GTTovSrjs e)(ovres, TrapeKaXovv re 
TrXeiGTOvs GwaxOivras d(f)LKeG6aL irpos avrovs, iva 
/xera yvojpurjs rod Grparrjyov rrpdrrojGLV ro ho^av. 

99 fjKov ovv OL TaXiXaioi TroAAot rravraxodev jJLed^ 
ottXojv Kal rrapeKeXevovro pLOL rrpoG^aXelv rfj 
Ti^epidhi Kal Kard Kpdros avrrjv i^eXelv Kal Trdaav 
koacj^os TTOLTjGavra rovs evoiKovs gvv yvvai^l Kal 
reKvois avSpaTToSiGaGdai. Gvve^ovXevov 3e ravra 
/cat rojv (jiiXojv ol €K r-qg Tc^epLaSos hiaGcoOevres. 

100 iyoj he ov gvv€7T€V€Vov Setvop rjyovpievos ipL(f)vXLov 
TToXepLov Kardp-v^LV /xe;^pt Xoyow ydp a)pi'qv elvai 
heiv rrjV (j)iXov€iKiav . Kal pLTjv ouS' avrolg eSaGKOv 
Gvp.(j)€peLv rovro Trpd^ai, 'PcD/xatoji^ rat? Trpds 
dXX-qXovs GrdaeGLV avrovs drroXelGdaL^ TrpoaSo- 
Kojvrojv. ravra Se Xiyojv eVaucra tt]? opyrjg rov£ 

101 (20) Se ^la)dvvrjs dnpaKrov rrjs eTTi^ovXrjs 
avTO) y€vopL€vrj£ eheiae 7T€pl iavrov, Kal rovs TTepl 
avrov orrXiras dvaXa^dw aTrrjpev e/c rrjs Ti^epcdSos 

^ V.l. Traaav, 


THE LIFE, 96-101 

James my bodyguard, and been further aided by 
one Herod of Tiberias, who picked me up and 
conducted me to the lake, where I seized a boat, 
embarked, and, escaping thus beyond all expectation 
from my enemies, reached Tarichaeae. 

(19) The inhabitants of this city, on hearing of Gaiiiaeans 
the treachery of the Tiberians, were highly indignant, jo^sepim"'^ 
and, seizing their arms, besought me to lead an 
attack upon them, professing their desire to avenge 

their general. They also spread the news throughout 
Galilee, doing their utmost to arouse indignation 
against the Tiberians, and exhorting the inhabitants 
to muster in full strength and join them, in order 
that, with the concurrence of the general, they 
might act as should seem best.^ The Gaiiiaeans 
accordingly came in large numbers from all quarters 
under arms, and entreated me to attack Tiberias, 
to take it by storm, raze the whole place to the ground 
and reduce the inhabitants, women, children and all, 
to slavery. Their advice was shared by those of my 
friends who had escaped from Tiberias. I, however, 
could not assent to their proposal : I was horrified 
at the thought of opening a civil war, and considered 
that the quarrel should not go further than verbal 
remonstrances. Moreover, I told them that the 
action suggested would not be to their own ad- 
vantage ; since the Romans were only waiting for the 
rival factions to bring about their own ruin. With 
these words I appeased the anger of the Gaiiiaeans. 

(20) John, when his plot failed, in terror of his life Joim's 
moved off with his armed men from Tiberias to ^^^^^^ 

" Or, perhaps, " accomplish their determined purpose." 

^ Niese : most mss. airoK^ddai, R (perhaps rightly) 



etV TOL Tloxo-^cjL} Kdi' ypdcfiei rrpos /xe Trepl rcbv 
TreTTpayfjievcov dTToXoyojjfJLevos ojs pb-q Kara yvojp.'qv 
rrjv avTov yevojjidvwv, TrapeKoXei re p.rjhev VTiovoelv 
/car' avTov, TrpoGTidels opKovs Kal Secvas Tivas 
dpds, St' Sv cp€To TTicrrevdijaeadaL Trepl chv eir- 

102 (21) Ot Se raAfAatot, ttoXXol yap erepoi ttoXlv 
Ik rrjs ^(^ujpas Trdar^s dv'q-)(9riGav p^eO ottXojv, etSores" 
Tov dvdpojTTOv (Jjs TTOVTjpos icTTLV Kal irrlopKos, 
TTapeKdXovv dyayelv G(f)as eTi avrov, dpdr]v d(f)avL- 
G€LV irrayyeXXopLevoL gvv avrco Kal rd TuGxciXa. 

103 X^P^^ M'^^ ^^'^ ^'x^*-^ avrwv rals TTpodvp^iats wpuoXo- 
yovv iyd) Kal vLKTjGeiv avrdjv ttjv evvoiav eTrrjy- 
yeXXopbTjV, TTapeKdXovv 8' dpicos iTTLGX^lv avrovs 
d^Lchv Kai GvyyivojGKeiv pLoi beopLevog Trporjp-qpbevq) 
rds rapaxds X^P'^^ (f)6va)v KaraGreXXeiv . Kal 
TTeiGas TO ttXtjOos tow T aXiXaiojv els ttjv SeV^coptv 

2Q^ (22) 01 he TTjV TToXiv TavTTjv KaTOLKovvres dvSpes 
KeKpiKores ttj rrpos ^Voopbaiovs epLpLelvai TTLGTei, 
hehioTes Se T'qv ipbriv d(f)i^LVy eTTecpddiqGav erepa pie 
TTpd^ec TTepuGTrdGavTes ddeels elvai nepi avTcov. 

105 K<^1 St7 TrepbipavTes rrpog ^Itjgovv tov dpx'^XrjGTTjV els 
TTjv UroXepLatSos p,edopiav vrreaxovTO SdjGeiv TToXXd 
XP^P'O.Ta deXrjGavTL p^erd rrjs gvv avToj hvvdpbeojs , 
rjGav 8 oKTaKOGLOL TOV apidpiov, TToXepLov e^dipai 

106 '^pos^ I'jp.ds- o o VTTaKOVGas avrojv rats vtto- 
Gx^or^crt-v TjdeXriGev eTrnreGelv dveToipbois Kal 
pLTjSev TrpoycvojGKovGLv. Trepupas yovv Trpos /X£ 
rrapeKdXei Xa^elv e^ovGiav aGTraGopLevov d(j>iKeG6ai. 
Gvyxo^P'TjGavTos he /xou, rrjs yap eTTi^ovXrjs ovdev 

1 eis PRA. 

THE LIFE, 101-106 

Gischala. Thence he ^\Tote to me, defending him- 
self on the ground that all that had taken place had 
been done without his sanction, and entreating me 
not to entertain any suspicions of him. He ended 
with oaths and horrible imprecations, by which he 
thought to gain credit for the statements in his 

(21) The Gahlaeans, many more of whom had 
again come up in arms from the whole district, 
knowing the man to be a perjured villain, pressed me 
to lead them against him, undertaking to exterminate 
both him and Gischala. I expressed my gratitude 
for their zeal on my behalf and promised to outrival 
their goodwill ; but, none the less, I begged and 
entreated them to desist," and craved their in- 
dulgence for my determination to quell these dis- 
turbances without bloodshed. My persuasion having 
proved successful with the Galilaeans, I departed to 

(22) The inhabitants of this city, having decided to An inter- 
remain loyal to Rome,^ were alarmed at my arrival at^Sep-^° 
and sought to secure themselves by diverting my phons. 
attention elsewhere. They accordingly sent to Jesus, 

the brigand chief, on the borderland of Ptolemais, and 
promised him a large sum if he would, with his force, 
which numbered eight hundred, bring me ^ under 
the fire of war. Responding to these offers, he was 
anxious to fall upon me ^ while I was unprepared 
and knew nothing of his plans. So he sent and 
requested my permission to come and pay me his 
respects. Completely ignorant of his designs I gave 

" Or " restrain themselves." 
" Cf. § 30 above. 

" " Us"; the first pers. sing, and plural are constantly 
interchanged in Josephus. 



7rpor]7TLGTdiJbrjV , avaXaf^ow to avvrayfjia row Xrjarcov 

107 earrevSev eV e/xe. ou fjbrjv e(j)dauev avrov reXog 
Xa^elv 'f] KaKov py la' 7rXr]Gidl,ovros yap rjSt] rcov 
uijv avTOj rt? avroiioXrjGas TfKev Trpos fjie rrjv 
€7TL)(^€Lprjaiv avrov (f)pdiojv, Kayoj \d)s] TTvOojievog 
ravra 7Tpo7]X9ov et's" rrjv dyopdv GKriijjd}X€vos dyvoeiv 
rrjv eTTi^ovX'qv €Tnqy6p,r]v he ttoXXovs OTrXiras 

108 VaXiXaiovs, rivds he Kal T L^epiecjv . elra rrpou- 
rd^as rd? ohovs Trdaas aGcjyaXeGrara (j^povpelGdai 
TTap-qyyeiXa rols eTTi rcov ttvXojv (jlovov Itjgovv, 
irreihav rrapayevrjrai, pLerd rwv TTpojraiV elGeXOelv 
iaGai, aTTOKXelGai he rovs dXXovs, ^ua^opievovs he 

109 rvrrreiv . rd)v he rd rrpoGraxOev TTOirjGdvrojv etG- 
rjXOev 6 ^IrjGovs fter' oAtyojy. Kal KeXevGavros ipiov 
pli/jai rd drrXa Odrrov, el ydp dTTeidoirj reOvq^eGOaiy 
TTepueGrajrag Chdjv Travraxddev avrco rov? oTrXiras 
(f)0^rj6el? VTT-qKovGev ol S' aTTOKXeiGOevres rojv 
eTTaKoXovOovvrow avro) TTvdopLevoL rr)v gvXXtji/jlv 

110 e(l)vyov. Kdyd> rdv "IrjGovv TrpoGKaXeGdpievog /car' 
ihiav ovK dyvoeZv ecbrjv rrjv eV epLe GVGKevaGdelGav 
eTTi^ovXrjv ovh^ vtto rivcov TrepL(f)6eLr^' GvyyvojGeGQai 
h dpiujs avro) rojv TreTrpaypievcuv, el p^eXXoi /xera- 

111 voTjGeLV Kal TTLGros ipLol yevrjGeGOai. vttlgxvov- 
pLevov he vrdvra TTOLTjGeLV eKeivov drreXvGa, Gvyyju^' 
prJGas avroj GVvayayeZv rrdXiv ovs Trporepov €lx€V. 
Yie7T(j)0jpirais h rjTreiXrjGa, el p^rj rravGaivro rrjs 
ayvojpLOGVVTjs, XrjipeGOaL Trap' avrow StVas". 

112 (23) Kara rovrov rdv Kaipdv d^iKvovvro.i Trpos 
pLe hvo pLeyiGrdves rojv vtto rrjV e^ovGiav rod ^aGi- 
Xeojs eK rrjs rojv Tpaxowurow x^P^? eTrayopLevot 
rovs eavra)v lttttovs Kal oVAa, Kal XPVH''^'^^ 

113 h,ovres '^ rovrovs Trepirep^veodaL rcov 

THE LIFE, 106-113 

my consent ; whereupon he made a rapid march 
upon me with his band of brigands. However, his 
mahcious purpose did not attain its end, for, when 
he was close upon me, one of his men deserted and 
came and told me of his meditated attack. On 
receipt of this intelligence, I proceeded to the 
market-place, feigning ignorance of the plot ; though 
I brought with me a large body of Galilaeans, under 
arms, with some Tiberians. I then gave orders for all 
the roads to be strictly guarded, and instructed the 
sentries at the gates to admit none but Jesus and 
the leaders on his arrival, and to exclude the rest, 
repelling with blows any who tried to force their 
way in. My orders were carried out and Jesus 
entered with a few others. On my commanding 
him instantly to drop his arms, on peril of death, 
he, seeing himself surrounded by the soldiers, was 
panic-stricken and complied. His excluded followers 
fled on hearing of his arrest. I then called Jesus 
aside and told him that I was not ignorant of the 
plot which he had contrived against me, nor w^ho 
were his employers ; I would, nevertheless, condone 
his actions if he would show repentance and prove 
his loyalty to me. All this he promised, and I let 
him go, allowing him to reassemble his former force. 
The Sepphorites I threatened to punish if they did 
not abandon their unreasonable conduct. 

(23) About this time there came to me from the Josephus 
region of Trachonitis two nobles, subjects of the forcible cir- 
king," bringing their horses, arms, and money which cumcisionof 
they had smuggled out of their country. The Jews 

" Agrippa II. 

^ Niese : viroKOfxi^opres mss. 



^lovhaiow dvayKa^ovrojv , et deXovuiv etvai Trap 
avTols, ovK etao-a f^LauOrivai, ^aoKOJV 8etv eKaarov 
JivB pojTTOV J Kara ttjv iavrov rrpoaipeGiv rov deov 
evoef^elv, aXXa {jltj jxera ^ias, ^9^^^^ ^^ roijrovs 
hi aacjidXeLav Trpos 'qp^dg KaTa(f)vy6vTag p,'/) /xera- 
voelv. TTeiodivTOS he rod ttXtjSovs, roZs rJKOvaLV 
dvhpduLV rd Trpos ttjV avvrjOrj hiairav aTravra 
rrapelxov SaipiXcos. 
11-i (24) rie/XTTCt S' o j^aaiXevs ^ XypirrTras hvvapLLV 
Kol arpar-qyov €tt avrrjs Alkovov ^IoSlov^ TdpbaXa 
TO (f}povpLOV i^aiprjcrovras . ol he TTepb(f}9evres kv- 
KXojGaaOai fxev rd (^povpuov ovk rfpKeoo.v, ev he rols 
(jyavepoZs tojv tottojv i(f)ehpevov'res e77oXi6pKovv rd 

115 Fa/xaAa. A.L^ovrio? he 6 heKahapxos 6 rod p^eya- 
Xov TTehlov rrjv Trpoarauiav TreTncrrevpLevos, aKovGag 
on TTapelrjV els ^Lpowiaha Kojfj.'qv ev pbeOopioj^ 
KeLpbevqv rrjs TaXiXolas, avrov 8' dTTe^ovGav 
i^-qKovra urahiovs, \yvKr6s'\ dvaXa^ojv rovs eKa- 
rov LTTTTels ovs ^^X^^ ^^^ avro) /cat rcvas rre^ovs 
TTepl hiaKoaiovs > Kau rovs ev Td^a rroXei Kar- 
oLKOvvras errayop^evos avpLpiaxovs, vvKros ohevoas 

116 riKev els rrjV KcopLTjV ev fj hierpi^ov. avriTrapa- 
ra^ajievov he Kapov pLerd hwdfieajs ttoXXtjs, d p^ev 
Alj^ovnos ets ro rrehiov vrrayeiv 'qpds eTreipdro , 
G(^6hpa ydp rols iTTTrevorLV eTreTTOidei. ov pL-qv 
VTTrjKovcrapLev' iyw ydp ro TrXeoveKriqpLa crvvihdjv 
ro yevrjcropuevov rols IrrTrevGLV, el Kara^anqpLev els 
ro TTehlov, TreCol ydp rjpels avpLrravres ^p^ev, eyvcov 

117 avrov rols TToXepiiois ovvdTrreiv . Kal pexp^ P'^v 
rivos yevvaiojs dvreaxev cruv rols rrepl avrov 6 

^ ^lovboLov R ; r/. § 61. 
^ fj-opiu} P: /xedopioi.^ the other mss. 


THE LIFE, 113-117 

would have compelled them to be cu'cumcised as a 
condition of residence among them. I, however, 
would not allow any compulsion to be put upon them, 
declaring that every one should worship God in 
accordance with the dictates of his own conscience 
and not under constraint, and that these men, 
having fled to us for refuge, ought not to be 
made to regret that they had done so. Having 
brought over the people to my way of thinking, 
I hberally supplied our guests with all things 
necessary to their customary manner of life. 

(24) King Agrippa now sent a force under the His first 
command of Aequus Modius to destroy the fortress wlthT 
of Gamala. The troops sent, being insufficient to i^oJ^^n 
invest the place, lay in wait on open ground and 
attempted a siege. Aebutius, the decurion, who 
had been entrusted with the charge of the Great 
Plain,^ hearing that I was at Simonias,^ a village on 
the frontier of Galilee, sixty furlongs away from him, 
set off with the hundred horse at his disposal, some 
two hundred infantry, and the inhabitants of the 
town of Gaba ° as auxiliaries, and by a night march 
reached the village where I had my quarters. I con- 
fronted him with a large force in order of battle. 
Aebutius, relying mainly on his cavalry, endeavoured 
to decoy us into the plain. We, however, refused 
to accommodate him ; realizing the advantage 
which his horse would have over our troops, composed 
entirely of infantry, should we descend into the 
plain, I determined to engage the enemy on my 
own ground. For a time Aebutius and his men 

'^ Of Esdraelon. ^ Semunieh, due west of Nazareth. 

** In the Great Plain ; founded by Herod the Great and 
called " City of Cavalry " after the discharged troops there 
quartered, B. iii. 36, cf. A. xv. 294. 



Al^ovTLo?, dxp^tov 8' opojv Kara rov rorrov tovtov 
ovGOV avroj tt]v Ittttiktjv hvyafxiv avaLevyvvcriv 
aTrpaKros els Td^av ttoXlv, rpels dvSpag diro^aXajv 

118 Kara rrjv iJidx'i]v. eiTTOfjbrjV Se Kara TToSag iyco 
Sicrxt-Xiovs iTTayojJLevos OTrAtVas" /cat Trepl Bi^crapav 
ttoXlv yevojJLevos, iv fiedopiqj fiev rrjs UroXefiatho? 
K€Lfj,evr]v eiKOGL S' aTTexovGav araSta ttjs Td^aSt 
€v9a hilrpi^ev Al^ovrioSi ar-qorag rov£ orrXirag 
e^coOev rrJ£ Kajp^-qg Kal (f)povp€tv avrols dcr(f)aXa)g 
ras" oSovg Trpocrrd^as VTrep rov jjltj ivoxXrJGai rov? 

119 TToXepjlovs tj/jlTv ecu? rov ulrov iK(f)opTJGO{JL€v, TToXvg 
yap drriKeiro BepevLKrjS rfjs /SaatAtSos" iK row 
TTepi^ KOjjJLoJv €LS rTjV Br]Gapav GvXXeyopLevos , 
TrXrjpojGas rag KajJbrjXovg Kal rovg ovovs, rroXXovg 
8' iTTrjyofJb'qv, SceTreiJiipa rov Glrov els rrjv TaXiXaLav. 

120 rovro Se rrpd^ag TrpoeKaXovixrjv elg fxax'qv rov 
Al^ovnov ovx vrraKovGavrog S eKeivov, Kar- 
eTTeTrXrjKro yap rrjV rjjjierepav eroLfjLorrjra Kai ro 
OpdaoSy €776 y^eoTToXiravov irpaTTOjjbrjv, r-qv Tt- 
^epieojv x^p*^^ aKOVGas vtt avrov Xe-qXareladai. 

121 r)v Se o SeorroXiravos lXyjs fjbev eTrapxos, 7Tap€iXrj(j)eL 
he r-qv HkvOottoXlv els (fyvXaKTjV r-qv arro row 
TToXeiiLow . rovrov ovv KOjXvcras errl rrXeov rrjv 
TifjepUajv KaKovv Trepl rrjv rrjs TaXiXalas rrpovoiav 

122 (25) '0 8e rov Aevt irals ^lojdvvqs, ov e(f)a[JLev iv 
rots TiuxdXoLs hiarpiBeiv, rrvOop^evos Travra Kara 
vovv fioL 77po;)(co/3etv, Kal 3t' evvoias p^ev etvai pie 
rols 1)777] KooLStrols TToXepbiois he hi eKTrXi^^eoJS, ovk 
ev r-qv yvojpi-qv hcered-q,^ KardXvGiv 8' avrco r-qv 
ep^-qv evrrpaytav (^epeiv vopLLL,a>v els (f)66vov e^coKetXev 

THE LIFE, 117-122 

made a gallant stand ; but seeing that his cavalry 
were useless in such surroundings, he withdrew to 
the town of Gaba, having failed in his object and 
lost three men in the engagement. I followed close 
behind with two thousand infantry, and on reaching 
the neighbourhood of the town of Besara, on the 
borders of Ptolemais, twenty furlongs from Gaba, 
where Aebutius was stationed, I posted my men 
outside the village, with orders to keep strict guard 
on the roads, so as to prevent interference from the 
enemy, while we were removing the corn. Of this a 
large quantity, belonging to Queen Berenice, had 
been collected from the neighbouring villages and 
stored in Besara. I then loaded the camels and 
asses, which I had brought with me in large numbers, 
and dispatched the corn to Galilee. This done, I 
offered Aebutius battle ; and when he declined it, 
overawed by my readiness for action and intrepidity, 
I turned upon Neopolitanus, who, I heard, was 
ravaging the district of Tiberias. Neopolitanus was 
commander of a squadron of horse, who had been 
commissioned to protect Scythopolis from the enemy. 
Having prevented him from doing further injury to 
the Tiberian territory, I devoted my attention to 
the welfare of Galilee. 

(25) But when John, son of Levi, who, as I said,^ Joi^n 

,/-(.ii 1 j.-i. .!• attempts to 

was now at Giscnala, heard that everythmg was alienate 
proceeding to my satisfaction, that I was popular Galilee from 
Math those under my authority and a terror to the 
enemy, he was in no good humour ; and, believing 
that my success involved his own ruin, gave way to 

« § 101. 
^ Niese : er^dr] mss. ^ 



123 ovn yiirpiov. koI Travueiv /xc ttjs €VTV)(Las iXmaag, 
el TTapa row vtttjKocov fjucros i^dipeiev, erreidev tovs 
rrjv Tt^cptaSa KaroiKovvras kol rovs ttjv H€7T(f)copLV^ 
77p6s TOVTOLS Se Kal TOVS Td^apa, ttoAci? 8' etcrtv 
avrai row Kara ttjV FaAtAatav at piiyLGTai, rrjs 
Trpog /-L€ 7tIgt€ojs OLTTOGrdvras avroj tt poor id euOai' 
Kpelrrov yap ip.ov (jrparrjyqcreiv avrow ecfyaoKev. 

124 Kal Y.€7T(^(jL>peis p^^v, ovSerepoj yap vp^ow 7TpoG€i-)(ov 
Sta ro 'Poj/xaiou? riprjuOai heorroras , ovk iTrevevov 
avTOjy TL^€pi€is he rrjv piev arroGrauLV ovk eoe)(ovTO , 
[/cat] avTOV Se ovyKarevevov yevqGeGdai cbiXoL. ol 
he Td^apa KaroiKovvres TrpoGrlOevrai rw ^Icudwr]' 
T^ipLcov h Tjv 6 TTapaKoXcbv avTOVs, rrpojrevojv /xev 
rrjs TToXeojs, (hs (jaXaj Se /cat eraipco toj lojavvrj 

125 XP^^h''^^'^^- ^^ H'^^ ^^^ '^^^ cfyavepov rrjV (XTrocrracrtv 
ouv ojp.oX6yovv GchoSpa yap eSeSot/cecray rovg 
TaXiXaiovg are Srj rrelpav avrow rijs Tvpos rjp^os 
TToXXdKL? evvoias Xaj^ovre?' eK rod XeX-qOoro? he 
Kaipov TTapa^vXdGGOvres emrrjheLov irre^ovXevov . 
Kal Srj acbiKopi-qv et? klvSvvov rov pieyiGrov Sta 
roiavrrjv airiav. 

126 (26) y>eavLGKOL rives dpaGels, Aa^apLrrrjvol 
yevos, eTTirrjprjGavres rrjV YlroXepLalov yvvalKa rod 
^aGiXeojs imrpoTTOV, pier a rroXXrjs rrapaGKevrjs Kai 
nvojv LTTTTeojv aGchaXelas X^P^^ e7Top.evojv hid rod 
pieydXov rrehiov rr^v TTopeiav TTOLOvpLevrjV eK rrjs rols 
j^aGiXevGiv VTToreXovs ^(^ojpa? ets" rrjv 'Pcj^aiojv 

127 erriKpdreiav, erri'TTirrrovGLV avrols dSvoj' koI rrjv 
piev yvvaiKa (j)vyeZv rjvdyKaGav, ocra 8 e7Te(j)epero^ 

^ So R : the other mss. add voixi^wv. 
^ virecpepeTo PR. 

^ Daberath (Josh. xix. 12), mod. Deburieh, under the 


THE LIFE, 123-127 

immoderate envy. Hoping to check my good fortune 
by inspiring hatred of me in those under my command, 
he tried to induce the inhabitants of Tiberias, 
Sepphoris, and Gabara — the three chief cities of 
GaUlee — to abandon their allegiance to me and go 
over to him, asserting that they would find him a 
better general than I was. Sepphoris, in pursuance 
of its policy of submission to Rome, lent no ear to 
either of us and rejected these overtures. Tiberias, 
while declining the suggestion of revolt, consented 
to befriend him Gabara, at the instigation of 
Simon, a leading citizen and a friend and associate 
of John, went over to his side. The people of Gabara, 
it is true, did not openly admit their defection ; 
their dread of the Galilaeans, of whose devotion to 
me they had had frequent experience, was too great 
a deterrent. But they secretly laid their plots and 
watched for a favourable opportunity for their 
execution ; whereby I incurred the gravest peril 
under the following circumstances. 

(26) Some adventurous young men of Dabaritta'* The affair of 
lay in wait for the wife of Ptolemy, the king's over- ^vlymen of 
seer.^ She was travelling; in m-eat state, protected Dabaritta 

. • and the 

by an escort of cavalry, from territory subject to stolen 
the royal jurisdiction into the region of Roman Property. 
dominion,'^ when, as she was crossing the Great Plain, 
they suddenly fell upon the cavalcade, compelled the 

western slopes of Mt. Tabor. With the whole of this story 
cf. the parallel account in B. ii. 595 if. 

^ Or "finance officer." The Greek word is that elsewhere 
used for the Roman pr'ocurator. 

" Agrippa's kingdom was the district E. and N.E. of the 
Sea of Galilee. The lady, who was probably en route for 
Caesarea, would, after crossing the independent region of 
Decapolis, enter the Roman province shortly before reaching 
the Great Plain of Esdraelon. 

VOL. IE 49 


Trdvra Si-qpTracrav. /cat rJKov els Tapux^os rrpos fJ^€ 
reouapas rjjJLLOvovs Kara(f)6provs dyovres euOrjros 
KOL GK€va)V Tjv §€ Kol dpyvpiov araOpLo? ovk 
12S oXlyos Kal ;!(pucrot rrevTaKooioi. ravr iyoj ^ov- 
XofjLci-'o? hiacbvXd^ai toj IlroAe/xatoj, kol yap tjv 
6p.6SvXos , dTTTjyopevrai 8 vrro row vopLOW 
p^TjSe rov£ i^Opovs aTTOGrepelVy Trpos p^ev rovs 
Koplcravras ednqv (fivXarreuv avrd Setv, Iv e/c ttjs 
7Tpd(T€Oj£ avrdw imdKevaGdfj rd reuxf] tojv *Ie/)o- 

129 (ToXvp,ojv. ol he veaviai x'^XeTTOJS koxov ov Xa^ovres 
pLolpav eK row Xa(f)ijpow KaddvTep rrpoGehoKiquav , 
Kal TTopevOevre? etV rag rrepi^ rrjg Ti^cpidSos- 
Ko'jp^as TTpohihovai jie/iXeiv /xe 'Pco^atots" Trjv xd)p(iv 

130 avrojv eXeyov Kexp'^'^Oai yap GO(j)LGp.arL Trpds 
avrovg Xeyovra. rd. Ik rrjg dprrayrjs KopaoOevra 
(bvXdrreiv els rrjv emuKevqv rojv reLXow rrjs 
'lepoGoXviJLirdjv TToXeojg, i^/vooKevai Se TidXiv ro) 

131 beoTTOTTj aTToSovvai} Kal Kara rovro ye rfjs ep,rJ9 
'•/vojpLTjg ov hi-qp^aprov drraXXayevrojv ydp avrojv 
pLeraTTepujjdfievos ^vo rovg Trpcorovs, Aacrcrtojva Kal 
^lawatov rdv rod Arjovt, (j)iXovs ev rols /xaAtcrra 
rod ^auiXeojs KaOearwras, ro, eK rrjg dpTrayrjs 
GKevri Xajiovras SLaTTepufjaGOat rrpos eKelvov e/ce- 
Xevov, ddvarov aTreLAriGas avroZs rrjv t,'qp.iav, el 
rrpos erepov ravr a aTrayyeXovGiv . 

132 (27) ^^TTLGXovGrjs 8e (f)r)p,r]s ttjv FaAtAatav 
drraGav ojs rrjs x^'^P*^^ avrojv pLeXXovGTjS vrr eixov 
rols ^Pojp.aLOis rrpohihoGOaL Kai rravrojv Trapo^vv- 
devrow errl rrjV ifirjv np^ajpuav, ol ras Taptx^as 
KaroiKovvres Kal avrol rovs veaviGKOvs aXrjOeveiv 
vrroXo.jjovres rreiOovGL rovs GOjp.aro(f)vXaKas Kal 
rovs orrXiras Koijxdjiievov /xe KaraXiTTovras Trapa- 

THE LIFE, 127-132 

lady to fly, and plundered all her baggage. They 
then came to me at Tarichaeae with four mules 
laden with apparel and other articles, besides a 
large pile of silver and five hundred pieces of gold. 
My own desire was to keep these spoils for Ptolemy, 
seeing that he was a compatriot and we are forbidden 
by our laws to rob even an enemy ; ^ to the bearers 
I said that the goods must be reserved for sale and 
the proceeds devoted to the repair of the walls of 
Jerusalem. Indignant at not receiving their expected 
share of the spoils, the young men went to the villages 
around Tiberias, declaring that I intended to betray 
their country to the Romans. My assertion about 
keeping the outcome of their raid for the repair of 
the walls of the capital was, they said, a mere blind ; 
I had really decided to restore it to its owner. So 
far, indeed, they correctly interpreted my intention ; 
for, when they left me, I sent for two of the leaders, 
Dassion and Jannaeus, son of Levi, who were special 
friends of the king, and ordered them to take the 
stolen goods and dispatch them to him, threatening 
them with capital punishment if they reported the 
matter to anyone. 

(27) A rumour had now spread throughout Galilee Josephus 
that I was intending to betray the country to the treaS^The 
Romans, and the feelings of all were roused to P!°^.^sainst- 

c? In ^ 1 i f p s \ 

demand my punishment. The young men's state- Tarichaeae. 
ment was credited even by the inhabitants of 
Tarichaeae, who now urged my bodyguards and 
soldiers to leave me while I was asleep and come at 
« Of. Ex. xxiii. 4. 

^ +Ta 7]pTra(XfM€Pa most mss. (omit R). 



yeveadai ddrrov els iTrrrohpoiiov, oj? eKel ^ov- 
XevGOfj.evov? fiera Travrojv Trepi rod orpanqyov. 

133 Tr6L9o[jb€vajv Se rovTCxJV /cat ovveXdovrwv rroXvs 
6-)(Xos rjSr] TTpoGVvrjOpoLGTO, fuav re 'navres inoi- 
ovvTO (pojvrjV, KoXaCeiv tov Trpohorrjv irovqpov rrepl 

134 avTOVS yeyevrjiievov. /xaAtara S' avrovs i^€KaL€V 
6 rod Ha7T(f)Lrj} ttols I'QGovs , ap)(^ojv Tore rrjs 
Ti^epidSo?, rroviqpos dvdpojTTOS Kal rapd^ai /xeyaAa 
Trpdyfiara <j)VGiv ky^ow, oraGLorroLos re Kal vewre- 
piGrrjs OJS ovx erepos. Kal rore Stj Xa^cbv els 
X^lpa? rovs }ilojvGeojs vojjlovs Kal rrpoeXdojv^ els 

136 pie GOV " et pL-q Kai VTrep avrcov," e(f)'q, " TToXlr at, 
pLLGelv hvvaGde ^Iojgtjttov, els rovs Trarpiovs oltto- 
^Xeipavres vopuovs, ojv 6 rrpwros vpLcbv Grparr^yos 
TTpohorrjS epieXXe yiveGOai, Kal pbiGOTrovqprjGavres 
VTTep rovrojv ripiOjp'qGaGde rov roiavra roX- 

130 (28) Tavr eirrojv /cat rod rrXrjdovs eTTi^orjGavros 
dvaXa^ojv rivas oirXiras errl ttjv ot/ctav iv fj 
Karrjyop^rjv eGrrevSev oJS dvaup-qGOW . eyoj 8 ovSev 
TTpoaiGdopievos Std kottov rrpo rrjs rapa'^rjs Kar- 

137 eGX'QP^Tjv.^ Ulijlojv S' o rov Gcopiaros jJiov rrjv 
^vXaK'qv TTemGrevpievos , 6 Kal jiovos TrapapLelvas, 
Ihwv rrjv eTnhpopirjv row TToXirojv Si'/jyeipe pie Kal 
rov e(f)eGrojrd pioi klvSvvov e^rjyyeiXev, tj^lov re 
yevvaiojs OviJGKeiv ojs Grparrjyov v(j) avrov,^ Ttplv S' 
r\ eXOelv'' rovs e^Opovs dvayKaGOvras rj Krevovvras . 

138 o pLev ravra eXeyev, eyoj Se roj Oeqj rd /car' €/x- 
avrov emrpeijjas els ro ttXtjOos chppL'qOrjv TrpoeXdelv. 
pLerevhvs ovv pbeXaivav eGd-fjra Kal ro ^i<f>os drrap- 

^ 1air4>la Hudson, cf. § QQ and B.J. : ZairWa .mss. 
^ Niese : -n-poaeXdCov :\!ss. 


THE LIFE, 132-138 

once to the hippodrome, to take part in a general 
discussion on their commander's conduct. Their 
persuasion prevailed, and the men joining the 
assembly found a large crowd already collected, 
unanimously crying for vengeance on one who had 
proved so base a traitor. The principal instigator of 
the mob was Jesus, son of Sapphias, at that time 
chief magistrate of Tiberias, a knave with an instinct 
for introducing disorder into grave matters," and 
unrivalled in fomenting sedition and revolution. 
With a copy of tlie laws of Moses in his hands, he 
now stepped forward and said : "If you cannot, for 
your own sakes, citizens, detest Josephus, fix your 
eyes on your country's laws, which your commander- 
in-chief intended to betray, and for their sakes hate 
the crime and punish the audacious criminal." 

(28) After this speech, which was loudly applauded, 
he hurried, with some soldiers, to the house where I 
was lodging, intending to kill me. I, quite unaware 
of what was coming, had, from fatigue, succumbed 
[to sleep] before the riot. Simon, who was entrusted 
with the charge of my person and had alone remained 
with me, seeing the citizens rushing towards me, 
awoke me and, telling me of my imminent peril, 
entreated me to die honourably, as a general, by my 
own hand, before my foes arrived to force me to 
such action or to kill me themselves. Such were his 
words ; but I, committing my fate to God, hastened 
to go forth to the people. Changing my raiment for 
one of black and suspending my sword from my 
" The same phrase in A. xvii. 325. 

^ virui^ has probably dropped out ; cf. A. v. 148. 
* v(f) avTov { — vtt' e/xavTov) cod. R: omit M, vir' (eV) avrou 
the rest. 

^ Text emended : irplv 8r] eXde^u R, wpiv dieXOelu the rest. 



TTjordfjievos eK rod avx^vos KaO' oSoy irepav, fj 
fjLTjSeva fioL rojv TToXeixicov VTravrtdaeiv (l^fJLTjv, fjeuv 
el? rov IrrTToSpoiJLOV, a(f)VOJ re (fjavelg Kal 7TprjV7]s 
rrecrcov Kal rrjv yrjv hciKp'ocnv (jivpojv eXeeivos eho^a 
IZ^TidoLv. Gvvel? be rod ttX-qSovs rrjv p.era^oXr]V 
SuordvaL rds yvcop^as avrcov eTTeipoJiirjV rrpo rod 
roijs orrXiras 6.n6 rrj? olKias vrroGrpexpai. Kat 
(7Vvex(^povv fjbev dSiKelv, ojg avroL voijllL,ov(jlv, 
eheopLrjV he StSa^at rrporepov els riva ;)^p6tav e<j)V- 
Xarrov rd eK rrjs dpTrayrjg KopnaOevra ;Yp7JjU-aTa 

140 Kal rore 9vqGKeLV, el KeXevoiev. rod Se rrX-qdovs 
Xeyeiv KeXevovrog eTrrjXdov ol orrXlrai Kai Oeaua- 
fievoi p.e vrpoaerpexov cos Krevodvreg. Ittigx^^v 
8e rod TrXridovs KeXevovros eTreiuB'qGav rrpoa- 
hoKOJvres, erreihdv ofJLoXoyrjGOJ Trpos avrovs ra 
XprjlJ^OLra roj ^aGcXel rerr]prjKevaL, cos chpLoXoyqKora 
rrjV rrpohooiav avaipiqueLV . 

141 (29) ^lyrfS ovv rrapd Trdvrcov yevofievrjs, 
avopes, etTTOV, opLocpvAot, uaveiv p.ev ei oiKaiov 

iorLV, ov rrapairodp^aiy jSovXofjLat 8' op.ojs rrpo rod 

142 reXevrrioai rriv dXi]deLav c^pdaai rrpos vfids- rrjV 
yap TToXiv ravrrjv (fiiXo^evcjjrdrqv ovaav emara- 
fievos TrXrjdvovGdv re TrpoOvpicos^ roaovrow avSpcov, 
ot rds eavrojv TrarplSas KaraXurrovres a(l)LKOvro 
KOLi'covol rrjs rjp.erepas yevojievoi^ rvxf]S, e^ov- 
Xrj6r)v relx^] KaraoKevdoai eK row ;Y/37]/i,aT6uv 
roijrojv, TTepl ojv -q Trap" vficov earcv opyrj, SaTravco- 

143 /xeVojv els rrjV olKoSopLtav ai)rd)v." Trpos radra 
TTapd pLev roiv TapLx^cora)v Kal ^evcov eyeiperai 
(f)covrj X^P^^ ^X^''^ 6p.oXoyoiJvrojv Kai Oappelv Trpo- 
rpeTTopievojv, FaAtAatot he Kal Ti^epiels rols Ovpiois 
eTrepievov, Kal yiverat ordoLS Trpos aXXi^Xovs , rcov 

THE LIFE, 138-145 

neck, I proceeded by another road, on which I 
expected that no enemy would encounter nie, to the 
hippodrome ; where my sudden appearance, as I 
Hung myself on my face and rained tears upon the 
ground, aroused universal compassion. Observing 
the effect produced upon the people, I endeavoured 
to create dissension among them before the soldiers 
returned from my house. I admitted that, according 
to their vie*v of the matter, I was guilty, but craved 
leave to inform them for what purpose I was reserving 
the money obtained by the raid, before, if they so 
ordered, I was put to death. The crowd were just 
bidding me proceed, when the soldiers appeared and, 
at sight of me, rushed forward to kill me. At the 
people's order, however, they stayed their hands ; 
expecting, as soon as I had owned to having kept the 
money for the king, to slay me as an avowed traitor. 

(29) Thereupon, amid profound silence, I spoke as He appeals 
follows : " My countrymen, if I deserve to die, I ask anJ/^aM?^'^ 
no mercy ; but, before my death, I desire to tell escapes 
you the truth. Knowing the lavish hospitality of'^^^^* 
this city and that it is crowded with vast numbers of 
persons who have left their homes and gladly come 
to throw in their lot with ours, I proposed to provide 
fortifications for it with the money, about which, 
though it was to be expended on their erection, you 
are now so indignant." At this a shout was raised 
by the Tarichaeans and their guests, who expressed 
their gratitude and bade me not be disheartened. 
The Galilaeans and Tiberians, however, still main- 
tained their resentment, and a quarrel arose, one party 

^ Probably misplaced. 
^ yeuqcrof.i.ei'oi conj. Niese. 



fiev KoXd(J€Lv a7T€iXovvrojv fjie, rojv Se Kara^povelv. 

144 irreihr] S' iTT'qyyeLXdfjirjv koI Ti^epidSL Kara- 
OKevdoeiv Teix^^ f<o.L rals clXXats TToXecLv avrow rats 
dvayKaiais, TTLcrrevGavres vrrexcopovv e/cacrros' etV 
rrjv iavrov. Kayoj rrapd Trdaav iXTrlSa hia(j)vy<jjv 
rov TTpoeipTjixevov Kivhvvov fxerd rwv (j)iXajv Kat 
oTrXiTcvv €LKOGLV €LS TTjV OLKLav VTTeGrpeijja. 

145 (30) IldXiv 5' OL XrjGral Kal rrjs ardaeoj? airioi, 
heiuavres Trepl eavrow p.rj diKas €L(j7Tpa)(dd)<jLV vtt 
ifjbov row TTeirpayiievcjjv, dvaXa^ovres l^aKOGiovs 
OTrXiras tjKOV eirl ttjv OLKtav evda hterpLJBov i/JLTrp-q- 

146 GOVT€S avTiqv. dTTayyeXOeiGiqs he p^oL rrjs i(f)6bov 
(j)€vy€LV piev drrpeTjes rjyi]GdpLr]v, eKpiva Se Trapa- 
^aX6pL€vos ;)(p-/]o-aa^at n Kal roXp.'Q. TrpoGrd^as 
ovv aTTOKXelGaL rrjg OLKias rds dvpas avros €7tl to 
VTTepojov dva^ds TrapeKdXovv elGTrepLipai rivds Xr]ipo- 
p.lvov£ rd XPVH''^'^^' TravGeGdai^ yap ovrojs rrjg 

147 opyrjs avroijs €(f)-qv. eLG7Tep.ipdvrwv Se rov dpa- 
avrarov avrdv ^ pLaGn^Lv alKLGdp.€vos rT]v irepav 
re rojv xj^Lpdjv aTTOKoipai KeXedGas Kal Kpep^aGai 
eK rod rpaxTJXov, roiovrov e^ejjoXov rrpos rov? 

148 e^arroGreiXavras . rovs 3' eXa^ev eKTrX-q^LS Kal 
(j)6^os ovn p,erpLos. heiGavres ovv Kat avrol ravra 
TreiGeGOai el puevoiev, e'iKa^ov yap evSov e^eiv p.e 
rrXeLOV? avrdjv," els (f)vyrjv ojppLrjGav. Kayoj roiovrcp 
Grpar-qy-qpari xP'Qcrdpbevog rrjV hevrepav eTTL^ovXrjV 

149 (31) YidXiv he rov o^Xov rives rjpeOiLov rovs 

^ Xiese : iravcraadaL mss. 

" Cod. R adds eis to p-vxclTarov irapaavpas ttjs OLKias Kal : 
probably a gloss from ]]. h. 612. 
^ So P : the rest add oTrXtVas. 


THE LIFE, 143-149 

threatening to have my blood, the other [exhorting 
me] to disregard [these opponents].'* But when I 
further promised to provide fortifications for Tiberias 
and for any other of tlieir cities wliich needed them, 
they, on the strength of this undertaking, retired 
to their several homes. Having thus, beyond all 
expectation, escaped from the peril which I have 
described, I returned to my house, accompanied by 
my friends and twenty soldiers. 

(30) I was not long left in peace. The brigands a second 
and tlie promoters of the disturbance, fearing that down tile"™ 
they would be called to account by me for their iiouse of 
proceedings, again visited my residence, with six ^^^^ ^^' 
hundred armed men, to set it on fire. Apprised of 

their coming, and considering it undignified to fly, 
I decided to risk a course requiring some courage. 
Ordering the house-door^ to be closed, I ascended to 
the upper story and invited them to send some of 
their number to receive the money, ^ thinking thus 
to allay their anger. They sent in the most stalwart 
among them, whereupon I had him soundly scourged, 
ordered one of his hands to be severed and hung 
about his neck and in that condition dismissed him 
to his employers. Panic-stricken and in great alarm, 
supposing that I had indoors a force outnumbering 
their own, and fearing, if they remained, to meet 
the same fate tliemselves, my opponents made off in 
haste. Such was the stratagem by which I eluded 
this second plot. 

(31) Tlie feelings of the masses were once again Further 
aroused against me by certain persons who asserted of refugees! 

" There is possibly a lacuna in the text. 
^ Viz. from the spoils taken by the highwaymen of 



d(l>LKOfMevov5 rrpog fJL€ ^aaiXcKovg ixeyioravas ovk 
6(l>eiXeiv t,rjv Xeyovres, [J'T] iJLera^rjvaL deXovras eis 
ra Trap' avrols eOq, rrpog ovg GOjd-qooixevoi Trapetcrf 
Ste^aXXov re (f)apfjLaKeag etvac Xeyovreg Kal KcoXvras 
rod 'PcD/xatcDV TrepiyeveadaL.^ ra^v Se ro ttXtjOos 
iTTeidero rats tow Xeyofievcov rrpog X^-P''^ avrolg 

150 TnOavorrjGLV dTrarajpLevoL. TTU^o/xevo? Se Trepl rov- 
rcov iyoj ttciXlv rov 8rjp.ov dveSiSaorKOV pbrj Selv 
hiojKeodai rovg Karacfivyovrag Trpog adrovg, rov Se 
cf)Xvapov ri^g rrepl rcov (f)apfJLdKwv alnag Siecrvpov, 
OVK dv rooavrag p,vpiabag arpanajrajv Poj/xatous' 
Xeyojv rpe(j)€Lv, el Oid cf)apiJLaK€OJV^ rjv vlkov rovg 

151 TToXejJLLOvg. ravra Xeyovrog ep^ov rrpog oXiyov /xev 
iTTeidovro, TrdXcv 8 dvaxcopijcravreg vtto rojv ttovt]- 
pwv i^-qpe6it,ovro Kara rdjv fJb€yLGrdva)V, Kal TTore 
fied^ ottXcov eTTL rrjv ot/ctav avrcov rrjv iv Taptx^a 

152 iTrfjXdov chg dvaiprjGovreg . eSetcra S eyoj rrvdo- 
puevog [JLTj rod p^voovg reXog Xa^ovrog dverrl^arog 

153 y^viqr ai rolg Karacjivyelv elg avrr]v diXovoiv. rrap- 
€yev6p.7]v ovv elg rrjv rcjv fJbeyiGrdvojv OLKLav fxerd 
rivojv irepojVy Kal KXelcrag hiojpvyd re TTOL-qcrag dir ^ 
avrris irrl rrjV Xlixvtjv dyovuav p.€ra7r€pbipdp.€v6g re 
TrXolov Kal Gvv avrolg iji^dg irrl rrjV fJLeOopLov rd)V 
*\7T7n]v6jv SL€7T€paGa, Kal Soijg avrolg rrjv rLp.rjV 
rojv l-rTTTOJV, ov yap rjSvvqdrjv avrovg irrayayeadau 
roiavr-qg yevop^iv-qg rrjg drroSpdaeajg, arreXvaa 
77oAAa TTapaKaXeoag r-qv TrpoGTreaovaav dvdyKYjv 

154: y€vvaLOjg iveyKelv. avrog re p^eydXtog rjxOopL-qv 
^Laadelg rovg tt poo(j)vy6vr ag eKdelvai TraXuv elg 
rqv TToXepilav y dp^eivov he vopaaag rrapd Pco/xatots" 

■•^ Emended: tovs {tov A) 'Viofxalovs Trapayeveadai MSS. 
^ cpaptxaKwv PR. ^ eV MSS. 


THE LIFE, 149-154 

that the noble vassals of the king, who had come to 
me," ought not to live if they refused to conform to 
the customs of those with whom they had sought 
refuge ; they also falsely accused them of being 
sorcerers who made it impossible to defeat the 
Romans. Deluded by specious assertions designed to 
catch their ear, the people readily believed them to 
be true. On hearing of this, I again ^ impressed upon 
the community that such refugees ought to be free 
from persecution ; and ridiculed the absurdity of the 
charge of sorcery by remarking that the Romans 
would not maintain so vast an army if they could 
defeat their enemies by enchantments. My words 
had a temporary effect ; but, after their departure, 
their passions were again aroused against the nobles 
by their villainous advisers, and on one occasion they 
made an armed assault on their house in Tarichaeae, 
intending to kill them. On being informed of this I 
feared that, if so abominable a crime were committed, 
the place would be rendered untenable as an asylum 
for would-be refugees. So I went with some others 
to the residence of the nobles, locked it up, made a 
canal leading from the house ^ to the lake, summoned 
a boat, and, embarking with them, crossed over to 
the frontiers of the district of Hippos.'^ I paid them 
the price of their horses, which the conditions of our 
flight made it impossible for me to bring, and so 
took my leave, earnestly entreating them to bear 
their hard fate with fortitude. I was myself deeply 
distressed at being driven to expose these refugees 
once more on enemy soil ; but I thought it better 

« Qf. § 112. ^ § 113. 

" Presumably close to the water. 

'^ A Greek town of Decapolis, just outside the frontier of 
King Agrippa's territory. 



aTToOavelv avrovg, et crvfiTreaoL, jxaXkov rj Kara 
r-qv lii'qv -^ajpav. ol b dpa ^LeGojdrjGav ovv- 
€XOJp'r](J€V yap avrols /SacrtAeus" "AypiTTTras' ra 
'qjiaprqiiiva. /cat ra fxev rrepi eKeivovs rovr ku')(€ 
TO reXos. 

155 (32) Ot Se Tr]v tojv T LJ^epiiow ttoXiv KaroLKovvres 
ypd(f)ovGLV TTpos rov ^aatAea TrapaKaXovvres Tre/xj/fai 
h-uvapLiv TTjV (f)vXd^ovGav avrdw ttjv -x^ajpav deXeiv 
yap avrqj TrpoGrLdeadai. KaKeivoj p.€V raur e- 

156 ypa(f)OV. d(f)LK6pL€vov he jxe rrpos avrovg TrapeKdXovu 
rd TelxT] KaraGKevaLeiv airrdlg oj? V7T6GX'q[ji'qv' 
TjKiqKoeLGav 8e rds Tapi-)(eas rjSr] Tereiy^LGdai. 
KaravevGas otjv iy oj Kal rrd-vra rd Trpos ttjv OLKoho- 
jjiLav 7rapaGK€vaGdpL6vo£ rov? dp)(LreKrovag eKeXevov 

157 evepyelv. p.erd he rpir-qv rjjjLepav et? Taptx^oLS 
drrepxopLevov pLov, rrjs Ti^epidhos dTrexovGas Grdhua 
rpiaKOvra, Gwe^iq nvds ^Pajpuaiow LTTTrels ov nop- 
pojdev rrjs rroXeojs ohoLTTopovvras 6(j)6rjvaL, ot ho^av 
rrapeG^ov rr^v rrapa rod j^aGiXeajs hdvap.iv TjKeiv. 

158 evOeoj? yovv els jiev rov /SacrtAea p.erd ttoXXojv 
eTTaivojv -q^ieoav (j)OJvds, /car' e/xou he ^XaGcjjrjpbovs. 
Kal imhpapidjv rig dnT\yyeiXev /xot rr\v hidvoiav 

159 avrCwy ws d(f)LGraGdat pLov hceyvdjKaGLv. iyoj h 
dKOVGa? irapdxOiqv p.ev G(f)6hpa' rovs yap OTrXlras 
ervxov eK row Tapcxedw IttI rds avrdw OLK-qoeis 
dcj^eiKOJS hid rd rrjv emovGav rjpLepav Ga^^o,rov 
vrrapxeLV ov ydp e^ovXopL-qv vtto rov GrpariojTLKOV 
TrX'qdovs ivoxXeloOai rods ev rals TapLX^ais. 

160 OGaKLs yovv ev avrals hterpc^ov ovhe rijs Trepl ro 
GOjpLa (f)vXaK'qs e7TOiovp.'qv rrpovoiav, rrelpav Trapa 
rojv evoiKOVvrcjJv rrjs Trpos f-ie Trior eojs AajScov 

161 TToXXdKis ' piovovs S' exojv Trepl epLavrov errrd rd)V 

THE LIFE, 154-161 

that they should perish, if such destiny awaited them, 
under Roman hands than within my own province. 
After all they escaped, obtaining pardon for their 
errors from King Agrippa. So ended this episode. 

(32) The citizens of Tiberias now wrote ^ to the Revolt of 
king, requesting him to send some troops to protect ^vhidr^' 
their territory, as they desired to attach themselves declares for 
to him. Such was their letter to him ; while they 
asked me, on my coming among them, to build walls 
for them in fulfilment of my promise,* having heard 
that Tarichaeae had already been fortified. I agreed 
and, having made all preparations for building, 
ordered the foremen to take the work in hand. 
Three days later, however, as I was on the road to 
Tarichaeae, which is thirty furlongs distant from 
Tiberias, some Roman cavahy happened to be seen 
on the march not far from the town ; this created an 
impression that the king's troops were approaching. 
Instantly there was an outburst of shouts ; the king 
was loudly applauded, curses were heaped upon my 
head. I was informed of their intended defection 
by one who ran off to me from the town. The news 
filled me with alarm ; for I had dismissed my soldiers 
from Tarichaeae to their homes because, the next day 
being the Sabbath, I desired that the Tarichaeans 
should be spared any annoyance from the presence of 
the military. Indeed, whenever I had my quarters 
there, I took no precautions even for my personal 
security, having received so many proofs of the loyalty 
of the inhabitants.'' My present company com- 

« With this narrative cf. B. ii. 632 ff. " § 141. 

* An instance of lack of ordinary precautions has been 
given in §§ 132 fF., on which occasion, however, little "loyalty " 
was shown ! 



ottXltwv Kal rov£ cjyiXovs rjTropovv o Trpd^oj. /.tera- 
TTeiXTTeoOai yap ttjv ip^rji' SiJvapLLv 8ta ro \r\y€iv 
jjSr] TTjv iv€(7ra)aav rjpLepav ovk iSoKcpLa^ov owSe 
yap dcfyiKOfi^vqs avrrjs ei's" rrjv iTTiovaav orrXa 
Xa^elv <7)y>/ kcoXvovtcdv rjfjbdg tojv vopLcov, kolv 

162 /xeyaA?] ns iTreiyetv dvdyK'q Sokt]. el Se rols 
T apf)(€(l)rais Kai rols Trap avrols ^evois €ttl- 
Tpeipa.LfjLi TTjv TToXiv SLap7TdL,€Lv , iojpojv ovx Ikojvovs 
iaofxevovs, ttjv 8 eai^y VTrepOeaiv icopojv fiaKpo- 
rdrrjv (jyOriueuOai yap Kal ttjv rrapd ^aoiXiajs 
hTJvap.iv d(f)LKop.evqv, Kal iKTreaecGOaL rrjs TToXeojg 

163 (hofJLrjV. €^ovX€v6iir]v ovv UTpar-qyrjp.ari )(prja6aL 
TivL Kar avTOJV. 7Tapa)(prjp,a St) tovs TriGrordrovs 
TOW (hlXojv rals TTvXai? row Tapix^djv ImariqGas 
(fjvXd^ovras p^er a(j(/)aAetas' tovs e^teVat^ deXovras 
Kai Toijs TrpojTovs TOJV OLKOJV TTpoGKaXeadpLevoSy 
avTcov eKaoTov iKeXevaa KadeXK'uoavTa ttXoIov 
ip.^avTa cruverrayopevov tov KV^epvTjTTjv eVccr^ai 

164: piOL rrpos ttjv Ti^eptecoy ttoXlv. Kal avros Se /xera 
T<ji)V (f)LXcx)V Kal tojv ottXitojv, ovs ecjjTjV irrrd tov 
dpiOpov etvat, ipL^ds euXeov ettI ttjv Ti^epidSa. 

165 (33) Tij^epLels Se ttjv rrapd tov ^aoiXeoJS Sui^a^ty 
OJS eyvojuav ovx VKOvaav avrols, ttXolojv Se rrjv 
XtpLvi'^v Trdaav ideaGavro TrXrjprj, heioavres Trepl rfj 
TToXeL Kal KararrXayevres oJS eTn^arcov nX-qpeis 

166 €LvaL veas,^ jxeraridevraL rds yvcvpas. puipavres 
ovv ra orrXo. pLerd yvvaiKOJV Kal TralSajv vTrrjvriat,ov, 
TToAAas" /xer' irraivojv els e/xe ^ojvds dcjjiivres, 
€LKa^ov yap ov TrpoTreTTVcjdai pie ttjv Sidvotav avrojv, 

167 Kai TTapeKdXovv (jieiGauOai rrjs rroXeojs. iyoj Se 

^ 9)v inserted by Holwerda. 
^ So the edit'w prinreps : e^dvai .mss. 


THE LIFE, 161-167 

prising only seven soldiers and some friends, I was 
at a loss what to do. I was reluctant to recall my 
disbanded force, because the day was already far 
spent ; and even had they come, it would have been 
impossible for them to bear arms on the morrow, 
such action being forbidden by our laws,^ however 
urgent the apparent necessity. If, on the other 
liand, I were to permit the Tarichaeans and their 
resident aliens to sack Tiberias, I foresaw that their 
numbers would be insufficient and action on my part 
would be seriously delayed ; the king's troops would 
have entered ahead of me, and I expected to be 
repulsed from the town. I determined, therefore, 
to have recourse to a ruse. Without a moment's 
delay I posted the friends in whom I placed most 
confidence at the gates of Tarichaeae, to keep a 
strict v/atch on any persons desiring egress. I then 
summoned the heads of families and ordered each of 
them to launch a vessel, bring the steersman with 
them, and follow^ me to Tiberias. I myself, with 
my friends and the seven soldiers already mentioned, 
then embarked and set sail for that city. 

(S3) The Tiberians, when they understood that no Josepims 
troops from the king had arrived and saw the whole ?^voit by' 
lake alive with shipping, were alarmed for the city, a mse : the 
and, terrified in the belief that the vessels were fully 
manned, changed their plans. Throwing down their 
arms they came out, with wives and children, to 
meet me, and, not imagining that I had got wind of 
their intentions, showered encomiums upon me and 
besought me to spare the city. On nearing Tiberias 

* i.e. the oral law ; cf. 1 Mace. ii. 34 ff. 

^ Text doubtful : for elj^at ueas MW read eUi^ at vrjes, 



ttXtjglov yevofievos ayKvpos /tev en TToppoj rrj? yrjs 
eKeXevov ^aXeodai rovs KV^epvqrag vrrep rod fxr] 
KardSrjXa ro?? Ti^epievGLV elvai ra TrXola K€va 
Twv em^arojv ovra, TrXr^oiaGas 8 avros ev tlvl 
ttXoloj KarepLepLcfioijL-qv avrcov rrjv dvoiav,^ Kal on 
brj ovrojs e-ux^peXs elev rrdo-qg SiKala? dvev Trpoi^a- 

168 creaj? i^Laraadai rrjg rrpos fJi€ Tnareaj?. djp.oX6yovv 
S' €LS ye" TO XoLTTov avToZ? GvyyvcooeadaL ^e^aiojs, 
el 7r6iJLip€Lo.v Se/ca rod TrXrjOovg rrpoearcnr as. vtt- 
aKOVddvrojv 5' irolfjbws Kal Trepufjdvrcov dvhpas ovs 
rrpoeiTTOv y iix^i^duas drriXvov els Tapt^^ea? (f}vXaxOrj- 

169 (S-i) To) urparriyqiiari he rovrcp rrjv ^ovXtjv 
TTo.oav Kar^ oXiyov? Xa^ow els r-qv Trpoeiprjfieviqv 
TToXiv Kal fjber avrow rovs ttoXXovs rod SrjfjLov 
Trpojrovs dvSpas ovk eXarrovs eKeivojv ovras 

170 SieTTeii^dfirjv. ro Se ttXt^Oos, ojs elSov els olov 
KaKcov rjKOVGL pLeyeOos, rrapeKaXovv fie rov alriov 
rrjs Grdaeojs rip^ajprjaaadai. \\Xelros S tjv ovopia 

171 rovroj, dpaavs re Kal TTpoTTerrjs veavias- eyoj 8 
drroKrelvai puev ov^ oglov rjyovpievos opLocfivXov 
dvSpa, KoXdGai 8' dvd.yK'qv e)(^a>v, row Trepl e/xe 
Ttvt GOJpLarocf)vXdK<jov Ar]ovel rrpoGera^a Trpo- 
eXQovri Koipai rod KAelrov rrjv erepav row y(^eLpa)v. 

172 heiGavros Se rod KeXevGOevros els roaodro ttXtjOos 
TTpoeXdelv piovov, rrjv heiXiav rod orpariwrov pur) 
^ovX'qdels KardSrjXov yeveGdau rols Ti^epiedGiv, 
avrov l^elrov (fycovTjGas " eTretSr] Kal d^tos," elTTOv, 
" VT^dpyeis dpL(j)orepas rds x^'^P^^ arro^aXelv ovrcos 
d^dpiGros els ep.e yevopuevos, yevod Gavrod 
Sr^pLOGLos,^ P'T] Kal aTTeidriGas p(€tpoya ripbojpiav 

173 VTTOGXIIS'" '^od Se rrjV erepav avroj Gvyx^^p^croL^ 

THE LIFE, 167-173 

I ordered the pilots to cast anchor at some distance 
from the land, in order to conceal from the Tiberians 
the absence of any marine force on board the vessels. 
I myself approached the shore with one ship and 
severely reprimanded the people for their folly and 
readiness to abandon their allegiance to me without 
any just excuse whatever. As to the future, however, 
I promised that they might rely on my pardon if 
they would send me ten of their leaders. Promptly 
accepting this proposal they sent me the men whose 
names I mentioned first ; these I put on board and 
dispatched to Tarichaeae to be kept under arrest. 

(3^) By this ruse I made prisoners, in batches, of Punishment 
the whole council, and had them conveyed to Tari- ringleader, 
chaeae, along with most of the leading commoners, 
who numbered as many again. Seeing the wretched 
plight to which they were reduced, the people now 
urged me to take measures against the author of the 
sedition, a rash and headstrong youth named Cleitus. 
Deeming it impious to put a compatriot to death, 
yet imperatively necessary to punish him, I ordered 
Levi, one of my bodyguard, to step forward and cut 
off one of his hands. The man, notwithstanding 
these orders, was afraid to advance alone into such 
a crowd, whereupon, wishing to screen the soldier's 
cowardice from the Tiberians, I called up Cleitus and 
said : " For such base ingratitude to me you deserve 
to lose both hands. Act as your own executioner, 
lest, if you refuse, a worse punishment befall you." 
To his urgent request to spare him one hand I 

^ Emended {cf. e.g. §§ 323, 353) : ayvoLav mss. 
2 Niese : re mss, ^ v.l. 8rmios. 

VOL. J F 65 


TToXXa heoixevov [jl6Xl£ Karevevaa. KaKelvos d- 
cr/xevo? VTzep rod fj^rj rd? ^vo x^^P^^ drro^aXelv 
Xa^ojv fiaxoLLpav KOTrrei rrjv apLorepav iavrov. 
KOI rovTO TTjV crraGLV eTravoev. 

174 (35) Ti^epielg Se, ch? elg rag TapLx^as dcbiKoiJLrjv, 
yvovres ttjv Grparijytav fj Kar avrow expT^GroLpL'qv, 
drredaviialov on X^P'-^ cf)6vojv eTravaa r-qv ayvcopLO- 

175 avvrjV avrow. iycb Se rovg Ik ttjs elpKrrjs p-era- 
TTep^ipdpevog rod ttXtjOov? row Tt^cptccDV, rjv Se 
cruv avrols 'lovaro? /cat o rrarrjp avrov HtGros, 
GVvSeiTTVovs iTTOL-qGaprjv, Kai rrapa rrjv eGnaGLV 
eXeyov on rrjV 'Pojpalow hwaptv ovb avrog 
dyvoo) TTaGow dtaSepovGav, Giyorrjv p^evroL rrepl 

176 avTi]s hid rovs XrjGrds. Koi avrols he ravrd 
GVve^ovXevov TTOielv rov emr'qoeLov TrepipLevovGi 
Katpov Kal prj SvGavaGX^Telv ipbol Grparrjyoj- 
/XT^Sevo? ydp avrovs irepov hvvrjGeGdai pahiojs 

177 imeLKOVS opoiojs rvx^lv. rov \ovGrov he Kal 
VTrepLLpLVTjGKOv on rrpoGdev i] pie rrapayeveGdac eK 
rcov 'lepoGoXvpbOJV ol TaXtXaloi rdheX(f)ov rds 
X^lpas drroKoipecav avrov rrpo rod rroXepiov rrXa- 
Grow avroj ypapparojv KaKovpyiav erriKaXeGavre'S , 
Kal on perd rrjV dvaxojpTjGiv rrjV ^lXlttttov 
TapaXlrai rrpos Ba^vXojVLOv? GraGidl^ovres dv- 
eXoiev y^dp-qra, Gvyyev-qs h fjv ovros rod ^iXirrTTOV, 

178 Kal ojs 'It^ctow rov dheXcfyov avrov, dvhpa rrj? 
dheX(f)-qs ^Iovgtov, oj p.o(j)p6voJS^ KoXdGeiav. ravra 
rrapd rrjv eGriaGiv huaXexO^ls rols rrepl rov ^YovGrov 
eojdev eKeXevGa rrdvra? rrjg (fyvXaKrj? drroXvOrjvai. 

179 (36) Ylpo he rovrow Gvve^r] rov 'la/ct/xou OtA- 
LTTTTov dTTeXSelv eK TapaXa rod (fypovplov roLavrrjs 

THE LIFE, 173-179 

grudgingly consented ; * at which, to save himself 
the loss of both, he gladly drew his sword and struck 
off his left hand. His action brought the sedition to 
an end. 

(o5) The Tiberians, discovering, on my arrival at TheTiberian 
Tarichaeae, the trick which I had played upon them, released^ 
were amazed at the manner in which I had checked 
their arrogance without bloodshed. I now sent for 
my Tiberian prisoners, among whom were Justus and 
his father Pistus, and made them sup with me. 
During the entertainment I remarked that I was 
well aware myself of the unrivalled miglit of the 
Roman arms, but, on account of the brigands, kept 
my knowledge to myself. I advised them to do the 
same, to bide their time and not to be intolerant of 
my command, as they would not easily find another 
leader as considerate as myself. I further reminded 
Justus that, before I came from Jerusalem the 
Galilaeans had cut off his brother's hands on a charge 
of forging letters prior to the outbreak of hostilities ; 
also how the people of Gamala, after Philip's depart- 
ure, in an insurrection against the Babylonians, slew 
Chares, Philip's kinsman, and savagely murdered his 
brother Jesus, husband of the sister of the man I was 
addressing.^ Such was the nature of my conversation 
at table with Justus and his companions. In the 
morning I gave orders that all my prisoners should 
be discharged. 

(36) Some time before the revolt of Tiberias, 

Philip, son of Jacimus, had left the fortress of Gamala 

" The narrative, as here told, is confused and ridiculous ; 
the parallel account in B. ii. 642 if. is consistent. 
^ For the events referred to cf. §§ 179, 186 below. 

■*■ Naber : au)(ppbvws or cFdxppovos 3iss. 



180 air las yevofievq?. OtAtTTTTo? Trvdoyievos jxedeGravai 
jjiev Ovapov vno rod ^acjiXeajg XypLTTTra, hudSoxov 
8e a(j>i'xBai MoStoy^ A'lkovov avhpa (f)iXov avrw Kat 
crvvqOrj TrdXai, ypdcbeu rrpog rovrov rag KaO" lavrov 
Tu;^a? aTTayyeXXow Kal rrapaKaXow rd Trap avrov 
7T€iJL(h9evra ypdfifjiara Trpos rovg ^aonXeag aTTO- 

181 crretAat. Kal MoStos"^ Se^dp^evos rds imaroXas 
ixdp'q Gchobpa, uojteodai rov ^lXlttttov i^ avrow 
imyvovs, Kal Trpos rovg ^aatAea? eTrep^ipe ra 

182 ypdpLp.ara rrepl ^ripvrov ovras . 6 8e ^aaiXevg 
'AyptTrTras" ojs eyvoj ifj€vhrj rrjv rrepl ^iXiTTrrov 
4)rjjXTjV yevopbivrjV, Xoyos yap SirjXdev ojg arparrjyoir] 
row 'lofSatojy irrl rov rrpos 'PojpLalovs TToXepLOV, 
eTTcpbipev LTTTTels rovs TraparrepLipovras rov OlXlttttov. 

183 Kal 7Tapay€v6pL€vov durrdterai re (jaXocfypovajg rolg 
re 'Pojp.aiOJv -qyefiouLV irredeiKvvev on di] ^lXlttttos 
ovro? eunv Trepl ov Sie^fjeL Xoyog ojg 'Poj/Aatojy 
arroGrdvrog. KeXeveL h avrov LTTTrels rivas aya- 
Xa^ovra Bdrrov els Tdp.aXa ro-Spovpiov Tropevdrjvai, 
rovs olKeiovs avrqj Trdvras eKeWev i^d^ovra Kat 
rovs ^a^vXojVLOVs els rrjV Baravatav rraXiv airo- 

184 Karaar-quovra. nap-qyyeiXe 8e /cat Trdaav ttoit]- 
oaadai Trpovoiav vrrep rov pLTj yevecrdat rtva vea>- 
repicrpLOV Trapd row vtttjkoojv . ^iXirrTTOS p^ev ovv, 
ravra rov ^auiXeojs emarelXavros , eur:evhe ttoltj- 
aojv d rrpoaera^ev. 

185 (37) ^IcvGTjTTOs S' o^ rrjs larplvrjs ttoXXovs 
veaviGKovs dpacreis rrporpeipapuevos avrqj ovvapa- 
oO ai Ko.l erravaGrds rots iv Fa/xaAa Trpojro ts 

1 ^iovddiop R; c/. §§ 61. lU. 
2 Moj/ooios R. ^ 5' 6 Naber : de yiss. 


THE LIFE, 180-185 

under the followins; circumstances." On hearing Philip ben- 
that Varus had been deposed by King Agrippa and joins 
that his old friend and comrade, Modius Aequus, ^s^PPa- 
had come as his successor, Philip wrote to the latter, 
relating his recent experiences and requesting him 
to forward to the king and queen the letters which 
he had previously transmitted.^ Modius, delighted 
at receiving an epistle which assured him of Philip's 
escape, dispatched the letters to their majesties, who 
were then in the neighbourhood of Berytus.^ King 
Agrippa, on learning that the current rumour con- 
cerning Philip was false — it was commonly said that 
he had taken command of the Jews for the war 
with the Romans — sent a body of horse to escort 
him to Berytus. On his arrival, he gave him a warm 
greeting and presented him to the Roman officers 
as the identical Philip about whom reports were 
circulating that he had revolted from Rome. He 
then instructed him to lose no time in returning 
with a body of cavalry to the fortress of Gamala, to 
bring all his friends out of that place, and to reinstate 
the Babylonians in Batanaea ^ ; charging him at the 
same time to take every precaution to prevent 
insurrection on the part of his subjects. These 
royal commands Philip hastened to execute. 

(37) [Not long after this] ^ Josephus, the midwife's Gamaia 
son, induced a number of adventurous youths to join ^gr^ipL^^'^"^ 
him, and, assaulting the magistrates ^ of Gamala, 

" This digression gives the sequel to the history narrated 
in §§46-61 above. 

" Cf. § 4-8. " Beirut. 

^ On the origin of the colony of Babylonian Jews in 
Batanaea see note on § 54 above. 

* There is no note of time in the Greek ; the sequence of 
events may be inferred from § 177. ^ " Head-men." 


eTTeiOev avrovs dc/^LOTaaOai rod ^acrtAeaj? Kal 
dvaXaf^elv rd orrXa, ojs Sia rojjrojv ttjv iXevOeptav 
aTToXrji/jofMevovg. Kac nvcis fjuev ij^idoavro, rov? 
Se {jLTj GwapeGKOfxevovs avrwv rais yvoS/xats" 

186 avTjpovv. KTELvovGL Se Kal ^dprjra, Kal /xer' 
avTOV riva tow avyyevcov lr]Govv Kal 'loucrrof Se 
Tov Ti^epLeojg aSeXcfyov^ dvelXov, Kadojs rjSr] Trpo- 
eLTTOjjLev. ypd(f)0VGL Se Kal rrpos fie TrapaKaXovvres 
TTepuijjai Kal SvvapLiv avrois ottXitojv Kal rovs dva- 
GTi^Govras avTCJV rfj TToXec Tei}(iq. Kdyci) Trpds 

187 ovberepov avr^irrov (Lv rj^lojGav. dc^tcrrarat Se 
rod fjo.GiXeoj£ Kal rj TavXavlrL£ X^P^ H'^XP'' f<(^l^f}? 
HoXvfJLTjg. HeXevKeta Se Kal Ha)ydvrj (f)VG€L Kojaatg 
oxypojrdraLS qjKohofjbrjGa r€LXTj, rds t€ Kara rrjv 
dvoj TaXiXaiav Kojfias, Kal Trdvv Trerpajheis ouaa?, 

188 ereix^Ga TrapaTrXrjGLOjg- ovofMara S' avralg 'la/xyta 

AfjLrjpojd Wxapd^Tj. oJXvpojGa Se Kal rds iv rfj 
Kara) FaAtAata, TToXeig fjuev Tap^x^^S Ti^epidSa 
^€7r(f)0jpLV, Kojpias 8e ^Ap^-qXojv GTrrjXaiov, Br^p- 
Gov^al HeXapbrjv IwraTzara Ka(f)apd6 tKoj^o? 
Hwyavat Yla(f)df Kal rd ^Ira^vptov opos. el? 
ravra? /cat gltov arredep.'qv ttoXvv Kal orrXa rrpos 
aG(j)dXeLav rrjv fxerd ravra. 

189 (^^) ^ojdvvij Se rep rod Arjovel rd /car' ep.ov 
fJUGog 7TpoGT]-u^ero ^apews (j^ipovn rrjV ijJLTjv €V- 
7T pay Lav. TrpoOep^evos ovv Travrws eKirohcov pie Troiij- 
GaGdai rfj pLev avrov rrarplhi rol? TiGxaXois Kara- 

190 GK€vdieL relxT], rdv dSeXcfyov 8e Hlp^ajva Kal rdv 
rod ^LGEVva ^Iwvdd-qv <pL€d^ >' OTrXircov Trepl 
CKarov €Lg lepoGoXvpua Tre/XTret rrpds rdv rod 

^ Most Mss. read abeKtprjv. ^ Inserted by Niese. 


THE LIFE, 185-190 

brought pressure to bear on them to revolt from 
the king and take up arms, with the prospect of 
thereby regaining tlieir independence. Some they 
forced into comphance ; those who declined to 
acquiesce in their views they put to death. Among 
others, as already mentioned, they slew Chares and 
one of his kinsmen, Jesus, and the brother of Justus 
of Tiberias." To me they wrote, asking me to send 
them troops and workmen to repair the town walls ; 
neither of these requests did I refuse. The region 
of Gaulanitis, as far as the village of Solyma, like- 
wise revolted from the king. I erected w-alls at Josephus 
Seleucia and Sogane, villages with very strong Galilee. 
natural defences, and provided similar protection for 
certain villages in Upper Galilee, also in very rugged 
surroundings, named Jamnia, Ameroth,^ and Acha- 
rabe. In Lower Galilee I fortified the cities of 
Tarichaeae, Tiberias, and Sepphoris, and the villages 
of the Cave of Arbela, Beersubae, Selame, Jotapata, '' 
Kapharath, fKomus, Soganae, Papha "^t and Mount 
Tabor. These places I stocked with ample supplies 
of corn and arms for their future security. 

(38) Meanw^hile, the hatred borne me by John, Attempt of 
son of Levi, who was aggrieved at my success, was oSiafa 
growing more intense, and he determined at all costs to have 
to have me removed. Accordingly, after fortifying superseded. 
his native town of Gischala, he dispatched his brother 
Simon and Jonathan, son of Sisenna, with about a 
hundred armed men, to Jerusalem, to Simon, son of 

" There is some confusion here. In §§ 177 f. only two 
persons are named : Chares, kinsman of Philip, and Jesus, 
brother of Chares and brother-in-law of Justus. 

^ Or Meroth {cf. B. ii. 573). 

' Text corrupt {cf. B. ibid.). 



Fa/LtaAtT^Aou Hifjiowa, TrapaKaXeaovra? avrov rreiuai 
TO KOLvov row ^lepocroXvfJLLTOJv TTjv d^eAo- 
fjbevov? ijJLe row TaXiXaicov avroj ilj'q(l)LGaa6aL r-qv 

191 i^ovalav rovrojv. 6 8e Hifjucov ovros rjv TioAecos" 
fjL€v 'lepoGoXvixcov, yevovs Se G(f)6dpa XafiTrpov, 
rrjs Se ^apLoaiOJV alpeueco'Sy ol Trepi ra irarpia 
vopLLfJba hoKovuLv row aXXojv d/<:pt/3eta hia^epeiv . 

192 ''7^' S' ovros dvTjp rrXrjprjS Gvveaeojs Kai Xoyiap^ov 
hwdyLevos re Trpdyp^ara kukoj? Keifieva (fypovqcreu 
rfj lavrov htopOoj Gaud at, (j)iXos re rraXaios rep 
'lojawTj Koi GVvriB-qs, rrpos €jLte 8e rore hia<^opojs 

193 ^^X^^ ' ^^idpievos ovv rrjv vrapd/cAryatv eTreidev 
rovs apxt'epels "Avavou kol ^Itjgovv rov rod TafiaXd 
nvds re row rrj? avrris GrdGeojs eKeivois^ eKKOTTretv 
fjLe (^vopLevov Kal jjL'q rrepiLbelv eTrl ixrjKLGrov av^rj- 
Oevra So^tjs, GWOtGeiv avrols Xeyojv el rrjs FaAt- 
Xaias dcf)aLpedeLT]v . firj /xeAAety he napeKdXei rovs 
TTepi rov "Avavov, firj Kat (f)daGas yvowai p.era 

194 TToXXris eTTeXOoj rfj rroXei hvvdpbeojs . 6 fxev 2i/xcov 
ravra ovve^ovXevev , 6 be dp^i-epevs "Avavos ov 
pahiov elvai ro epyov aTrecfyaivev ttoXXovs yo.p rojv 
dp)(^Lepeojv kol rov ttXtjOovs TrpoeGrojras fxaprvpelv 
on KaXojs eyoj Grparrjyoj, TToielGdai he Kariqyopiav 
dvhpos Kad' ov iiTjhev Xeyeiv hvvavrai h'lKaiov 
cf)avXojv epyov eivai. 

195 (39) St/xoji^ 8' ojs TjKOVGev ravra Trapd rov 
Avdvov, GLCorrdv p.ev eKeivovs rj^cajGev jiiqh els 

TToXXovs eK(l)epeLV rovs Xoyovs avrow TrpovorjGeGdac^ 
yap avros e(j)aGKev Iva Odrrov iieraGraOeirjv eK rrjs 
TaXiXalas. rrpoGKaXeodp^evos he rov dheX(f)ov rod 

^ Bekker : rrjs ai'rQv (xrdaeijs iKfivovs MSS. 
^ Niese : Trpovo-qaaodaL mss. 


THE LIFE, 190-195 

Gamaliel, to entreat him to induce the national 
assembly of Jerusalem to deprive me of the command 
of Galilee and to vote for his appointment to the 
post. This Simon was a native of Jerusalem, of 
a very illustrious family, and of the sect of the 
Pharisees, who have the reputation of being un- 
rivalled experts in their country's laws." A man highly 
gifted with intelligence and judgement, he could by 
sheer genius retrieve an .unfortunate situation in 
affairs of state. He was John's old and intimate friend, 
and, at the time, was at variance with me. On receiv- 
ing this application he exerted himself to persuade 
the high-priests Ananus and Jesus, son of Gamalas, 
and some others of their party to clip my sprouting 
wings and not suffer me to mount to the pinnacle of 
fame. He observed that my removal from Galilee 
would be to their advantage, and urged them to act 
without delay, for fear that I should get wind of their 
plans and march with a large army upon Jerusalem. 
Such was Simon's advice. In reply, Ananus, the 
high-priest, represented the difficulties of the action 
suggested, in view of the testimonials from many of 
the chief priests and leaders of the people to my 
capacity as a general ; adding that to accuse a 
man against whom no just charge could be brought 
was a dishonourable proceeding. 

(39) On hearing this speech of Ananus, Simon 
implored the embassy to keep to themselves and not 
divulge what had passed at the conference ; asserting 
that he would see to it that I was speedily super- 
seded in Galilee. Then calling up John's brother 

" Or " in the rules of their fathers." The vbixLjxa are the 
traditional rules (lialakoth, etc.) which grew up round the 
Law (vo/xos). 



lojavvov 7TpoGera^€V Tre/jbTTew Sojpea? rolg rrepl rov 
" Avavov raxo- yo.p ovrojg ecfyrj TTeiaeiv avrovs 

igQ fxeraOeadai rag yvcofiag. Kal reXos enpa^ev 6 
Hifjiow o rrpovOero' 6 yap "Avavog Kal ol avv aura) 
rots' XPVH''^^^^ ^Lacfydapevres GVVTidevrai rrjs FaAt- 
Aatas" eK^aXelv p^e, p,rj6ev6s aXXov rcov Kara rrjv 
TToXiv TOVTO yivojuKovTog . KOI hxj eSo^EV avroTg 
irepbTTeiv avhpag Kara yevog p^ev Sta^epovra?, tj] 

197 77atSeta 8' opuoLovs. rjGav 8' avrow ol piev S-qpboriKol 
Sijo, ^lojvdOrjs Kal Wvavlag, ^apiGaToi tyjv alpeaiv, 
o §£ rpiros ^la)L,apos^ lepariKov yevovs, OaptcraLOS" 
Acat avTog, Hip^cov S' e^ dpxi^^peow veojraros 


ttXtjOos row VaXiXaiujv TTvOeaOai nap^ avrcJov rrjv 
auriav 8t' tjv ipie (fiiXovGLV el 8e (jiaZev on rroXecas 
eLTjv rijg 'lepocToXvjJiojVj Kal avrovg i^ eKeivojv 
Xeyeiv VTidp^eiv rovg recraapag, el he 8td rrjv 
epLTreipLav rcbv vopmjv, pirjh^ avrovs dyvoelv kOrj 
ra TTarpia (fyaoKeuv, el S' av Sta ttjv lepojGVViqv 
Xeyoiev dyaTrdv p,e, Kal avrojv drroKpLvecrdaL Svo 
LepeZg V7Tap-)(eLv . 

199 (4-0) Tai}^ VTToOepbevoi rots rrepl rov lojvaOrjV 
reoaapag pLvpuaoag dpyvptov StSoacrty avrolg eK 

200 rcbv SrjpiOGLCov )(pr]pLdra>v. errel he riva VaXiXalov 
r^KOVGO.v, 'It^ctow ovopLa, Trepl avrov rd^LV e^aKo- 
OLOJV OTrXcrajv ey(^eiv, eTTih-qpiovvra rolg \epooo- 
XvpLoig rore, pi.erarrej-Lijjdp.evoL rovrov Kal rpcojv 
pL7]vcJijv ptaOdv hovreg eKeXevov eTreadat rolg Trepi 
rov lojvdOfjv TTeiOapxovvra avrolg, Kal rojv 

^ So (or 'Icod^'apos) § 324 etc. : the :mss. here have Yo^opos 


THE LIFE, 195-200 

he instructed him to send presents to Ananus and 
his friends, as a likely method of inducing them to 
change their minds. Indeed Simon eventually 
achieved his purpose " ; for, as the result of bribery, The plot 
Ananus and his party agreed to expel me from •^"'^'^^'^'^^• 
Galilee, while every one else in the city remained 
ignorant of the plot. The scheme agreed upon was 
to send a deputation comprising persons of different The deputa- 
classes of society but of equal standing in education. Jerusalem. 
Two of them, Jonathan and Ananias, were from the 
lower ranks and adherents of the Pharisees ; the 
third, Jozar, also a Pharisee, came of a priestly 
family ; the youngest, Simon, was descended from 
high priests. Their instructions were to approach 
the Galilaeans and ascertain the reason for their 
devotion to me. If they attributed it to my being 
a native of Jerusalem, they were to reply that so 
were all four of them ; if to my expert knowledge 
of their laws, they should retort that neither were 
they ignorant of the customs of their fathers ; if, 
again, they asserted that their affection was due to 
my priestly office, they should answer that two of 
them were likewise priests. 

(40) After thus prompting Jonathan and his 
colleagues, they presented them with forty thousand 
pieces of silver ^ out of the public funds ; and, on 
hearing that a Galilaean, named Jesus, was staying 
in Jerusalem, who had with him a company of six 
hundred men under arms, they sent for him, gave 
him three months' pay and directed him to 
accompany the party and obey their orders. They 

° Cf. the shorter account in B. ii. 627-9. 
^ If denarii are meant, the sum would be about £1200. 
Perhaps a smaller silver coin is intended. 



ttoXltojv Se rpiaKOGiOLS avhpaaiv SdyTes" apyvpiov 
els rpoS-qv rwv oXcov Trpooira^av aKoXovdeiv rolg 

201 7Tp€G^€Giv. rreiadevTajv ovv avrcov Kat rrpos rr]V 
e^oSov evrpeTTLudevTajv i^rjecrav ol Trepl rov loj- 
vddrjv Gvv TOvroLS, iTrayojievoL kol tov aheX^ov 

202 rod "Icodvvov kol oTrXlrag €Kar6v, XaBovreg ivroXas 
Trapd Tojv Trepupdvrojv, el fiev eKOjv Karadeiix-qv ra 
OTrXa, l^ajvra TTepLTretv els ttjv 'IcpocroAu/xtrajy ttoXlv, 
el 8' dvTLTaaaoLfJbrjv, drroKrelvai pirjSev SeStdra?* 

203 avrcov yap elvai ro TTpourayjxa. eyeypd^eiGav he 
Kal roj \ojavvQ Trpos rov Kar ip^ov TToXep^ov 
eroLjidteadai, rols re He7T(j)ojpLv Kal Td^apa 
KaroLKOVGLV Kal Ti^epLevoiv Trpouerarrov GVfX- 
pba^lav ro) Iwdvvrj Trep^Treiv. 

204 (41) Tavrd /xot rod Trarpos ypdipavros, e^elrre 
he Trpos avrov ^I'qaovs 6 rod Fa/xaAd, row ev avrfj 
rfj ^ovXfj yevojjievojv els, (f)lXos ojv Kal GWTqOrjs 
ep.oi, Gchohpa TTepirjXyrjGa rous" re iroXiras ovrojs 
TTepl ipLe yevop^evovs dxcipLGrovs , eTnyvovs hta 
(f)66vov dvaipeOrjval pLe TrpoGrd^at, Kal rqj rov 
TTarepa hid row ypapLpbdrojv ttoAAci /xe TrapaKaXelv 
d<f)LKeG6aL Trpos avrov TTodelv yap e(/)7] OedGaGdai 

205 rov VLOV Trpo rov reXevrrJGai. ravra hrj Trpos rovs 
(fylXovs eiTrov Kal on jierd rpLrrjV rjpLepav Kara- 
AiTTOjv rrjv ^(^ujpav avrcov els rrjv Trarpiba Tropev- 
GOLf-L-qv. XvTrrj 8' aTravras rovs aKOVGOvras^ 
KaTeG-)(e, napeKaXovv re KXalovres p^rj eyKaraXiTrelv 
avrovs aTroXovp,evovs ei rrjs epLrjs Grpariqyias 

206 aTroGTeprjdelev. ov Kar^avevovros he pbov rats 
LKereiais avrow, dXXd rrepl rrjs epuavrov (f)pov- 
n^ovros Gojrrjplas y heiGavres ol FaAtAatot pb-q 
arreXdovros evKara(f)p6vqroL rols XrjGrals yevoLvro, 

THE LIFE, 200-206 

further requisitioned three hundred citizens to 
follow the deputies, providing money for the main- 
tenance of the whole number. The consent of these 
recruits being obtained and their preparations for the 
journey completed, the party of Jonathan set out 
with them ; John's brother and a hundred regulars 
also accompanied them. They had orders, in the 
event of my volunteering to lay down my arms, to 
send me alive to Jerusalem, but if I offered any 
resistance to kill me regardless of consequences, 
having the weight of their masters' commands 
behind them. They had also WTitten to John to be 
prepared for an attack upon me, and were issuing 
orders to Sepphoris, Gabara, and Tiberias to send 
assistance to John. 

(41) My information reached me in a letter from Josephns 
my father, to M'hom the news was confided by Jesus, nSt Galilee 
son of Gamalas, an intimate friend of mine, who had 
been present at the conference. I was deeply 
distressed, both by the base ingratitude of my 
fellow-citizens, whose jealousy, as I could see, had 
prompted the order to put me to death, and also by 
the earnest request in my father's letter that I 
would come to him, as he longed to see his son 
before his death. I told my friends exactly what 
had happened and of my intention, in three days' 
time, to quit the district and go home. All who 
heard me were overcome with grief and besought 
me, with tears, not to abandon them to the ruin 
which awaited them if deprived of my leadership. 
To these entreaties, out of concern for my own safety, 
I refused to yield ; whereupon the Galilaeans, fearing 
that my withdrawal would leave them an easy prey 

^ KOLKovaouras P, aKovaaura RA, CLKOvouTas MW. 



TTefirrovGLV els r'qv YaXiXalav drraGav rovg Grjfia- 
vovvras rr^v ifjirjv yva)fj,rjv rrepl rrjg dTTaXXayrjs . 

207 rroXXol Se Kal rravraxoOev (TVvq-)(9t]Gav , chs rJKOVGav, 
jjierd yvvaiKow Kal tIkvojv, ov ttoOoj, Sokoj^ iioi, ro) 
TTpos e/i-e fJ^aXXov Tj TO) rrepi avrdw beet rovro 
TTpdrrovres' epiov yap TrapapLevovrog Tietcrecr^at 
KaKov ovhev VTreXdj-iBavov . tjkov ovv iravres et? 
TO /xeya Trehiov iv oj hilrpi^ov 'A(jaj;\;ts' iunv 
ovopba avroj. 

208 (42) Ata Se rrjg vvktos i-Keivq? davpidcnov olov 
dvetpov iOeaadp^-qv. irrel yap els koltyjv erpaTTopb-qv 
8ta rd ypachevra XvTTovpLevog Kal rerapayfievos, 

209 eho^d nva Xeyeiv emGrdvra pLOi' " TravGai r-qv 
ijjvx^v, oj OTjro?, dXydw, Travrog S dTraXXaGGOV 
^o^ov rd ydp XvTTovvra G€ pbeyiGTOv TTOLiqGei Kai 
iv TTaGLV evrvx^^Grarov y KaropddjGeiS S ou pLovov 
ravra, dXXd. Kal TToXXd erepa. pb-q Kdpive Sq, 
pLepbvqGO S' on Kal 'Pa>p,aLOis Set G€ TToXepLrJGaL." 

210 rovTOV St] rov oveipov OeaGdpievos hiaviGTapiai 
Kara^rjvaL TrpodvpLOVfievog els ro TreSiov. rrpos Se 
r-qv ipb-qv oiJjlv irdv ro rrX-qOo? row TaXuXaLCJV, 
TjGav 8' €V avrols yvvaiKes re Kal TralSes, eTTi 
Gropua pLifjavre? eavrovs Kal SaKpdovres iKerevov 
pLTj Grf)ds eyKaraXiTTelv rols TToXepLLOLS, p.-qS dTreXdelv 
eaGavra r-qv ^o'jpav avrd)v evv^piGp^a rols ex^pols 

211 eGopLevTjV . ojs Se rals he'qGeGLv ovk eTTeidov, 
KarrjvdyKaLov dpKOis p^eveiv Trap' eavrols, iXoiSo- 
povvro re rqj b'qpjoj rroXXd row 'lepoGoXv/nrdw ojs 
elpiqveveGdaL rrjV x^'jpav avrojv ovk edwrt. 

212 (43) Tavra St] Kal eTraKovojv avrojv Kal ^XIttojv 
rov irX-qdovs r-qv Kar-q(f)eLav eKXaGQ-qv irpos eXeov, 

1 doKel R. 


THE LIFE, 206-212 

to the brigands, sent messengers throughout Gahlee Kaiiy of 
to announce my intended departure. On hearing of to^iljg*^'^"^ 
this, large numbers assembled from all quarters, with support. 
their wives and children, influenced, I imagine, as 
much by alarm for themselves as by affection for 
myself ; being convinced that while I remained at 
my post no harm would befall them. All flocked to 
the great plain, called the plain of Asochis," in 
which my quarters lay. 

(42) That night I beheld a marvellous vision in my His dream. 
dreams. I had retired to my couch, grieved and 
distraught by the tidings in the letter, when I thought 

that there stood by me one who said : " Cease, man, 
from thy sorrow of heart, let go all fear. That 
which grieves thee now will promote thee to great- 
ness and felicity in all things.^ Not in these present 
trials only, but in many besides, will fortune attend 
thee. Fret not thyself then. Remember that thou 
must even battle with the Romans." Cheered by this 
dream- vision I arose, ready to descend into the plain. 
On my appearance, the whole crowd of Galilaeans, 
which included women and children, flung themselves 
on their faces and with tears implored me not to 
abandon them to their enemies nor, by my departure, 
leave their country exposed to the insolence of their 
foes. Finding entreaties unavailing, they sought 
with adjurations to coerce me to stay with them ; 
bitterly inveighing against the people of Jerusalem 
for not allowing their country to remain in peace. 

(43) With these cries in my ears and the sight of 
the dejected crowd before my eyes, my resolution 
broke down and I was moved to compassion ; I felt 

" Sahel el Buttauf, running E. and W., in the break in the 
hills between Jotapata on the north and Nazareth on the 
south. '' Or perhaps " above all men." 



a^Lov etvai vofiiLajv VTrep roaovrov TrXrjdovs Kal 
TTpoSijXovg KLvhvvov? VTTOfJbeveLV. Karavevco Stj 
fxeveiv, Kal TrevraKLGXiXiovs i^ avrcbv orrXiras 
rjK€iv KeXejJGag k^ovra? eavrols rpocfyas errl rag 

213 OLKrjueis SiacfyrJKa rov? dXXovg. lirei Se ol TTevraKLO- 
X^-XiOi TTapeyivovTo , rovrovg ayaAa^cop Kal rptor- 
XI'Xlov? tov? gvv ifJiavra) GrparLOJTag, LTTTreXs S' 
oySoTjKovra, t7]v TTopeiav €i? XajScoAoj Kcofir^v, 
YlroXe/JLatSos fieQopiov ovcrav, iTTOL-qadfir^v, KOLKel 
rag Swdfieig ovveixov eroiixdteuO ai GKrjTrrofJLevog 

214 cttI tov rrpog TlXaKiSov rroXeiJbov. a^iKero 8' ovros 
fMerd Suo crneLpcov tt€L,ov orrparevpLaros Kal Imreajv 
lXtj? iiids VTTO KeoTtou TaXXov Tre/x^^ets", ty' 
ipLTTpijar] rag KOjpLag row TaXiXaicDv at rrXijaiov 
rjaav IlroXepLatSog. fSaXXop^evov 8' eKelvov )(dpaKa 
TTpo rrjs riroAe/xaecoy TToXeojg ridep^ai Kayoj urparo- 
TTeSoVy rrjg Kwpirjs oaov i^-qKOvra crraStous" d7TO(j)(a)v . 

215 TToXXdKLS p.€v ovv Tag Svvapb€Lg Trporjydyofiev ojg 
elg pidx'Tjy, ttXeov S' ovSev aKpoj^oXcap^wv inpd^a- 
fJLev' 6 yap YlXdKiSog ocrcpTrep iytvojGKev ajrevSovrd 
/xe rrpog p.dxj]V avrog KaraTrXrjrropievog VTreariX- 
XtTO' rrjg p^ivroi nroAe/xatSos" ovk i)(<jjpLC,€ro. 

216 (44') Kara rovrov 8e rov Kaipov dcjiLKopievog 
^lojvdOr^g pi^erd rojv crvpLTrpecr^eajv, (hv e(f)api,€v eK 
row 'lepocroAu/xojy vtto ra)v rrepl HiipLCova Kal 
"Avavoy rov dp)(L€pea TrerrepLcfydaL, XafteZv <p,€>^ 8t 
ivihpag erre^Q-uXevev (fyavepojg yap im-)(€ipelv ovk 

217 eroA/xa. ypd(f)€i 8e rrpog /xe roiavr-qv iTTLGroXrjV 

^lojvddrjg Kal ol gvv avro) Trepbcfydevreg vtto rojv 
'lepoGoXvpLLrojv ^lojarjTTCp x^Lpeiv. rip.€lg vtto rcbv 
iv 'lepoGoXvpiOLg Trpcorcov, aKOVGdvrojv rov drro 

^ ins. ed. pi'inceps, om. mss. 

THE LIFE, 212-217 

that it was right to face even manifest perils for so Josephus 
vast a multitude. So I consented to remain ; and, reinaln^fn^" 
giving orders that five thousand of them were to Galilee. 
join me in arms, bringing their own provisions, I 
dismissed the rest to their homes. When the five 
thousand arrived, I set out with them, the three 
thousand infantry already with me and eighty 
horse, and marched to Chabolo,^ a village on the 
frontiers of Ptolemais, where I kept my forces 
together, feigning to be making preparations for 
an engagement with Placidus. The latter had been 
sent by Cestius Gallus, with two cohorts of infantry * 
and a squadron of horse, to burn the Galilaean villages 
in the neighbourhood of Ptolemais. While he was 
entrenching himself in front of that city, I on my 
side encamped about sixty furlongs from the village 
of Chabolo. On several occasions we led out our 
forces, as for battle, but did not proceed beyond 
skirmishes, because Placidus, in proportion as he 
saw my eagerness for a combat, became alarmed and 
declined it. He did not, however, quit his post at 

(44) At this juncture Jonathan arrived with his Arrival of 
fellow-envoys, who, as I said, had been sent from lem embassy 
Jerusalem by Simon and Ananus the high-priest. "^ Galilee : 
Not venturing to attack me openly, he laid a plot to ence with 
entrap me, writing me the following letter : Josephus. 

" Jonathan and his fellow deputies from 
Jerusalem to Josephus, greeting. The Jerusalem 
authorities, having heard that John of Gischala 

<^ Cabul (Kabul), half-way between the Plain of Asochis 
(§ 207 above) and Ptolemais (Acre). 

VOL. I G 8] 


rtcr;)(aAcov ^lajdvvrjv eTTL^e^ovXevKevaL ooi rroXXaKLS, 
iTr€iJL(f)drjiJL€v eTTirrX-q^ovTes avrw Koi napaiveGOvres 

218 ft? TO XoiTTov VTTaKovetv GOL. ^ovXevaaGOat 8e 
Gvv GOL deXovreg irepl rcnv KOivfj TrpaKrecov Trapa- 
KaXovjJiev 7]K€LV Bdrrov irpos rjfxds p^r] pbera rroXXajv 
oz38e yap rj kcojitj Swatr' av GrparLOJTOw ttXtjoos 

219 eVtSe^aa^at." ravra S' eypa(l)ov TrpoGhoKoJvres 
hvolv ddrepov, t) otl x^^P^^ ottXojv d(f)iK6p,€Vov Trpog 
avToijs e^ovGLV VTTOX^ipiov , Tj TToXXovs irrayopievov 

220 KpLVOVGL TToXepLLOV. TjKeV §€ p,OL rTjV i7TLGToXr]V 

L7T7T€VS KopLiicov, OpaGvs clXXcos veavla? Tcbv Trapa 
^aGiXel TTore GrparevGapbevow rjv 8 ojpa vvktos 
tJSt] Sevrepa, Kad^ tjv irvyxavov pLerd rcov (filXajv 
Kal TOW TTJ? TaXiXalag TrpojTOJV eGTioop^evos. 

221 ovTOS 817, rrpoGayyelXavTos oIkItov pLOL rjKeiv Tiva 
LTTTTea 'Ioi'8aroy, elGKXrjdelg ipuov KeXevGavTo^ 
TjGTrdGaTO pb€V ovS^ oXoJS, TTjV eiTiGToXrjV 8e Trpo- 
T€Lvas, " TavTTjv," etrrev, " ol i$ 'lepoGoXvpbojv 
TjKovTes TTeTTO/x^acrt gol. ypd(f)€ Stj Ta;^tCTTa /cat 
GV' Kal ydp irrelyopLaL Trpos o.vtovs VTroGTpe^eiv. 

222 ol pbkv OVV KaTaK€lpb€VOL TTjV TOV GTpaTlOJTOV 

ToXpuav idavpiaGav, iyco 8e Kade^eGdai rrapeKdXovv 
Kal GVpSeiTTvelv rjpLLV. dpvrjGapievov 8e ttjv p,ev 
iTTLGToXrjv p,€Td x^^P^^ ^^X^^ ^^ iSe^dpbiqv , rrpo? 
8e Toijs (j)iXovs TTepl rrpayp^dTOiV irepajv ttjv opuXiav 

223 eTTOiovpb-qv. pL€T^ ov TToXXrjV 8' a)pav e^avaGTds Kal 

TOVS p^ev dXXoV£ dTToXvGaS €7TL KOlTTjV , T^GGapaS 

8e /xot piovov TcDv dvayKatow (^lAajj^ TrpoGpLelvai 
KeXevGas Kal toj Traihl rrpoGTd^as olvov erot/xacrat, 
Tr)v i7TLGToXr)v dvaTTTV^as pL7]Sev69 ipb^XerrovTO? Ka^ 
avTTjs Taxv GVV€LS TTjV TOW yeypacpoTOJV eTTLVOcaVy 

224 ndXiv avTTjV iGrjix-qvdpL-qv. Kal ojs P'Tj irpoaveyvooKcos, 

THE LIFE, 217-224 

has frequently plotted against you, have commis- 
sioned us to reprove him and to admonish him in 
future to show you proper respect. Wishing to 
confer with you on a concerted line of action, we 
request you to come to us ^viih all speed, and with 
but few attendants, as this village could not accom- 
modate a large military force." 

In so writing they expected one of two things to 
happen : either I would come unprotected and they 
would have me at their mercy, or, should I bring a 
large retinue, they would denounce me as a public 
enemy. The letter was brought to me by a trooper, 
an insolent young fellow who had formerly served in 
the king's army. It was the second hour of the 
night, and I was dining with my friends and the 
chief men of Galilee. My servant announcing the 
arrival of a Jewish horseman, this fellow, being called 
in by my orders, gave me no salute whatever, but 
reached out the letter and said : " The party who 
have come from Jerusalem have sent you this. 
Write your reply immediately, as I am in a hurry to 
return to them." My guests were astonished at 
the soldier's audacity ; I, for my part, invited him 
to sit down and join us at supper. He declined. I 
kept the letter in my hands, as I had received it, and 
conversed with my friends on other subjects. Not 
long after I rose and, dismissing the others to their 
repose, directed four only of my closest friends to 
stay and ordered my servant to set on wine. Then, 
when no one was looking, I unfolded the letter, took 
in at a glance the wTiters' design and sealed it up 
again. Holding it in my hands as though I had not 



dAAa fJLera -x^elpas avr-qv e;)^ajy, Trpouera^a toj 
arparLOjrr] ^paxP'O.S €lkogi<v> i<^6hiov Sodrjvat. 
rod Se Xa^ovros Kal X^P^^ kx€LV (j)-quavTOS ovvels 
TTjv aiGXpoKepoeiav avrov Kat ojs" ravrr] /xaAtara 
euTLV dAcocrtjU-os", " aAA el uviXTTielv rjfjuv," e^ryv, 
OeXrjGeia?, X-qipei Kara KvaBov hpaxp^rjV pLLav." 

225 d S' aapievos VTrrjKovaev, Kal ttoXvv tov olvov 
7Tpo(j(f)€p6fjL€Vos VTTep TOV TiXiov Xa^elv TO apyvpLOV 
Kal fieOvuOeis ovk€tl ra arropprjTa uriyeiv eSuvaro, 
aAA k(f)paL€v ovk epojTOjp,evos rrjv t€ uvveoKeva- 
GfJievrjv e7n^ovXr]v Kai ojg KaT€ifjrj(f}iaiJL€V05 etrjv 
ddvarov Trap avTolg. raur aKOJjaas avTiypd(j>ciL> 

22^ TOV TpoTTOv TOVTOV " lojG-qTTOs ^lojvdOr] Kal Tol? 
(jvv avTOj ^atpeti^. eppajpuevovs vpbds elg rrjv 
TaXiXatav rjK€Lv rrvdopievos rjSopbaif /xdAtcrra 8* 
OTL hvvrjGopiaL rrapahovs vplv ttjv tow evddhe 
TTpayp.aTOJV eVi/xeAetav elg rrjv rraTptSa rropev- 

227 drjvaL' tovto yap Kal TToXai rroLeXv ijOeXov. eSet 
pL€v ovv fjbr) pLovov €LS ^aX(l)d Trapayeveadai pie Trpos 
vpids, dXXd TToppoj Kai p,-qSe KeXevGavTOJVy avy- 
"/voJiiTjS Se Tvx^lv a^ioj pLTj hwa^fxevos tovto 
7roii]GaL, Trapa(f)vXaGaojv^ iv Xa^cuAoj YlXaKihov etV 
rrjv TaXiXaLav dvaBrjvai St' ivvolag exovTO.. TjKeTe 
ovv vpL€L? rrpos pie ttjv eTTiGToXrjv dvayvovres- 

228 (4-5) TavTa ypdifjas Sov? toj UTpaTtojTj] (jyepeiv 
crvve^eTTepupa rpiaKovTa tojv TaXiXatCDV doKLpLco- 
rdrovSy VTToOepbevog avTols aGTrdaaoBaL pbev eKel- 
vovs, eTepov he pb'qhev Xeyeiv. eVa^-a he Kal Kad^ 

^ Xiese : Trapa(pv\d(TCi} sif P, 7rapa0i'Xdc"crw yap the rest. 

" The standard silver coin, roughly a franc. 

THE LIFE, 224-228 

yet read it, I ordered twenty drachmas to be presented 
to the soldier for travelHng expenses. He accepted 
the money and thanked me for it. Noting his 
cupidity as offering the surest means of guhing him, 
I said, " If you will consent to drink with us, you 
shall receive a drachma" for every cup." He readily 
assented and, in order to win more money, indulged 
so freely in the wine that he became intoxicated and 
unable to keep his secrets any longer to himself. He 
told me, without being asked, of the plot that had 
been hatched and how I had been sentenced to death 
by his employers. On hearing this I wrote the 
following reply : 

" Josephus to Jonathan and his colleagues, 
greeting. I am delighted to hear that you have 
reached Galilee in good health ; more especially 
because I shall now be able to hand over to you 
the charge of affairs here and return home, as I 
have long wished to do. I ought certainly to 
have gone, not merely to Xaloth,^ but further, 
to wait upon you, even without your instructions ; 
I must, however, request you to excuse me for 
my inability to do so, as I am here at Chabolo, 
keeping watch on Placidus, who is meditating 
an incursion up country into Galilee. Do you, 
therefore, on receipt of this letter, come and 
visit me. Fare you well." 

(45) Having written this letter and handed it to the 
soldier, I sent him off, accompanied by thirty 
Galilaeans of the highest repute, whom I instructed 
to pay their respects to the deputies, but to say not 
a word more. To each of them I attached a soldier 

* A village in the Great Plain, on the southern frontier of 
Galilee, elsewhere called Exaloth {B. iii. 39). 



eKaarov avrow ttlgtcov orrXirow eva 7Tapa(f)vXd^ovTa, 

fJLTj rug Tols 7T€ljb(J)9€iGLV V7T C/jLOV TTpog TOV^ 77€/3t 

rov ^Iajvd6r]v ojJLiXia yevqrai. kol ol f.Lev eVo- 

229 p^vOrjaav. ol Se rrepl rov lojvdd'qv rrjg TTpojrrj^ 
7T€ipas djiaprovres erepav emGroX-qv jxoi roLavrrjv 
eTTC/jLipav " ^lojvdQrjS Kal ol avv avroj ^IcocnjTTCi) 
)(aLp€Lv. TTapayyiXXofxev ooi ;\;a;pts' ottXitojv els 
rpiT-qv TTapayeveuOaL Trpos rjp.ds els Ta^apojd 
KcofjbTjv, Lva SiaKOVGOJjjLev ra)v rrpos 'Icodvvqv 

230 iyKXyjiJidrcov gol yeyovorcjjv .' ravra ypdipavres 
Kal dGTraodfJievoL rov? TaXiXaiovg ovg 7T€7T6fjt,(f)eLv^ 
d(f)LKovro €LS 'la^av KCi)[Jbr]v ixeyiGnqv ovoav rchv 
ev rfj TaXiXala, reix^Giv o-xypiordrriv kol ttoXXwv 
OLKrjropojv fieGrrjv. V7Tr]VTLaL,ei' Se to ttXtjOos av- 
Tovs fjuerd yvvacKcbv Kai reKvojv Kai Kare^ocov 
KeXeiJovres dmevai kol fir] (f)6ov€lv avrols dyaOov 

231 Tov Grparrjyov. rrapijpedL^ovro he raZs (ficovdlg ol 
irepl rov ^lojvd6r]v, Kai Savepovv fxev rr^v opyrjv 
ovK eroXjJiOJV, ovk d^icoGavres S' avrovs drro- 
KpiGeojs els rds dXXas Kcopbas eTTopevovro. o/xotat 
S VTTTjvrojv avroLS irapa TravTwv at Kara^o-qGeis 
p^erarreiGeiv avrovs ^oojvrojv ovheva Trepl rod firj 

232 Grparrjyov e;\;ety IcoGr^rrov. ciTrpaKroi Se irapd 
rovrtov drreXOovres ol rrepi rov IcDvdOrjv els 
HeTTcbojpLV jJbeyLGrrjV row ev rfj FaAcAata ttoXlv 
d(f)LKvovvraL' ol S' evrevdev dvdpujrroi Trpos 'Pco- 
fjLaiovs rals yvaypbais drro^XeTTOvres eKeivois fiev 
VTrrjvrojv, ep,e oe ovr eTTrjVovv ovr epAaGcprjiiovv. 

233 rrapd Se ^e7T(f)Ojpira)v els XgojxI^ Kara^dvres ,^ ol 
evrevBev TraparrXrjGLOJS rols la(f)7]vols Kare^ocov 

^ Niese: TreTrofxcpaaiP mss., 7re7ro/j.<pa ed. pr. 
^ Kara^avTuv should perhaps be read. 


THE LIFE, 228-233 

whom I could trust, to watch them and see that no 
conversation took place between my emissaries and 
the other party ; and so they set off. Foiled in their 
first attempt, Jonathan and his friends sent me 
another letter as follows : 

" Jonathan and his colleagues to Josephus, 
greeting. We charge you in three days' time to 
join us, without military escort, at the village of 
Gabaroth," that we may give a hearing to your 
accusations against John." 

Having written this letter and taken leave of the Popular 
Galilaeans whom I had sent, they went on to Japha,* tions^n ^^ 
the larg-est village in Galilee, very stronfflv fortified lavourof 
and containing a dense population. There they 
were met by a crowd, including women and children, 
who in abusive language bade them be off and not 
grudge them their excellent general. Irritated 
though they were by these outcries, Jonathan and 
his colleagues did not dare to show their displeasure, 
and, not deigning to reply, proceeded to the other 
villages on their route. But on all sides they were 
met by similar denunciations, the people loudly 
protesting that none should induce them to alter their 
determination to have Josephus for their general. 
Unsuccessful in the villages the delegates withdrew 
to Sepphoris, the largest city in Galilee. Here the 
inhabitants, who inclined to the side of the Romans, 
went to meet them ; refraining, however, from either 
praise or censure of myself. From Sepphoris they 
descended to Asochis, which gave them a noisy 
reception similar to that which had greeted them at 

" Elsewhere called Gabara ; some six miles N.E. of 
Josephus's quarters at Cabul. 

^ Doubtless Japhia ( Yd/a), a few miles S.W. of Nazareth. 



avrojv OL Se rrjv opyrjv ovk€tl KaTaG\6vT€S K€- 
XevovGLV Tols /xer' avrajv OTrXlrais rvrrreiv ^vXols 
rovs Kara^ocovras. Kara Yd^apa he yevofievov? 
VTTavTidteL fierd tplg'^lXlujv OTrAtrtoy o \ojavvris. 

234 eyco 8' Ik ttjs iTTicrroXrjs yj^-q GVveLKOJS on Sieyvco- 
KaGi TTpos fi€ TToXefJLelVy dvaGTOLS aTTo Xa^coAcoy 
p,€rd rpLGXi^Xuajv OTrXiToWy KaraXtTrajv ev ro) 
GrparoTTehcp rov TTLGTorarov twv (f)LXojv, elg loj- 
rdTTara TTapeyevopnqVy TrXrjGLOV avrcov elvai ^ov- 
XofJbevos OGOV J 0,770 r€GGapdKovra GTahioWy /cat 

235 ypdcfxjj rrpos avrovs rdhe' " et Travrojs jj,€ rrpos 
Vfjbd^ eXdeiv ^ovXeGde, Sta/cocrtai Kal reGGapes Kara 
TTjV TaXiXalav €lgIv TToXets Kat KcofjiaL. rovr ojv 
els Tjv deXrjGere TrapayevrjGo X^P'-^ Ta^dpa>v 
Kal TiGxdXwv 7] fJLev yap Trarpus €gtlv la)dvvov, 
Tj 8e G-jfjiiJiaxos avTO) Kal (jiiXTj." 

236 (4r6) Yavra rd ypdp^fjiara Xa^ovreg ol rrepl rov 
^IwvdOrjV ovKeri fiev avnypdcjiOVGiV, GweSpiov 8e 
rdJv (piXojv KaOuGavres Kal rov lojavvr^v Tiapa- 
Xa^ovres i^ovXevovro riva rpoTTOv errL)(^eLprjGOJGi (jlol. 

237 Kal ^Iwdwr] [lev IhoKei ypd^eiv rrpos rrdGas rds iv 
rfj FaAtAata ttoXcls Kai Kajfias, elvau yap iv eKaGrj] 
Trdvrojs eva yovv Kal heTjrepov htdcjiopov ifJLOi, Kal 
KaXelv rovrovs ojs eVt rroXefiLOV . eKeXeve re^ 
7T€p.rr€LV ro hoyjia rovro Kai €ls rrjv ' lepoGoXvjJbir ojv 
TToXiv, Lva KdKelvoL yvovres vtto rcov TaXiXalwv 
KeKpLodaL /.te TToXe/JLiov Kal aurot ipiq(f)LGiovraL' 
yevop^dvov yap rovrov Kai rovs evvoLKcos e^ovrds 
p,OL TaXiXaiovs eyKaraXenpeiv €(f)r] (f)o^i-]d€vras. 

238 ravra Gvp^^ovXevGavros lojavvov G(f)6hpa Kal rols 

239 dXXoLS TjpeGev rd Ae;)(^eVTa. rrepl 8' copav rrjs 

^ Niese : ene'XeveTO ■nefxireii' P, irep-ireLV CKeXeve the rest. 


THE LIFE, 233-239 

Japha. Unable longer to restrain their wrath, they 
ordered their military escort to beat the rioters with 
cudgels. On their arrival at Gabara they were met 
by John with three thousand men in arms. Having 
already understood from their letter that they were 
determined to attack me, I set out from Chabolo, 
with a force three thousand strong, leaving my most 
trusted friend in command of the camp ; and, being 
anxious to be near them, removed to Jotapata, 
where I was about forty furlongs away. I then 
wrote to them as follows : 

" If you seriously desire me to come to you, 
there are two hundred and four cities and 
villages in Galilee. I will come to whichever of 
these you may select, Gabara and Gischala 
excepted ; the latter being John's native place 
and the former in league and alliance with him." 

(46) On receipt of this letter Jonathan and his Plots of the 
colleagues, abandoning further correspondence, sum- coImtS^°^^ 
moned a meeting of their friends, John included, measures of 
and deliberated how they should proceed against me. "^^^ "^^' 
John was of opinion that they should ^\Tite to every 
city and village in Galilee, in each of which there 
would certainly be found at least one or two ad- 
versaries of mine, and call out these persons as 
against an enemy. He further recommended that a 
copy of this resolution should be sent to Jerusalem, 
in order that the citizens, on learning that I had 
been declared an enemy by the Galilaeans, might be 
induced to pass a similar vote. In that event, he 
added, even my Galilaean partisans would abandon 
me in alarm. John's advice was highly approved by 
the rest of the council. About the third hour of the 



VVKTOS rpLT'qv €LS yvojGLv r}K€ jj^OL ravra, HaK^aiov 
Tcjjv Gvv avTols TLvos avrofioX'/jGavrog Ttpos fxe koI 
TTjv iTTLx^ipi'jGLv avTOJV aTTayyeiXavTos' ovKen Si] 

240 Sftv VTreprideGdai rov Kaipov . a^Lov he Kpivas 
^YaKOj^ov OTrXiT'qv row Trepi lp.k ttlgtov^ KeXevoj 
hiaKOGiovs OTrXiras Xa^ovra (hpovpe'tv rag dno 
Ya^dpojv els ttjv TaXtXalav i^odovg, Kal rovs 
TTapiovras crfAAa/x^avovra rrpos ijik rrepLTTeiVy p^a- 
XiGTO. §6 Tov? [Jierd ypapLfJidrajv dXiGKopilvovs. 

241 'lepepAav he Kal avrov €K rojv (J)lXojv piov pLeO 
e^aKOGiOJV ottXltojv els ttjv piedopLov ttjs TaXiXaias 
errepupa rag o-tto ravrrjs elg r-qv 'le poGoXvpar ojv 
ttoXlv ohovg TTapachvXd^ovra, TrpoGraypba hovs 
KaKeivcp rovs pier' emGroXow ohevovrag GvXXapL- 
^d.veiv, Kal rovs p^ev dvhpas ev heGjXols eTrl rorrov 
(j)vXdrreLV, rd he ypapLpiara rrpos ep.e hLarrefXTreiv . 

242 (4-7) Tavra rols TrepLTTOpbevoLs evreiXdpievos FaAt- 
XaioLS bLTjyyeiXa KeXevow ets rrjV eTTiovGav ava- 
Xafjovras rd OTrXa Kal rpiojv -qjiepojv rpo(j)riv els 
Ya^apojO KOjpirjV TrapayeveGdai Trpos p^e. rwv he 
rrepl ep.e orrXirow pbolpas rerrapas velfias rovs 
rrLGrordrovs avrow Trepl rj]V rov GcfjpLaros (hvXaKTjV 
era^a, ra^idp)(ovs avrots eTnGr-qGas Kal (^povrit,eiv 
KeXevGas vrrep rov p.'qheva GrparLOjrr^v dyvojGrov 

243 avrols GVvavapiiyvvGdai. ri] h eTTLOVGrj Trepl 
rrep.7Trrjv ojpav ev Fa^apojO yev6p,evos evpLGKCo 
rrdv rd rrehlov rd Trpd rrjs KcopLr]s orrXirajv TTArjpes 
rcov eK ri]s FaAtAata? erri r'qv GVpLiia)(Lav rrapovrojv , 
cos avrols TTaprp/yeXKeiv' rroXvs he Kai dXXos eK 

244 row KOjpLdjv oxXos Gvverpex^v. evrel he Karaards 
els avrovs Xeyeiv rjp^dpbrjv, e^dojv diravres ev- 
epyerrjv Kal Gojrrjpa rrjs X^'^P^^ avrow KaXovvres- 

THE LIFE, 239-244 

night news of these proceedings was brought to me 
by Sacchaeus, one of their party who deserted and 
reported their design to me, adding that there was 
no time to be lost. So, selecting James, a faithful 
soldier of my bodyguard, as a fit person, I ordered 
him to take two hundred men and guard the routes 
leading from Gabara into Galilee, and to arrest all 
who passed, especially any caught with letters upon 
them, and to send them to me. I also dispatched 
Jeremiah, another of my friends, with six hundred 
men to the frontier of Galilee, to watch the roads 
leading from the province to Jerusalem, with similar 
orders to arrest all found travelling with dispatches ; 
such persons were to be kept in chains on the spot, 
the letters he was to forward to me. 

(47) Having given these orders, I sent directions to jo.sepims 
the Galilaeans to join me on the following day at the emblfsNyat 
village of Gabaroth, with their arms and three days' Gabaroth. 
provisions. I then divided my troops into four monsua- 
companies, formed a bodyguard for myself of those favour!^ ^'^^ 
whom I most trusted, and appointed officers to take 
command, charging them to see that no soldier who 
was unknown to them mixed with their men. Reach- 
ing Gabaroth about the fifth hour on the following 
day, I found the whole plain in front of the village 
covered with armed men, who, in obedience to my 
orders, had rallied to my aid from Galilee ; while 
another large crowed was hurrying in from the villages. 
When I stood up and was beginning to speak, they 
all greeted me with acclamations, calling me the 
benefactor and saviour of their country. I thanked 




Kaycu X^P'-^ avrols '^x^lv op.oXoyqoas avve^ovXevov 
TTpos ixrjheva fJ^ijre TToXejJLeLV jx-qre apTrayfj fMoXvveLV 
rag p^etpas"/ d.AAa ctki-jvovv Kara to TreSlov apKOV- 
jiivovs TOL£ iavrojv e<^ohiois' deXeuv yap €(f)aGKOv 

245 ras rapaxag X^P'-^ (f)6vajv KaraareXXeiv } Gwe^rj 
8' avOrjiiepov etV ra? vrr'' ifJLOv KaraaTaOeiaag roJv 
ohojv (f)vXaKa£ rov£ Trapa rov ^Icovddov TTejjicfidevTas 
jiera rwv errLGToXow ifJiTTeueiV. Kai ol fiev avopeg 
i(f)vXdx6TiO'OLV irrl row rorrow, ojs Trapi^yyetXa, rdls 
he ypdidb/JLacnv evrvx^^v TrXrjpeaL ^XaG(j)'qp.iaiv Kai 
ipevGfJidrcov, ovSevl ravra (f)paGag oppidv err avrovs 

246 (4-8) ^AKovGavT€£ 3e ol rrepl rov 'IcovdQ-qv Trepi 
rrjs ifjLTJs dSi^ecos rovs Ihiovs Trdvras dvaXa^ovres 
Kai rov ^lojdvvrjv vrrexojp'riGav els rrjv lr]GOV oiKiav 
^dpis S' Tjv avr-q jieydXi-] Kai ovSev aKpoTToXeoJS 
drroSeovGa. Kpijipavreg ovv Xoxov OTrXircov ev 
avrfi Kai rds dXXas drroKXeLGavreg Ovpas, p^iav 8e 
dvoL^avres, TrpoGehoKOJV rJKeLV eK rrjs oSou /xe Trpos 

247 avrovs aGTraGopievov . Kai Stj SuSoaGLV evroXas 
rolg OTrXiraiSy eTreihdv Trapayevajpiai, pLovov ecG- 
eXdelv eacrat roijs dXXovs aTTelp^avrag- ovrojg yap 
Lpovro pe yev-qGeodai pahiCDS avroZs VTTOxeLpcov, 

248 eipeiJGOTjGav Se rrjs eXTTuSos' eyoj yap rrjV e7Tij3ovXr]V 
TTpoaiGdopevos y (hs eK rrjs ooov Trapeyevopirjv, 
KaraXvGas dvnKpvs avrojv KadevSeuv eGKrj7TropLr]v. 

249 Kai ol TTepl rov ''\ojvddrjV V7ToXap,^avovres ovrcos 
dvaTTaveGdai pe KadvTTVcop.evov wpp^rjoav Kara- 
^dvres els ro rrehiov^ pberaTreiBeLV avrovs ojs epLOV 

250 KaKOJS Grparrjyovvros . rdvavrla he avroZs gvv- 
erreGev 6(f)devrcov yap evdvs eyevero ^or] Trapa rcov 
TaXiXalajv"^ rrpos e/ie rov Grparrjyov evvoias d^ia, 

THE LIFE, 244-250 

them and advised them neither to attack anyone nor 
to sully their hands with rapine, but to encamp in the 
plain and be content with their rations, as my desire 
was to quell these disturbances without bloodshed. 

It happened, on that very day, that Jonathan's 
couriers, carrying dispatches, fell into the hands 
of my sentries posted to guard the roads. The 
prisoners were, in accordance with my directions, 
detained on the spot ; the letters I perused and, 
finding them full of slander and lies, decided, without 
mentioning a word of them to anyone, to advance to 
meet my foes. 

(48) Jonathan, hearing of my coming, retired, with 
all his own followers and John, to the mansion of 
Jesus, which was a great castle, as imposing as a 
citadel. Here they concealed an armed ambuscade, 
and, locking all but one of the doors, they w^aited 
for me to come, after my journey, and pay my saluta- 
tions. In fact, they gave orders to the soldiers to 
admit me only, on my arrival, and to exclude my 
attendants, hoping thus to have me easily at their 
mercy. In these expectations they were dis- 
appointed ; for I, discovering their plot, at the end 
of my march took up my quarters immediately oppo- 
site them and pretended to be asleep. Jonathan 
and his friends, imagining that I was actually resting 
and asleep, hastened down to the plain, to create 
disaffection on the ground of my inefficiency as a 
general. The result was quite the reverse ; for, no 
sooner had they appeared, than the Galilaeans raised 
a shout as hearty as their loyalty for me, their 

^ So R : the rest have x'^P^^- 

^ So P : the rest have KaracrretXat. 

^ wXTjdos MW. * Probably tt}s should be inserted. 



KardfieiJupiv re eTTOiovvro row nepi rov IwvdOrjv, 
OTL TTapeiGiv ovhev fjiev avrol KaKov TrpoTrerrovOores , 
dvarpeipovres be ra eK€LVOJV Trpay/Jiara. Kai rrap- 
eKeXevovro d'n livai' fjbrj yap dv TTore pberaTreicrOfivaL 

251 7Tpo<jrdr-i]v erepov dvr ifiov Xa^elv. tojjtojv drr- 
(lyyeXdevTOJv jioi TrpoeXdelv els fieaovg ovk d'jKvqaa. 
Karej^aivov ouv evOecos ojs aurot^s"/ Tt XiyovGiv ol 
7T€pl rov 'lojvdd-qv aKovGOfJuevo?. rrpoeXBovros Se 
fiov Kporos Trapd iravrds rod ttXtjOovs evOvs tjv Kal 
fji€r^ €V(j}'qiiLOJV iTTi^OTjGeLS X^P^^ ^X^^^ QfXoXoyovvrcov 
rfj ijjLjj orpar'qyia. 

252 (^Q) Taura 8' ol Trepc rov lojvd6y]V dKovovres 
i(f)o^rj9r](7av pbrj /cat klvSvv€vgojo'lv, in 
avrovs opjjLrjGdvrow rcov YaXiXalajv Kara rrjv rrpo? 
ifie x^P^^' SpacTfJbov otjv eTrevoovv (jltj hvvqOlvres 
he dTTeXdelv, rrpoojielvai yap avrovs rj^iojaa, Kar- 

2o3 rj(f)e'LS '\v7Tep.eivav evGrrjGdfJbevoLT^ roj Xoyqj. TTpoa- 
rd^as ovv rqj fiev rrXtjOeL rd? evcbrjfjiLa? Karaax^lv , 
Kal rcov oTrXirwv rovg TTiarorarovg rals ohols 
emor-qoas VTrep rov (fipovpelv jxr] dTrpooSoK-qra)? 
rjfjuv o lojavvTjs eTTiTrear], TrapacveGag Se Kac rot? 
YaXiXaiOLS dvaXa^elv ra dirXa, p.'q rrpos rrjV e(f)oSov 
row TToXejJilojv, edv yevqrai ng alcpViSiog, rapa- 

25-4 ^dojuLv, rrpwrov rvjs eTTLGroXrjg rovs irepl rov 
^lojvdOrjv VTreplfMvqGKOVy ov rporrov ypaipeiav vtto 
rov KOLvov row 'lepoGoXvfJurow 7Te7TefjL(t>9aL Sca- 
XvGOvres jJ^ov ra? Trpos rov ^Iwdvvrjv (fyiXoveiKiag, oj? 

255 TTapaKO.XeGeiav re pie irpog avrovs a(j)LKeGdai. KaL 
ravra hie^idw rrjV eTTLGroXrjV els pbeGovs Trpovreivov, 
Lva fjL-qhev dpvTjGaGOai SwqdojGLV eXeyxovroov avrovs 

2oQ row ypapLp,drojv. " Kal /ttryp'/' e(j)-qVy '' \ojvdOrj 
^ ws ai'Tovs R : the rest avrbs, " to hear with ray own ears." 

THE LIFE, 250-256 

general, and reproached Jonathan's party for coming, 
unprovoked, upon the scene to throw the province 
into disorder. They bade them be off, declaring 
their fixed determination never to receive another 
governor in my place. Informed of these proceed- 
ings I no longer hesitated to show myself, but 
instantly went down to them to hear what Jonathan 
was saying. My appearance was the signal for 
universal applause, and I was hailed with encomiums 
and expressions of gratitude for my services as 

(49) Jonathan and his friends, on hearing these Joseph us 
demonstrations, fearing that the Galilaeans, out of tii|, g^^^fg. 
devotion to me, might make a rush upon them, 
became alarmed for their lives. They accordingly 
meditated flight ; but on my requiring them to stay, 
were unable to escape and stood there shame- 
facedly while I spoke. After bidding the people 
restrain their applause, I posted the most trusted 
of my soldiers on the roads to secure us against any 
surprise attack from John, and advised the Galilaeans 
to pick up their arms, in order to avoid confusion in 
the event of a sudden assault of the enemy. I then 
began by reminding Jonathan and his colleagues of 
their letter, how they had written that they had 
been commissioned by the general assembly at 
Jerusalem to settle my quarrels with John and how 
they had desired me to visit them. While relating 
these facts I held out the letter for all to see, to 
prevent any possibility of denial, the document being 
there to convict them. " Moreover, Jonathan and 

'^ The text is corrupt. That printed above follows cod. R, 
which alone supphes the finite verb. 



vfjbel? T6 ol Gvp.TTpeo^eis, €i rrpos Ycodvvqv Kpivo- 
fievos VTTep rod TrapaarTjaaL rov ejxavrov ^lov ovo 
TLvag Tj rpelg p^dprvpas KaXovs Kayadovg yjyayov, 
SrjXov (Ls dvdyKTjv dv e'ix^re Trpoe^erdcravre? Kai 
roijs rovTCQV ^iovg (XTraAAa^at p.€ rcov iyKXrjp.ara)v. 

257 tV ovv yvojre KaXoJS 7Te7Tpdy(9ai pioi rd Kara rrjv 
TaXiXalav, rpels /xev pudprvpag oXiyov? elvai vo/xt^oj 
TO) KaXwg ^el3LOJK6rL, rovrovs he Trdvra? vpZv hi- 

258 Sco/xt. TTapd rovrcov ovv TTvOeade riva rpoTTOV i^iojaa, 
el fjberd rrdarjs uep.vor'qros Kal rrdaris dperrj? evOaSe 
TTerroXiTevp.aL. Kal St] opKitco vpidg, oj raAtAaiot, 
fjLT^Sev eTTiKpijijjaGO ai tt]s dXrjdeias, Xeyeiv S ern 
rovrcov d)S Stfcacrrcov et n pur] KaXojg rreTrpaKrai," 

259 (50) Taur' en Xeyovros KOival Trapd rrdvrcov 
eyivovro cfxjoval KaXovvrcov evepyerrjv pie Kal 
Gcorrjpa, Kal irepi pbev rojv TreTrpayp^evcov ipLaprv- 
povv, rrepl 8e rd)v 77paxOr]GopLeva>v rrapeKaXovv 
rravres S copbvvov avvjSpLarov? piev e)(eLV ra? 
yvvalKas , XeXurrrjadai Se pbrjSeTTore pi-qSev vtt 

260 epLov. pLerd rovro Svo rd)v e7TL<7roXd)v , a? ol 
Karaaradevres vtt epuov (fypovpol 7Tep,(j)BeiGas vtto 
row TTepl rov lowaOrjv eXovre? drreardXKeaav rrpo? 
epie, rrapaveyivojcjKov rot? raAtAaiots-, ttoXXow 
^Xaor(f)'qpLL(ji)v TrX'qpeis Kal KaraipevSop,evag on 
rvpawlSi pidXXov tj arpar-qyla xp^jpiat /car' avrcov 

261 erepd re 77oAAa Trpog rovroLg eveyeyparrro p,-qhev 
TrapaXiTTovrcov dvaicfxyvrov ifjevSoXoyia? . e(f)7]v 8 
iyoj TTpos ro nXrjdos ra ypdpijiara Xa^elv hovrojv 
eKovoLOJS row Kopatovrow ov ydp ij^ovXoiJL-qv 
[avrovsY '^^ TTepl rds (f)povpdg rovs evavriovs 
elhevaiy pbrj heiaavres rod ypd(f>eiv aTToarrdJGLV . 

^ Bekker omits. 


THE LIFE, 256-261 

you, his colleagues," I proceeded, " had my case 
against John been tried and had I produced some 
two or three excellent men as witnesses to my 
behaviour, it is evident that you would have been 
compelled, after inquiries into their character, to 
acquit me of the charges brought against me. Now, 
in order to convince you of the propriety of my 
conduct in Galilee, I consider three witnesses too 
few for one who has lived an honourable life, and I 
present you with all these here present. Ask them 
what my life has been, and whether in my official 
capacity here I have acted with perfect dignity, 
perfect integrity. And you, Galilaeans, I adjure 
to conceal nothing of the truth, but to declare in the 
presence of these men, as before judges in court, 
whether I have done anything amiss." 

(50) Before I had finished speaking, there was a 
chorus of voices from all sides calling me benefactor 
and saviour. They bore testimony to my past 
conduct and exhorted me upon my course in future ; 
and they all swore that the honour of their women- 
folk had been preserved and that they had never 
received a single injury from me. I then read aloud 
to the Galilaeans two of the letters dispatched by 
Jonathan, which had been intercepted and forwarded 
to me by the scouts whom I had picketed on the 
roads. These were full of abuse and maligned me 
as acting the part of a tyrant rather than a general, 
with much else beside, including every variety of 
shameless falsehood. I told the people that these 
dispatches had been voluntarily surrendered to me 
by the bearers, because I did not wish my opponents 
to know of the scouts' share in the matter, lest they 
should be deterred from ^vriting again. 

VOL. I H 97 


262 (51) Taur' OLKOVcrav to ttXtjOos <J(f)68pa irap- 
o^vvOkv eTTL Tov ^lojv6.d-qv ajpfxa kol rovs (Jvv avrco 
GVfjbTTapovras ojs hcacfyOepovvre?' kolv eneTrpdx^i^oav 
TO epyov, el fjurj tov? fiev TaXiXaLovg krravua Trjs 
opyrjg, toIs irepl tov 'IcovdO-qv S' e(f)rjv GvyytvcooKeiv 
TOW 7J8r] TreTTpaypLevojv, el jJieXXouev ixeTavorjoeiv /cat 
TTopevdevTe? etV ttjv TraTplSa Xeyocev Toig Tre/xj/faat 

263 Ta.Xr]di] rrepl tow ifJLol TTeTToXiTevjjLevojv . TavT 
eLTTow o-TTeXvov avTovs KaiTOL yivojGKOw oTi iiiqhev 
(hv VTTeu'xiqvTO TTOLrjaovGLV. TO ttXtjOos 8 €L£ opyrjv 
i^€KaL€To Kar' a^Tow Kafie TrapeKaXovv eTTLTpeTreiv 
avTols TLiiojp-qGaGBai tovs to. ToiavTa ToXfJiiJGavTas . 

264 TravTolos fj^ev ovv lyivopirjv rreldojv ainovs (hetGaGdai 
TOW dvSpow' TTGGav yap jjBeLV GTaGiv 6X16 pLov 
ovGav TOV KOLvfj GVjJi(t)€povTog' TO Se TrXijOog eG^^v 
T-qv /car avTOJV opyrjV dfJLeTa^X'i'jTov , /cat iravTes 

OjppbTjGaV €7TL T7]V OLKLaV €V fj KaTTjyOVTO OL 7T€pL TOV 

265 la>vddr]v. iyd) 8e Gvvopwv t7]v opfxrjv ovGav avToJv 
averrLGX^TOv dvarrrjSrjGa? icf)^ Ittttov e/ceAcucra rots' 
TrXrjdeGLV rrpos ^ojydvrjv Ko'jp.iqv eVecr^at, Ta^dpojv 
a7Te)(ovGav eiKOGL crraSta. K'at tolovtoj GTpaTrjyq- 
fJLaTL XPV^^I^^^'^^ TTapeG^ov ifiavTOj to firj SoKelv 

€fJL(f)vXLOV TToXeflOV KaTO-pX^LV . 

266 (52) E77€t Se TTepl tgs^ Hojyaveag iyevofjLrjv, 
eTTLGT-qGas to rrXrjdog kol TrapaiveGei XPV^^H'^^^^ 
Trepi TOV pL-q rrpos Tag Spy as /cat raOr' eV dv- 
TjKeGTOis Tt^coptats" d^eojg ^epecr^at, /ceAeuoj tovs 
Kad -qXiKiav -qSr] Trpo^e^-qKOTas /cat rrpcoTOVS Trap' 
auTotS" €KaTov dvdpas ojs TropevGopuevovs^ els T-qv 

lepOGoXvfJLLTCOV TToXlV 6VTp€7TLL€G9aL, p^epilpLV TTOLTj- 

^ TOVS Hudson. 
^ Bekker : Tropevofxevovs Mgg, 


THE LIFE, 262-266 

(51) The Galilaeans, on hearing: these calumnies, and pardons 
\ / ' ~ ^ ' tlieni con- 
were so much exasperated that they were starting ditionaiiy. 

to kill Jonathan and his companions ; and they would 
have effected their purpose had I not repressed their 
indignation. To Jonathan and his colleagues I 
promised pardon for the past on condition that they 
showed their contrition and returned home and gave 
a true report of my public life to those who had sent 
them. With that I let them go, well though I knew, 
that they would fulfil none of their promises. The 
people, however, burning with rage against them, 
entreated my permission to punish those who had 
been guilty of such effrontery. I tried by all means 
to induce them to spare the men, knowing that 
party quarrels are invariably fatal to the common 
weal. Popular feeling was, however, too deep- 
seated to be affected, and they all rushed towards 
the house in which Jonathan and his friends had 
their quarters. Perceiving that their passions were Flies to 
now beyond restraint, I sprang to the saddle, avokfre" 
ordering the crowd to follow me to the village of rfponsibiuty 
Sogane, twenty furlongs distant from Gabara. By 
this manoeuvre I guarded myself against the 
imputation of initiating a civil war. 

(52) On approaching Sogane " I called a halt, and Josephus 
advised the people not to let themselves be so counter- 
impetuously carried away by their passions, especially embassy to 
where the consequences would be fatal. *^ I then 
directed a hundred of their leading men, w^ell 
advanced in years, to make ready for a journey to 
Jerusalem in order to lodge a complaint before the 

" Most Mss. here have " Soganeae." 

^ Literally, " especially in the case of irremediable 
punishments," i.e. (probably) those which they wished to 



(jofievovs irrl rod hq^xov row rr]v )(ojpav hiaara- 

267 (Jial,6vrajv . " kol iav eTTiKXaGdojuLv , ' ecjy'qv, " Trpo? 
rovs Xoyovs vfJLOw, TrapaKaXeaare ro kolvov ypdipai 
TTpos ifi€ jJL€V€LV KeXevovrag errl rfj FaAtAaLO., rovg 

268 Se TTepl rov ^lojvddi^v dvay^ojpelv eKeWev." ravra? 
avTOLS ras" VTrodi]Kas bovs, evapfMocraiJLevojv re 
ra)(ioL>s iK€LVOJV, rjjMepa rpurr] jierd rrjv eKKX-quiav 
rrjv drroGroXrjv eTTOirjcrai.LrjV, ovjiTTeiixjjas OTrXcras 

269 TrevraKouiovs . eypaipa §e Kcil rolg iv Sa/xapeta 
(j)iXoLS rrpovoriGaudaL rod da(f)aXrj yevdadai rrjV 
TTopeiav avrol?- rjSr] yap vrro 'Pco/xatot? tjv tj 
Sa^apeta kol Trdvrojg ehei rovg ra^?) ^ovXofjLevov? 
dTTeXOelv hi €K€ivrj? TTopeveadai' rpialv yap rjfJLepais 
drro TaXiXaiOs eveuriv ovrojg €t? lepocroAu/xa 

270 KaraXvaaL. ovfiTTapeTreiJupa Se rovs rrpiu^eis Kdyoj 
fJ'dxpi' Tcov rijs FaAtAaia? opojv, (f)vXaKas imGnqaas 
1 alg oSots* vrrep rov pur] paSiOJS rtvd fj^adelv drr- 
aXXarro'ievovg . kol ravra rrpd^as iv 'la^ots" rrjP 
SiarpLJSriv €7roLOvpi.rjV. 

271 (53) Ot Se rrepl rov "IcovddrjV Sta/Ltaprovres" ri]? 
/car' ipLOV Trpd^ecvs lojdvvqv drrlXvoav els rd 
Tiorxo.Xa, avrol 8 €is rrjV Tt^epteojp' ttoXlv 7T€7r6- 
pevvro X'fjipeaOaL TrpouhoKowres avrrjv VTTOX^Lpiov , 
eTTeiSr] kol ^IrjGovs 6 Kara rov Kaipdv rovrov 
Idpxojv ^ iy€ypdcf)€L Trpos avrovs 7T€lg€lv eirayyeX- 

XopLevos ro ttXtjOos iXOovras vrrohex^eGdai Kal 

272 OLvrols eAecr^at rrpoGreSrjvai. eKelvoi fiev ovv irrl 
roiavrais iXTTLGLV a77-fjX0ov, aTrayyeXXei 84 p,ot 
ravra ZtAa? 3td ypapipidrojv, ov €(f)-qv rfjs Tu^e- 
pidSos impLeXrjrrjv KaraXeXoiTrevai, Kal GrrevSecv 
Tj^Lov. Kayoj ra)(€a)s viraKOVGas avroj /cat rrapa- 

THE LIFE, 266-272 

people against those who were sphtting the country 
into factions. " If," I continued, " they are affected 
by what you say, use your influence with the assembly 
to send written orders directing me to remain in 
Galilee and Jonathan and his colleagues to w ithdraw." 
Having given these instructions, and their arrange- 
ments being quickly made, on the third day after 
the meeting I sent them off, with an escort of five 
hundred men-at-arms. I further wrote to my friends 
in Samaria to provide for their safe convoy through 
that district ; for Samaria was now under Roman 
rule and, for rapid travel, it was essential to take 
that route, by which Jerusalem may be reached in 
three days from Galilee. I accompanied the dele- 
gates myself as far as the frontier of Galilee, posting 
scouts on the roads to screen their departure. This 
task accomplished, I settled at Japha.^ 

[53) Foiled in their designs upon me, Jonathan Jonathan's 
and his colleagues, leaving John to return to Gischala, fncltS^^'^ 
had proceeded to Tiberias, expecting to receive its 'Tiberias 
submission ; for Jesus, at that time its chief magis- 
trate, had ^vritten to them, promising that he would 
persuade the inhabitants to w^elcome them, if they 
came, and to decide to join their party. On the 
strength of these expectations they set out. News 
of these proceedings reached me in a letter from 
Silas, urging me to lose no time in coming ; I had 
left him, as I have mentioned already,^ in charge of 
Tiberias. Responding instantly to his advice I went, 
« See § 230 with note. " § 89. 

^ oiii. dpxoJi' P. 



yevofxevos ets" KLvhvvov drrojXeLag Kar€GTi]v i^ 

273 alrlas roLavr-qg. ol Trepl rov lowdOrjv yevofievoL 
TTapd rolg Tij^epLevcnv kol ttoXXovs TreiGavres 
a.7ro(jrrjvaL fiov hiaclyopovs ovra?, ojs TJKovcrav rr]V 
ipLTiv TT a pov G lav , d€LGavT€g TTepi eavrow tjkov irpog 
i[ie, Kal a.(j77a.rrdfievoL jiaKapiLeLV eXeyov ovrcos 
Trepl TTjv YaXiXaiav dvaGrpa(f)€vra, GVvrjSeadal re 

274 Sta TLpirjg ayop^evoj' kogjxov yap eavrow elvai rrfv 
ifjLTjv So^av 6(f)aGav, ojg dv hihaoKdXojv ri p.ov 
yevojJLevojv Kal ttoXltojv ovtojv, SiKaiorepav re rrjg 
^lojdvvov rrjv ep.'qv rrpds avrovg (ftiXlav VTrdp^eiv 
eXeyov, Kal Grrevheiv fxev els T-qv OLKeiav aTreXdelv, 
TTepipLeveLV d' eojg^ VTrox^Lpiov rov lojdvvrjV epLol 

275 TTOLTjGOJGLV . Kal TavTa Xeyovres eTTOj/jLOGav rou? 
(hpiKOjheGrdrovs dpKovs rrap rj/xlv, 8l' ov? dTTiGrelv 
01) dep^LTOv rjyoviirjV. Kal Sr] rrapaKaXovGiv p,e rrjv 
KardXvGLv dXXa)(^ov TTOLifjGaGdai hid rd rrjv emovGav 
TjpLepav elvai Gd^^arov 6')(XelG6ai he pLTj helv vtt 
avTOJV rrjv ttoXlv row Ti^epLeojv ec^aGKov. 

276 (54-) Kd'/oj pLTjhev VTTovoTjGas es rds Tapt^aLas 
aTTrjXdov, KaraXirrojv dp.ojs ev rfj rroXec rovs ttoXv- 
TTpaypjOVTjGOvras tl rrepl r]p,djv Xeyotro. did TrdGiqs 
be rfjS ohov rrjs arrd Tapiy^aLchv els T ijjepidha 
(f)epovG7]s eTTeGrrjGa ttoXXovs, Iva fioi hi dAAT^Acuv 
GripiaivojGiv drrep dv Trapd rojv ev rfj TToXei Kara- 

277 XeL(f)6evrojv rrvdojvr ai. Kara rijv emovGav ovv 
ripbepav Gvva.yovrai rravres eis rrjV TipoGevxT]^, 
pieyiGrov o'lKrjjia Kal ttoXvv o^Xov eTTihe^aGOai 
hvvdpievov. elGeXddw he o IwvddrjS (f)avepcos fxev 
rrepl rrjs diroGrdGeats ovk iroXfjia Xeyeiv, e(j)r] he 

"^ o' €U}S Dind. : oe w? 3iss. 

<* Greek "us." 

THE LIFE, 272-277 

but at the peril of my life, as will appear from the 
following circumstances. 

Jonathan and his party having, during their stay 
at Tiberias, induced a number of aggrieved persons 
to desert me, on hearing of my arrival were alarmed 
about their own safety, and came and paid me their 
salutations. They congratulated me on my exem- 
plary conduct of affairs in Galilee and professed to be 
delighted at the honour in which I was held, remark- 
ing that my reputation was a tribute to themselves, 
as my fellow-citizens to whom I owed my instruction. 
They added that they had more reason to be on 
friendly terms with me than with John ; and that, 
though anxious to return home, they were waiting 
until they had delivered him into my hands. As they 
corroborated these assertions by the most awe- 
inspiring oaths known to us, I felt that it would be 
impious to disbelieve them. They ended by request- 
ing me to take up my quarters elsewhere, as the 
next day was the sabbath, on which, they professed, 
they ought not to put the city to inconvenience. 

(54') Suspecting nothing, I departed for Tarichaeae. Meeting in 
I left, however, some of my party in the city to hous^'^at" 
discover what was said about me ^ ; and all along the Tiberias. 
road from Tarichaeae to Tiberias I posted a number 
of others to pass down the line to me any information 
obtained from those in the town. The next day 
there was a general assembly in the Prayer-house,^ 
a huge building, capable of accommodating a large 
crowd. Jonathan, who entered with the rest, while 
not venturing to speak openly of defection, said that 

^ ProseucJie, ' oratory,' another name for synagogue ; 
cf. Acts xvi. 13, 16; Juv. Sat. iii. 296. The distinction 
sometimes drawn between the two w^ords seems untenable 



urparrjyov Kpeirrovos XP^^^^ "^W '^oXlv avrojv 
278 ^xj^iv. ^IrjGOVS 8' o dp)(ajv o'uSev V7T0UT€L\a.}d,€V0S 
ava<^avh6v etrrev " dfjL€iv6v iartVy co rroXlraiy 
reacrapGLv rjpid? avSpdoiv VTraKoveiv ■^ evL, kol 
Kara yivos Xafirrpol? Kal Kara avveaiv ovk dSo^oL?" • 
079 vrreSeLKwe §e rovg Trepl ^lojvadrjv . ravr eiTTOvra 
rov ^\rjGovv eTrfjvei rrapeXOdw lovGrog Kal rivas 
c/c rov hrjixov GwirreLdev. ovk rjpeoKero be rols 
XexOelcLV ro rrXrjdos Kal Trdvrwg dv el? oraGiv 
exojpriaav, el p.-q rrjv avvoSov hUXvaev eTreXdovaa 
eKriq ojpa, Kad^ tjv rols oa^^auiv apiuroTTOLeZad ai 
vo/JLLpLov iartv 'qpAV. /cat ol rrept rov ]ojvadr]v els 
rr^v emovoav VTrepOeixevoL rrjV f^ovXrjv aTrfjecrav 

280 Kvdvs Se pLOL rovrojv dTTayyeXOevrojv 7Tpa>L 
Sieyvcov els rr)v Ti^epLeajv ttoXlv d(j)LKeG6ai. 
Kal rfj eTTLOvarj rrepl [7rpc6r7]v]^ ojpav tjkov dTTO 
row TapLXdLOJV, KaraXapu^avoj Se avvayopLevov 
r]8r] ro ttXtjOos els rrjV irpooevx'TjV e<f)^ 6 n 8' rjv 
avroLs Tj oiJvoSos ovk eyivojoKov ol avXXeyopievoL. 

281 ol 8e TTepl rov 'la>vd6rjv d77pouSoKi^ra>s Oeaodp^evol 
pe rrapovra Sierapdxd'QO'o.i^' elr^ Ittlvoovglv Sta- 
Sovvat Xoyov on 'Pojpalojv LTTrrels ev rfj pedoplco 
TTOppoj rpLO-KOvra urahlojv arro rrjs rroXeajs, Kara 

282 roTTov Xeyopievov ^OpLovocav, elalv eojpapLevoL. Kal 
77 po G ay yeXdevrojv rovrojv e^ vrro^oX'qs rrapeKoXovv 
OL TTepi rov \a>vadrjv p.-q Trepuhelv vtto row TToXe- 
pbiijov XerjXarovpievqv avrdw rrjV yrjv. ravr a 8' 
kXeyov St' evvolas e^ovres epbe TTpoijiduei rrjs 
KareTTeLyovar/S ^orjOelas pLeraartjaavres avrol rrjv 
ttoXlv exOpd.v pLoi KaraGKevdcaL. 

^ TrpiVTTjv M\V : t'iiv the other 31 3S. : Niese conj. Tfiir-qv. 

THE LIFE, 277-282 

their city required a better general. Jesus, the 
magistrate, however, had no such scruple and said 
bluntly, " Citizens, it is better for us to take our 
orders from four men than from one, men, too, of 
illustrious birth and intellectual distinction," indicat- 
ing Jonathan and his colleagues. Justus next came 
forward, and, by his approval of the previous speaker, 
aided in converting some of the people to his views. 
The majority, however, Avere not convinced by these 
speeches, and a riot would inevitably have ensued, 
had not the arrival of the sixth hour, at which it is 
our custom on the Sabbath to take our midday meal, 
broken off the meeting. Jonathan and his friends, 
accordingly, adjourned the council to the following 
day and retired without effecting their object. 

These proceedings being at once reported to me. The meeting 
I decided to visit Tiberias early on the morrow. nneTpeeted 
Arriving there about the first hour ^ next day, I arrival of 
found the people already assembling in the Prayer- 
house, although they had no idea why they were being 
convened. Seriously perturbed by my unexpected 
appearance, Jonathan and his party conceived the 
idea of spreading a report that some Roman cavalry 
had been descried on the frontier, at a place called 
Homonoia,^ at a distance of thirty furlongs from the 
city. A fictitious message arriving to this effect, 
Jonathan exhorted me not to remain idle while their 
country was being plundered by the enemy. Their 
object in this was to get me away, on the pretext of 
an urgent call for my services, and to alienate the 
city from me in my absence. 

" i.e. 7 A.M. 

** = " Concord." Probably Umm Jiinieh on the Jordan (the 
frontier between (jalilee and Decapolis), some two miles south 
of faricliaeae and seven miles from Tiberias. 



283 (55) Eyoj Sc Kairrep etSoj? avrojv to ivOvjJLTjiJLa 
ojjiojs VTTTjKOVGa, jj^'q So^av Trapdo^oj rotg Tl^€- 
pi€VGLV ov 7TpovoovfjL€vo£ avrow TTJ? a(7</)aAeta?. 
i^rjXdov o'uv, KOI yevopuevo? Kara rov tottov, ojs 

284 ovh tx^^^ TToXepLiOJV evpov, v7TOGrpe(j)<jj avvrovojs 
oSevaag, Kai KaraXapi^dvaj ttjv re ^ovXtjv Trdaav 
GweX-qXydvlav kol tov SrjpiorLKov oxXov, TTOiovpie- 
vov£ r€ TToXJ^TjV KarTiyopiciv p.ov rovg rrepl rov 

lowd9r]v, dj9 TOV pL€P rov TToXepLOV €7T€Xa<^pVV€lV 
avrols dpbeXovvTog, iv rpv^als Se Stayovro?. 

285 ravra Se Xeyovres rrpoixjiepov erriGToXas reGGapas 
ojc o.7t6 tow iv T'fi p^edopla ttjs TaXuXalas yeypap,- 
jxivas rrpos avTOV? irrl ^o-qdecav 7]K€lv rrapa- 
KaXoTjvTow , 'Pojp.aLOW yap hdvapnv pueXXeLV l7T7T€ojv 
T€ Kai TreLchv eig TpiT-qv r^puepav ttjv )(^ujpav avTchv 
AcT^Aaretv, iTriGrrevSeiv re Kai jjltj 7T€pLO(f)9rjvaL 

286 Seopuevajv. TavT^ aKovGavTeg ol Tt^eptets", Aeyetr 
dXrjOrj So^avTeg avTOvg, KaTa^o-qGei? irroLOvvTO, 
[ii'j KaOeL^eGOal ji€ helv XiyovTes, dXX arreXOelv 

287 iTTLKovprjGOVTa rot? op,0€9v€GLV avTOJV. TTpds TavT 
eyoj, GvvrJKa yap ttjv eTTivoiav tow rrepi tov lojvad-qv. 
V7TaKoiJG€GdaL pL€V €(f)-qv eToipijOJS Kai "x^ojpls dva- 
^oXt]? 6ppLT]G€LV TTpds TOV TToXepLOV €7Trjyy€LXapLr]v , 
GwejiodXevov 8 opLOjg, irrel ra ypdpbfiaTa /cara 
T€GGapas TOTTOVs 'PojpLaLOV? Grjp,aLV€L rrpoGl^aXelv, 
€LS 7T€VT€ pbolpas SicXovTag TTjV SvvapbLV eKaGTf] 

288 iTalpovg avTOV' TTperreiv yap dvSpdGLv dyaOol? pur] 
p,dvov GvpL^BovXeveLV, dXXd Kai )(p€Lag €7T€LyovGiqs 
rjyovpLevov£ ^o-qOelv iyoj yap rrXrjV pi^ids pboipas ovk 

289 €(f)rjv d(f)rjy€'lG9aL SvvaTos elvat. G(f)dSpa toj rrX-qOei 
Gvvi]p€Gev Tj ^piTj Gvpi^ovXla, KaKeivovs ovv rjVo.yKal,ov 

THE LIFE, 283-289 

(55) Though well aware of their design, I complied, 
to avoid giving the Tiberians ground for thinking nie 
careless of their safety. I set out, accordingly, but 
discovering, on reaching the spot, no trace of an 
enemy, I returned post haste, and found the whole 
of the council and populace in conclave, and Jonathan 
and his associates making a violent tirade against me, 
as one who lived in luxury and neglected to alleviate 
their share of the burden of the war. In support of 
these assertions they produced four letters purporting 
to have been addressed to them by persons on the 
Galilee frontier, imploring them to come to their aid, 
as a Roman force of cavalry and infantry was' intend- 
ing in three days' time to ravage their territory, 
with entreaties to hasten to their relief and not to 
abandon them to their fate. On hearing these 
statements, which they believed to be authentic, the 
Tiberians began loudly to denounce me for sitting 
there when I ought to have gone to the assistance of 
their countrymen. Fully alive to Jonathan's designs, 
I replied that I was quite ready to act on their 
instructions, and promised to start without delay for 
the scene of action. At the same time I advised 
them, as the letters indicated an impending Roman 
attack on four points, to form their troops into five 
divisions and to put these severally under the 
command of Jonathan and his companions. It 
became brave men (I urged) to give not merely 
advice but practical assistance by assuming the lead 
in an emergency ; and it was impossible for me to 
take command of more than a single division. My 
suggestion was warmly endorsed by the people, who 
now put compulsion on my opponents also to take 



€771 TOV TToXejJLOV i^livdl. Tols S' OUTt jjuerpLO)? 

(Tvvex^d'qGO.v at yj^cD/xat (jltj Karepyaaafjiivoig a 
huevo'qOrjaav, ifMov rots e77t;)^et/37^/xacrt^' avrojv avri- 
Grparrjyquavros . 

290 (56) Et? Se Tt? e'l" aurojy Avavias rovvofia, 
TTOVTjpos 0Lvr)p /cat KaKovpyos, eLGr^yelTO rols ttXtj- 
SeuL rravS-qpLel viiGrelav els Tr]V emovaav ray Beoj 
TTpoOeodai, Koi Kara ttjv avrrjv a)pav eKeXevev el? 
TOV avTOv TOTTOv avoTiXovs rrapeXvaL, rqj Oeco cfyavepov 
TTOirjGovras on p,r] rrjs Trap €K€lvov rvy^dvovres 
^OTjdeiag Trdv ottXov dxpT^CTTov etVat vopLcl^ovGLV. 

291 ravra o' eXeyev ov St' evGe^eiav, aAA' virep rod 
Xa^elv avorrXov {Ji€ Kal rovg ifJLOv?. Kayoj St' 
di'dyKTiv VTTTjKovov, fjbTj ho^oj Karacf)pov€lv rrjs rrepl 

292 T'r]v evGej^eiav vrroO-qKTjs. cvg ovv av€XOjp'q(7ajj.€V 
€77t rd eavrcov, ol p,€V irepl rov ^Icovdd'qv ypd(f>ovGL 
Tip lojdvvT], TTpds avTovs eojOev dcjiLKeadai KeXe-uov- 
re? fjLed^ ogojv dv arparLwrcov Svvr^di^' Xi^ipeadai 
yap evdvs fie^ VTroy^eipiov Kal iroLiqGeiv drrep^ ^X^^ ^^^ 
€VX'^?' Se^dpievos Se rrjv emGroXriv eKelvos vtt- 

293 aKoveiv e/xcAAev. lyoj he rrjs emovG-qs rjpbepas Svo 
row TTepl ep,e GOjp,aro(j)vXdK(x>v , rovs /car' dvhpeiav 
hoKtpLCjjrdrovs Kal Kara rriGriv ^e^aiovs , KeXevo) 
^t(^tSta Kpvijjavras vtto rds eGdrjras epiol GVpLTrpo- 
eXdelVy tv' el yevotro rrapd row e)(9pow eTTideGLS 
apLVvcopLeda. OojpaKa S' eXa^ov avrds Kal pLd^aipav 
VTTe^ojGdpLrjv ojs olov r rjv dcfyaveGrara, Kal rjXOov 
ets rrjv TrpoGevxrjV. 

294 (57) Tovs p-ev ovv gvv epLol Trdvras e/c/cAetcrat 
rrpoGera^ev ^Itjgovs 6 dp)(ajv, avrds ydp rats Ovpais 
e(j)eiGr'fjKeiy pLovov S' e/xe p,€rd rcov ^iXojv elGeXdelv 

^ evdvs fxe R : ev i/xe the rest. ^ R : oirep the rest. 


THE LIFE, 289-294 

the field. The failure of tlieir scheme through this 
counter-manoeuvre on my part caused them no little 
embarrassment . 

(56) One of their number, however, a depraved and a further 
mischievous man named Ananias, proposed to the plot to'seize 
assembly that a public fast should be announced, in ■^•^'^^P^i^is. 
God's name, for the following day, recommending 

that they should reassemble at the same place and 
hour, without arms, in order to attest before God 
their conviction that without his aid no armour could 
avail them. This he said, not from motives of piety, 
but in order to catch me and my friends in this 
defenceless condition. I felt bound to acquiesce, 
for fear of being thought contemptuous of a pious 
suggestion. As soon, therefore, as we had retired to 
our homes, Jonathan's party wrote instructions to 
John to come to them next morning with as large a 
force as he could muster, as he might have me at 
once at his mercy and do what he chose with me. 
On receipt of this letter John prepared to act accord- 
ingly. For my part, on the following day I ordered 
two of my bodyguard, of the most approved valour 
and staunch loyalty, to accompany me, with daggers 
concealed under their dress, for self-defence in the 
event of an assault on the part of our foes. I wore 
a breastplate myself and, with a sword so girt on as 
to be as little conspicuous as possible, entered the 

(57) Orders having been given by Jesus, the chief 
magistrate, '^ who kept a watch on the door himself, 
to exclude all my companions, he allowed only me 

"■ § 271 ; possibly also a "ruler of the synagogue." 



295 €LaG€V. rjSrj 8 rjiiow ra vofJLifxa ttolovvtojv kol 
TTpos €V)(^a? rpaTTOfJLevujv ayaara? o Ytjgovs rrepi rcov 
Xrj(f)9evrajv eV rov iiiTrprjorpbov rrjg ^acnXiKrjs a-uXrjs 
UKevojv <Kai> rod acn^^of apyvptov errvvdaveTO jxov, 
TTapa TLVL rvyx^f^vei KetiJieva. ravra S' eXeyev 
Siarpi^eLV rov xpovov ^ovXopievo'Sy eoj? av 6 'Icoav- 

296 VTjg TTapayev-qrat . Kayoj rravra KaTreAAav '^X^'^^ 
ecbrjv KOL rovs Se/ca Trpojrovs T i^epieow " avaKpive 

avros, ELTTOV, ov row oe Trap eav- 
roL£ eivai Xeyovrcov , " ol S €lkogiv," €L7T€v, " xp^crol 
ov? eXa^eg TTOjXrjcrag ruva crradfjiov aui^fjiov, ri 

297 y€y6vaaiv ;" kol rovrovs ecfy-qv SeSojKevat rrpe- 
(7^€(JLV avrojv ISohiov 7T€ix<^delGiv elg lepocroXvfia. 
TTpos ravra ol fiev Trepc rov lowad-qv ov KaXojg 
echaoav rrerroi-qKevai [le Sovra rolg rrpeajieGiv rov 

298 pllgOov eK rov kolvov. rrapo^vvdivrog Se rod rrX'-q- 
6ovs iTTL rovroLS, ivoTjGav yap rtov avOpojrrow r-qv 
7Tov7]piav , Gvvels iycb GraGuv jiiXXovGav e^aTrreGOai 
Kal TTpoGe^epeOiGai (jlolXXov ^ovX6p.evos rov Srjfjiov 
€7TL rov? avopojTTOv?, aAA ei ye fxrj opucog, 
eiTTOV, " errpa^a Sovg rov jxlgOov Ik rod kolvov roZs 
7TpeG^€GLV vp.a)V, naveGOe -x^aXeTraivovres' iyoj yap 
rovs e'iKOGt xP''^(^ovs avros aTToriGOJ. 

299 (58) Taur' elrrovros ol fiev rrepl rov IcovdOrjv 
TjGvxacrav, 6 8e Stj/jlos erL fJuaXXov Kar avrcbv 
TTapoj^vvOr] (f)avepav epyoj SeLKvvjJievajv^ rrjv o.Blkov 

300 TTpos e'/xe Sucr/xeVetav. gvvlSojv 8e rr^v pbera^oXrjv 
avrojv ^IrjGovs rov p^kv Srjpiov eKeXevev dvaxcDpelv, 
TrpoGpLelvaL Se rrjv ^ovXtjv rj^LOJGev ov yap hvvaGOai 

^ avTos R : avTovs the rest. 
^ epyu) deiK. PR : eirLdeLKw/xeviov AMW. 



and my [two]^ friends to enter. We were proceeding Josephus 
with the ordinary service and engaged in prayer, questioned 
when Jesus rose and began to question me about 
the furniture and uncoined silver which had been 
confiscated after the conflagration of the royal 
palace,^ asking who had the keeping of them. He 
raised this point merely in order to occupy the time 
until John's arrival. I replied that they were all 
in the hands of Capella and the ten head-men of 
Tiberias. " Ask them yourself; " I said, " I am not 
lying." On their admitting that the property was 
in their custody, " Well," continued Jesus, " what 
has become of the twenty pieces of gold which you 
realized from the sale of a quantity of bullion ? " I 
answered that I had given these, for travelling 
expenses, to their deputies who had been sent to 
Jerusalem ; on which Jonathan and his friends 
remarked that I had acted wrongly in paying the 
deputies out of public money. This statement 
exasperated the people, who now detected the malice 
of these men ; and I, seeing a quarrel impending, and 
anxious still further to excite the general indignation 
against them, said, " Well, if I did wrong in paying 
your deputies out of public money, you need have 
no further cause for resentment ; I will pay the 
twenty pieces of gold myself." 

(58) This rejoinder silenced Jonathan's party. He barely 
while the feelings of the people were roused still h^g^ji^fe^^^^^'^ 
further against them by this open exhibition of 
groundless animosity against me. Perceiving their 
altered mood, Jesus ordered the people to withdraw, 
requesting the council to remain, as it was impossible 

* See § 293 (with § 303 below). Jesus apparently excluded 
the further escort, if anv, but allowed the two to pass. 
^ Cf. §§ 66-69. 




301 i^eraaiv TroielaOaL. rod Se S-qjJLOV ^owvros fJiT} 
KaraXeLipeLv Trap avroZ? ijjie pLovov, rjKev tls dyyeX- 
Xa>v Kpvcf)0. rots' rrepl rov l-qaovv lajdvvrjv pLerd 
rwv ottXltcov TrArycrta^ety. Kal ol nepl rov lojvdd-qv 
ovKen KaTaG)(GVT€9 avrovs, Taya Kai rod deov 
rrpovoovvros rrjs ifirj? (JojTTipias, p^r] ydp dv ye- 
vopiivov rovrov Trdvrojs vtto rod lojdvvov 8t- 

302 ecl)9dpr]v, " TravcracrOey" €<^')7, " d) Tt/3eptets", rriv 
t,rirr]Giv e'lKOOL )(pvGdjv eveKev hid rovrovs p,ev ydp 
ovK d^Los iornv ^IdjoTjTTog dTToOavelv, on oe rvpav- 
v€iv eTreddjX'quev /cat rd row VaXiXalow TrXrjOq Xoyots 
aTTar-qaas rr]v dpxqv avrqj KareKr-qaaro." ravra 
Xeyovrog evdvs /xot rd? )(€lpa9 irref^aXov^ dvatpetv^ 

303 -7-' eTreipojvro. cus" S et§ov ol crvv ipbol rd ycvopievov, 
GTTaadpLevoi rdg /xa;i(atpa? Kal Traieiv^ drreiXi^Gavres 
el ^idtoLvro, rod re SrjpLov XiSovs dpapiivov /cat 
^dXXeiv €771 rov ''IcovdO-qv oppL-qoavrog, i^apTrdl^ovGL 
/xe rrj? row TroXepiLow ^lag. 

3*J^ (59) E776t 8e TrpoeXddw oXlyov VTravridt^eLv kpueX- 
Xov rov lojdvvrjv lovra^ pberd rdjv OTrXtrajv, Setcra? 
€KeLvov piev i^eKXiva, Std Grevojirov Se rtvos" e^rt r-qv 
Xipbvrjv Gojdelg /cat rrXoiov Xaf36pL€vo?, ipu^ds els rdg 
Tapt^^atas" hieTrepaiajd-qv dTrpoohoKiqrojs rov klv- 

^^ Svvov SiaSvycov. pberaTrepLTTOpLaL r' evOvs rovs Trpoj- 
revovras rd)v VaXiXalajv Kal cf)pdL,oj rov rpoTTOV oj 
TTapaGTTOvSriOel? vtto rojv Trepl rov ^lowdBiqv Kal 
rovs TiBepLel? rrap oXiyov Trap' avrd)V SLacbdapecqv. 

306 opyiGdev 8 eVt rovrotg row VaXiXaiojv ro ttXtjOos 
TTapeKeXevero /xot p.-qKeri pueXXeiv rov irpos avrovs 

^ v.h e-reSaWov. ^ apx^i-v PR. 

^ Traiaeiv Cobet. 


THE LIFE, 300-306 

to investigate such matters in a tumultuous assembly. 
The people were just crying out that they would not 
leave me alone with them, when a messenger arrived 
and whispered to Jesus that John was approaching 
with his troops. Thereupon Jonathan, throwing off 
all restraint — the providence of God perhaps, 
co-operating to save me ; for, but for this turn of 
events, I should undoubtedly have been murdered 
by John — exclaimed : " Have done with this inquiry, 
men of Tiberias, about twenty pieces of gold. It is 
not for them that Josephus deserves to die, but for 
aspiring to make himself a despot and gaining a 
position of absolute power by deceitful speeches to 
the people of Galilee." As he said these words, he 
and his party laid hands on me and attempted to kill 
me. My companions, seeing what was happening, 
drew their swords and threatened to use them, if 
recourse were had to violence ; and, while the 
people were starting to hurl at Jonathan the stones 
which they had picked up, hurried me out of reach 
of the ferocity of my enemies. 

(59) I had not proceeded far when I found myself to TaiicU- 
nearly facing John, advancing with his troops. I 
turned from him in alarm, and, escaping by a narrow 
passage to the lake, seized a boat, embarked and 
crossed to Tarichaeae, having, beyond all expectation, 
come safe out of this perilous situation. I at once 
summoned the leading Galilaeans and described 
how, in violation of the pledges received from 
Jonathan and the Tiberians, I had so nearly been 
murdered by them. Indignant at this treatment, the 
Galilaeans urged me to hesitate no longer to make 

* T(p 'ludvvri irpoaLovTL R ; but the accus. is normal in 

VOL. I I 113 



TToXejlOV €K(^€p€LV, d/\A i7TiTpe7T6LV aVTols iXdoVGLV 

iirl rov ^Jaodvvqv apSr]v avrov d(f)avl(jaL Kal rovs 
307 rrepl rov ^la>vd9r]v. iTxer/pv 8 op.oj£ avrovs eych 
KciLTTep ovrco? opyit^ojJLevovs, 7T€pifJL€V€LV avrovs 
KeXevwv e(jj<; iiddojp,€V tl ol 7T€pL(f)6evr€£ vtt avrojv 
€LS r-qv 'lepoGoXvfiLTcov ttoXiv aTrayyeXovaiv fjuerd 
TTjS eKe'ivojv yap yvcofjbrjg rd SoKovvra irpd^eiv 
30g avrovs 6^17'''. Kal ravr eirrdw eTietcra. rore Sr] 
Kal ^la)dvvr]s, ov Xa^ovcnqg avrov riXos rijs ivdSpag, 
dvet,€vyvvev (eIs rd Viuy^aXa. 

309 (60) Mer' ov TToXXds 3 -qp^ipas d(j)iKvovvraL 
TTaXiv ovs irrepupapiev Kal dTrrjyyeXXov a(f)6Spa rov 
SrjfJiov €7tI rovs rrepl rov "Avavov Kal rov 2t/xa>va 
rov rov TafxaXirjXov rrapoj^vvdai, on x<J^pl? yi'O-ip^y]? 
rod KOivov TTep^ipavreg els rrjv TaXtXalav eKrreaelv 

310 /^^ \_ravrif)sY' TrapeorKevaaav . e<^acray h^ ol Trpea^eis 
on KO.L ras oiKias avrcov o orjp^os ajpfirjuev epL- 
TTLTTpavai. kcf)€pov 8e Kal ypa/x/xara 8t chv ol rcov 

lepoGoXviiirojv TrpdjroL, rroXXd rov SrjpLov SerjOevros 
avra)v, ipLol p,€v rrjv rrjs TaXiXalas dpxqv i^e^alovv, 
rols 7T€pi rov lojvadrjv Se TTpocreraacrov els rrjv 

311 OLKeiav V7TO<jrpe<f)eLV ddaaov. ivrvxcov ovv rals 
imcrroXaLS els "Ap^rjXa KwpLTjv dcfyiKopL-qv, evda 
Gvvohov rd)v TaXiXaLa)v TTOirjudpievos eKeXevua rovs 
rrpea^eis hirjyelGdai rrjv IttI rols tt err p ay p^evo is vtto 
rwv rrepl rov 'lojvdOrjv opyrjv Kal pLLGOTTOvr^plav, 

312 Kau d)S KvpcoGeiav ifiol rrjs x^'^P^^ avrdJv rrjV 
TTpoGraGiav, rd re rrpds rovs rrepl rov la>vadrjv 
yeypapLpueva rrepl drraXXayijs , rrpds ovs Srj Kal rrjv 
emGroXrjv evOeojs Sierrep.iljdp.rjv, rroXvrrpaypbovrJGai 
rov KopLLGavra KeXevGas ri rroielv jxeXXovGiv. 


THE LIFE, 306-312 

war upon them, and to permit them to proceed 
against John and utterly exterminate him and 
Jonathan and his party. Furious as they were, I 
was yet able to restrain them ; advising them to hold 
their hands until we heard the report of the delegates 
whom they had sent to Jerusalem, without whose 
concurrence no action should be taken. This advice 
had its effect upon them. John, having failed to 
accomplish his plot, now returned to Gischala. 

(60) Not many days later our delegates returned Return of 
and reported that popular indignation had been •losepims' 
deeply roused against Ananus and Simon, son of confirmation 
Gamaliel, for having, without the sanction of the pj^l^'ti^^ent. 
general assembly, sent emissaries to Galilee to 
procure my expulsion from the province ; they added 
that the people had even set off to burn down their 
houses. They also brought letters, whereby the 
leading men of Jerusalem, at the urgent request of 
the people, confirmed me in my command of Galilee, 
and ordered Jonathan and his colleagues to return 
home forthwith. After reading these instructions, 
I repaired to the village of Arbela," where I convened 
a meeting of the Galilaeans and instructed the 
delegates to tell them of the anger and detestation 
aroused at Jerusalem by the conduct of Jonathan 
and his colleagues, of the ratification of my appoint- 
ment as governor of their province, and of the written 
orders to my rivals to quit. These I at once dis- 
patched to the latter, giving orders to the bearer to 
take pains to discover how they intended to proceed. 

« Irbid, N.W. of Tiberias. 

^ Inserted only in R. 




313 (61 ) AefcL/xeyot S' eKelvoL rrjv eTTLGroXrjv Kal ra- 
paxOevre? ovn^ jjuerplajs /xeraTre/XTTOvrat rov Icoav- 
v-qv Kal TOV£ Ik rrj? ^ovXrjg tojv Tt^Septecov rovs 
re 7Tpa>T€Vovra? Ta^dpow, j^ov\-qv re TrporiOeaGiv 
GKOTTelaOaL KeXevovre? rl rrpaKreov eurlv avTOig. 

314 Ti^epievGL piev ovv avrexeadai pbdXXov iBoKei tojv 
rrpaypbdrow ov Setv yap e(f)aaav lyKaraXeiiTeaOaL 
rr]v TToXiv avTcov aVa^ eKeivois TTpoGTeOeipLevTqv, 
a'AAco? T6 /X7]S' ipiov pieXXovTog avrojv d^e^ccj^af 
rovro yap ws 'qTreiXrjKorog ipbov KareipevSovro 

315 o 8e ^lojdvvqs ov pbovov tovtol? GVvrjpeGKero, i^/cat] 
7Top€v6i]vaL he GVve^ovXevev avrwv rovs Svo Kanqyo- 
p-qGovrdg puov Trpos to ttXtjOo?, otl pL'q KaXa)g ra 
/card Tr]v TaXiXalav Slolkoj, Kal TreiGeiv pahiojg 
avTovs €(f)rj Sid re to d^toj/xa Kal TravTos TrXrjOovg 

316 evTpeTTUJs^ expvrog. ho^avTog ovv tov Ycoavvov 
KpaTiGT-qv €lG€vr]vo-)(^evai yi'ojpLrjv, eSo^e Svo puev 
drrteVat^ Trpog Tovg 'lepoGoXvpiLTas, Icovadrjv Kai 
Wvaviav, tovs eTepovg Se Svo p^ivovras iv Tjj TtjSe- 
ptdSt KaTaXiTTelv . GvveTTTjydyovTO 8e (^vXaKTjg kveKa 
TTJg iavTojv orrXiTag eKaTov. 

317 (62) Ti^epielg he Ta puev Teixq Trpovvo-qGav 
dG(f)aXLG6rjvai, Tovg evoiKovg he KeXevovGiV dva- 
Xa^elv Ta oTvXa, Kal Trapd ''Icodwov he pbeTeTTepbipavTO 
GTpaTiujTag ovk oXlyovg'qcrovTag , el herj- 
Geiev, avTolg Ta Trpog epue. tjv he 6 "lojavvrjg ev 

318 TiGxdXoLg. OL Toivvv rrepl tov ^Iwvdd-qv dval,€V- 
^avTeg aTTO Trjg Tc^epidhog, chg rjKov elg Aa/3aptrTa 
KOJpL-qv ev ralg eGxciTLalg Trjg TaXiXalag Keip.evr]v ev 
Toj pieydXcp Trehio), irepl p,eGrjV vvKTa ToZg epbolg 
(f)vXa^Lv ep^TTiTTTovGiv , ot Kal KeXevGavTeg avTovg 

^ So Josephus usually writes : ovxi- mss. 

THE LIFE, 31S-318 

(61) Profoundly agitated by the receipt of this Counter- 
letter, my opponents summoned John and the of the 
Tiberian councillors and the leading men of Gabara, g,^[bassy' ' 
and called a meeting to consider what action they 
should take. The Tiberians were of opinion that they 
should tighten their hold on the government, since 

their own city, having once gone over to them, ought 
not to be abandoned to its fate, particularly as I did 
not intend to leave them unmolested — falsely implying 
that I had made such a threat. John not only agreed 
to this, but further advised that two of their number 
should proceed to Jerusalem, to accuse me before 
the people of maladministration of the province of 
Galilee ; adding that their high rank and the usual 
fickleness of a crowd would facilitate the task of 
persuasion. John's proposal being voted the best, 
it was resolved that two of the envoys, Jonathan and 
Ananias, should go off to Jerusalem, leaving the Two of the 
other two behind them at Tiberias. The emissaries sent^to 
took with them an armed escort of a hundred men. Jerusalem 

(62) The Tiberians now took precautionary 
measures to secure their fortifications, ordered the 
inhabitants to be ready in arms, and requisitioned 
from John, who was back at Gischala, a large force 
to assist them against me, should the need arise. 
Meanwhile, Jonathan's party had left Tiberias and 
reached the village of Dabaritta, situated on the 
confines of Galilee in the Great Plain. ^ Here, about are arrested 
midnight, they fell into the hands of my guards, phu??" 
who ordered them to lay down their arms and kept s'i'^kIs. 

« Cf. § 126 above. 

^ cod. P : omitted by the rest. ^ evTpeirTojs R. 

* So ed. pr. : d7ret>at MSS. 



Ta OTrXa KaraOedOaL i(f)vXaGGov iv Secr/xor? €7n 

319 TOTTOV, Kadojg avrols ivrerdXfxrjv . 'ypd(f)€L Se npog 
ifjbe ravra Sr^Xcbv Aeuts", d> rrjv (f)vXaKrjv 7T€7TL- 
GT€VK€LV. TTapaXcTTajv ovv r^fiepas 3uo /cat pi-qSev 
iyvojK€vai TTpoGTroirjadpLevog , 7Te[.nfjas Trpos rovs 
Ti^epiels (Jvve^ovXevov avrols rd drrXa Karadepbi- 
vov£ drroX-ueLV rov? avOpoj-rrovg els rrjv iavrojv. 

320 ol Se, So^av yap elxov rovs J^ Trepl rov IcovdOrjv els 
rd 'lepoaoXvpba rjh-q SiaTreTTopevGOai, ^Xaa^'qp.ovs 
eTTOnqoavro rds aTTOKpioeis. p^r} KaraTrXayels S' 

321 eyd> Karaarpar'qyelv avrovs errevoovv. Trpos p^^v 
oi)v roijs TToXlras i^dTrretv TToXefxov ovk evopntov 
evue^es elvai, ^ovXopLevos S' avrovs dTroGTrdaai rcov 
TL^epLea)V, pLvplovs orrXiras rovs dptGrovs eTTiXe^as 
els rpels p^oipas hielXov, Kal rovrovs P'ev d(j)avd)s 
ev 'ASoj/^ats"^ TTpoGera^a Xo-)(^uivras TrepipbeveLV, 

322 X^^'-o^? S' els erepav KOjp.rjVy 6peLvr]V p,ev opbOLCJS, 
dTTe^ovGav Se rrjs Tt^eptaSos" reGGapas Grahiovs, 
elGTjyayov KeXevGas eKeivovs erreihdv Xdf^coGiv 
GTjpielov evOvs Kara^atveiv . avros Se rrjs KojpLr]s 

323 TTpoeXOcbv ev rrpovrrroj Ka9el,6}Jbrjv. ol he Tu^epiels 
opajvres e^erpexov Gwe^dys Kat TToXXd KareKepro- 
puovv roGavrrj yovv d(j)poGVvrj KareG)(^ev avrovs 
ojGre TTOLTjGavres evrpeTrrj KXivqv Trpovdeoav Kal 
rrepl avrr]v LGrdpt,evoL (hhvpovro pie^ pberd TratStas" 
Kal yeXcoros. StenOepi-qv S eyoj rrjv ipvx'^^ rjhecos 
rrjV dvoiav avrojv eTTi^Xerrajv. 

324 [QS) BouAo/xevo? Se St eveSpas Xa^elv rov St- 
pbojva Kal Gvv avro) 'loS^apoy, Trepupas Trpos avrovs 
TrapeKaXovv dXiyov rrjs TroXecos TToppco pbera (f)LXa)V 

•^ Tovs ed. pr. : 3iss. omit. 

^ juss. 8dbiJ.ais or Kdbfiais. This emendation, I venture to 


THE LIFE, 318-324 

them, in chains, on the spot, in accordance with my 
instructions. The news was reported to me in 
writing by Levi, to whom I had entrusted the 
command of the outpost. I then let two days elapse 
and, feigning ignorance of these events, sent to the 
Tiberians, advising them to lay down their arms and 
disiniss the envoys to their home. They, imagining 
that Jonathan and his colleague had by now reached 
Jerusalem, sent me an abusive reply. Nothing 
daunted, I laid my plans to outwit them. To open 
a campaign upon my fellow-citizens ^ I regarded as 
impious ; my object was to entice them away from 
the Tiberians. I accordingly selected ten thousand 
of my finest troops, and, forming them in three 
divisions, gave them orders to remain concealed in 
ambush in Adamah. A thousand more I posted in 
another village in the hills, four furlongs distant from 
Tiberias, with instructions to come down as soon as 
they received a signal. I then advanced and took 
up a position in the open in front of the village. 
Seeing this, the Tiberians used constantly to sally 
out of the tov/n and indulge freely in mockery of me. 
Indeed, so far did they carry their foolery, that they 
prepared and laid out a bier, and, standing round it, 
mourned for me with jests and laughter. I was 
myself amused at the spectacle of their mad 

(63) Desiring; to lav a trap to catch Simon and ^ tiiird 
Jozar,^ I now sent them an invitation to come out a entrai-ped. 
short distance from the city, with numerous friends 

"■ The two envoys from Jerusalem left at Tiberias, § 316. 

^ § 197. 

think, seems convincing. A place-name is needed, and 
Adamah (Ddmieh), some six miles S.W. of Tiberias, in the 
iiills, meets the requirements. ^ fxe omitted by PRA. 



TToXKcbv Tcov TTapaSvXa^ovrcov avrovs eXdelv ^ov- 
Xeodai yap k<j)iqv Kara^as OTTeiuaGOai Trpos avrovs 
Koi SLav€Lfxacr6aL ti]v rrpoGraGLav ttjs FaAtAata?. 

325 St/xoji^ /xev ovv Sta <Te> veoTTjTa^ kol Trpos eA77tSa"^ 
KepSovg aTTarrjdels ovk ojKvqGev iXdelv, 6 Se 'loj^a- 
pos iveSpav VTTOTrrevGa? epbeivev. dva^dvra St) rov 
St/xcuj^a [lera (j)iX(jjv rchv 'TTapacj^vXaGGOVTCov avrov 
VTravriaGas riG7ral,6p.iqv re (f}LXo(j)p6vcog Kal X^P''^ 

326 ^X^^^ (LiJLoXoyovv dva^o^vrt. fier^ ov ttoXv Se GVjji- 
TTepLrrarojv cLg Kara fiovas n ^ovXofJievog eLTzelv, 
67761 TToppcorepoj rwv (plXcxJV dTnjyayov, fieGOv 
apafjLevog ayayeXv etV ttjv KOjjJurjv rols fter' Ijiov 
(fylXoLS eSojKa, rovg OTrXlras 8e Kara^rjvaL KeXevGas 

327 rrpoGe^aXXov puer avrwv rfj Tt^eptaSt. fjidx'r]? Se 
yevoiievTiS aii(f)OT€poj96v Kaprepas Kal ogov ovtto) 
Tojv TLpepLECov VLKOJVTOJV , 7Te(j>€vyeLGav yap ol Trap* 
7]jjba}v OTrXlrai, to yivop^evov lSojv Kal rovs /xer' 
e/xaurou vrapaKaXeGa? viKchvras rjSrj rovs Tc^epLeX? 
€LS rrjv ttoXlv GweSloj^a. Irepav 8e h'uvap.iv 
eLGTrefjufjas^ 8 to, rrjs Xipjvrjs tt poGer a^a ttjv rrpcor-qv 

328 Xa^ovGLV oiKiav iiJLrrprJGaL. rovrov yevofidvov vojmi- 
Gavre? ol Tt^epLels elXTjcjiOai Kara Kpdro? avrojv 
rrjv ttoXlv vtto (j)6^ov piTTTOVGiv ret orrXa, fjierd 
yvvaiKwv Se Kal reKvojv LKerevov (f)€iGaG9ai rrjg 

329 TToXeoJS avrchv. eyoj Se Trpos tcl? ScTycret? eTTiKXa- 
g6€ls rovs pL€V GrpariQjras rrjs oppLrjs eTreGXov, 
avTos Se, Kal yap eGTripa KareXa^ev , p^erd tcov 
ottXltcov dTTo TTjS TToXiopKLas VTTOGTpeifjas TTepl T-qv 

330 Tov GOjfjbaTOs OepaTretav i.yivop.'qv. KaXeGas Se eVt 
T-qv eGTiaGLV rov HlpLOJva TrapcpLvOo-up^rjv Trepl tojv 

^ re veoT-qra., text emended : arevoTyjTa P, veoT-qra RMW, 
re avoiav A, 


THE LIFE, 324-330 

to protect them, explaining that I was anxious to 
come down and make terms with them with a view 
to a division of the supreme command of Gahlee. 
Simon, owing to his years and expectations of per- 
sonal profit, was deluded and came without hesita- 
tion ; Jozar, suspecting a plot, remained behind. 
Simon, accordingly, came up country with his escort 
of friends ; I met him, gave him a friendly greeting, 
and thanked him for coming. Not long after, walk- 
ing beside him as though I desired to speak with 
him in private, I drew him a considerable distance 
from his party, and then seized him round the waist 
and handed him over to the friends who attended 
me, to be conducted to the village. I then ordered 
down my troops and proceeded with them to the Josephus 
assault of Tiberias. A stubbornly contested en- ^^ib^e^ias : its 
gagement ensued, and the Tiberians, owing to the submission. 
flight of our men, had the battle almost in their 
hands, when, seeing the situation of affairs, I cheered 
on the troops that were with me and drove the 
Tiberians, now on the verge of victory, back into the 
town. I had also dispatched another contingent to 
enter the city by way of the lake, with orders to set 
fire to the first house which they took. This being 
successfully done, the Tiberians, supposing that their 
city had been carried by storm, threw down their 
arms in alarm, and, with their wives and children, 
implored me to spare it. Moved by their entreaties, 
I restrained the fury of the soldiers, and, as dusk had 
now fallen, abandoned the assault together with my 
troops, and retired for refreshment. I invited Simon 
to dine with me and consoled him for his fate, 

^ v.l. eXwidL ; irpos being* then adverbial. 



yeyovorojv , V7Ti(j)(yoviirjv re Sous' i(f)6SLa avro) Kal 
Tots" crvv avTO) 7Tapa7T€fjLip€Lv €L? lepocrdAu/za ^era 
rrdu'qs aucjiaXeiag . 

331 (64) Kara he ttjv eTTiovaav r^jjuepav fjuvpiovs 
eTTayofxevos oTrXiras fjKov els ttjv Tc^epidSa, Kal 
{jLeraTTefJLipdfJievos etV ro ardSiov rovs Trpojrovs 
avrojv rod ttXtjOovs eKeXevaa ^pdteLv otrives elev 

332 airioi ri]? aTTOGracreojg . evhei^aixevcov he rovg 
dvSpas, eKeivov? /xev hehejievovs els ttjv IcnraTrdrr^v 
ttoXlv e^ €77 efj^i/j a, rovs Se nepl rov 'Icovddrjv Kal 
'Ayaviav XiJGas tow heafichv Kal hovs e</>oSta /xera 
YtL/jLcovos Kai lojLapov Kai oTrXirajv TrevTaKoaiajv , 
ol Trapa(f)vXd^ov(jLv avro'us, e^eTrefiipa els tol 

333 'lepocroAu/xa. Tt^epiels Se rrdXiv TrpoueXdovres 
GvyyivojGKeiv avrols TrapeKdXovv vrepl rcJov Trerrpay- 
jjLevow, iTTavopdcLuecrOaL rds afMaprtas rfj fierd 
ravra rrpos e[JLe TTLGrei Xeyovres' rd S' eK rrjs 
StapTTayrjs nepiUGevaavTa Gojuai fie rols drroXeGa- 

334 GLV iSeovTO. Kayoj rols e)^ovGLv rrpoGerarrov els 
jjLeGGv rrdvra <^epeiv' d-rreiOojJvrojv Se iJLe)(pL rroXXov, 
OeaGdfJLei'os nva rojv Trepl e/xe Grpariojrayv XafiTrpo- 
repav rod GVvqOovs TTepiKeLjxevov GroXrjv eTTvdofirjV 

335 TToOev exoi. eiirovros he eK rrjs Kara ttoXlv dpTrayrjs, 
eKelvov [xev TrX-qyals iKoXaGa, rols he aAAotS" 
drraGLV rjTTeLXrjGa /Ltet^o; rLfJLOjpLav emOrjGeiv p,rj 
KOjJLLGaGLV eLS rovjKfiaves ooa rjpTraKeiGav . ttoXXojv 
he Gvvevexd^vrwv^ eKdGrco row Ii^epieojv ro eiTi- 
yvojGdev drrehojKa. 

336 (65) Teyovojs h evravda rrjs hirjyqGeojs ^ov- 
XofJLaL TTpos \ovGroVy KaL avrov rrjv Trepl rovrcjv 
TrpayfjLareiav yeypa(j)ora, irpos re rovs dXXovs rovs 

promising him and his companions a safe escort, with 
suppUes for the journey, to Jerusalem. 

(6i) On the following day I entered Tiberias with 
an army of ten thousand men, and summoning the 
leading citizens to the stadium, commanded them to 
give me the names of the authors of the revolt. The 
information being supplied, I dispatched the in- 
criminated individuals, in chains, to the town of 
Jotapata. Jonathan and Ananias I released and, The envoys 
providing them with supplies, sent them off together Jerusalem.^" 
with Simon and Jozar and five hundred soldiers to 
escort them to Jerusalem. The Tiberians now ap- 
proached me again and implored my forgiveness 
for their conduct, promising to make amends for the 
errors of the past by their loyalty in future. They 
besought me at the same time to recover what still 
remained of the plunder for those who had lost their 
property. I accordingly ordered all the possessors to 
produce everything. As there was considerable delay 
in obeying these orders I, observing that one of 
my soldiers was w^earing an unusually magnificent 
garment, asked him whence he obtained it. On his 
replying " From the sack of the city," I punished 
him with the lash, and threatened the rest with 
severer penalties if they failed to surrender their 
spoils. A mass of property being thus collected, I 
restored to each individual what he recognized as 
his own. 

(65) Having reached this point in my narrative, I Digression 
propose to address a few words to Justus, who has pro- Tiberias, 
duced his own account of these affairs, and to others f^V^'^l 

historian oi 
tlie war. 

^ P : (xvvaxQ^vTwv the rest. 



IcTTopiav fi€v ypd(f)€LV vmaxvoviievov? , rrepi he rrjv 
aXrjOeiav oXiyojpovs kol hi exOpav i) X^P^^ "^^ 

337 ipevhog ovk ivrpeTTopiivovs , jxiKpa hieXOelv / rrpdr- 
TOVGL fiev yap opboiov tl rots' Trepu uvp,^oXaicov 
TrXaGTCL ypd}i}xara ovvr id ela 1,-70) he jjbrjhejJLLav ojjlolojs 
TLpLOjpiav eKeivoLS hehievai KaracjipovovGi rrjs aXiq- 

338 deia?. 'lovaro? yovv Gvyypdcf^ecv rd? Tvepl rovrov^ 
e77LX€Lp'>]Ga9 7Tpd^€L? Tov TToXefjLov, VTTep Tov hoKelv 
(^iXoTTOvos elvai eiiov y^ev KareifjevGrai, -qX-qOevoe 
he ovhe Trepl rrjs Trarpihos. odev, aTroXoyq aaadai 
yap vvv dvdyKTjv e;(co KaTaifjevhopLaprvpovpLevos , 

339 epoj rd p^expi^ v^v uecnwTrrjpieva. Kai fjurj Oavfjidaj] 
ng on fjbr) rrdXai Trepl rovrcov ehrjXojaa' ro) yap 
iUToplav dvaypd(i>ovrL rd jJLev dXrjdeveiv dvayKolov, 
e^eoTLV §' dp.0JS [jLTj mKpchs Tag rivojv TTOv-qpiag 
eXeyx^iv, ov 8ta ttjv rrpos eKeivovg X'^P'-^ dXXd hid 


340 Hwg ovv, Iva 4>a) Trpo? avrdv ojg rrapovra, lovGre, 
heivorare cruyypacfyeajv, rovro yap avx^lg Trepi ae- 
avTov, aiTLOL yeyovajjiev eyo'j re Kal FaAtAatot rfj 
TTarpthi GOV rijg rrpdg Paj/xatous" /cat Trpog rov 

341 ^aGiXea GrdGeojs ; nporepov ydp rj ifie rijg 
TaXiXaLag Grparrjydv vtto rov kolvov row \epoGO- 
XvpLLrojv x^'-P'^'^ovrjOrjvai, gv Kal irdvreg Tt^epLeXg 
ov fj.6vov dveLXri(f)are rd drrXa, dAAo, Kat rag ev rfj 
'Lvpla heKa TToXetg erroXefielre. gv yovv rag KO)fiag 
avrcov everrpiqGag Kai o Gog OLKerrjg eTTi rrjg Trapa- 

342 rd^eojg eKeLvrjg eireGev. ravra he ovk iycb Xeyoj 
fiovog, aAAd Kal ev rolg OveGrraGiavov rov avro- 

^ The bracketed words occur in A only. 
* W : the rest tovtoju. 

" Probably an official record in T.atin based on the field- 
1 24- 

THE LIFE, 336-342 

who, while professing to write history, care Uttle 
for truth, and, either from spite or partiahty, have 
no scruples about falsehood. The procedure of such 
persons resembles indeed that of forgers of contracts, 
but, having no corresponding penalty to fear, they 
can afford to disdain veracity. Justus, for instance, 
having taken upon himself to record the history of 
this war, has, in order to gain credit for industrious 
research, not only maligned me, but even failed to 
tell the truth about his native place. Being, there- 
fore, now compelled to defend myself against these 
false allegations, I shall allude to matters about 
which I have hitherto kept silence. My omission to 
make such a statement at an earlier date should not 
occasion surprise. For, while veracity is incumbent 
upon a historian, he is none the less at liberty to 
refrain from harsh scrutiny of the misdeeds of 
individuals, not from any partiality for the offenders, 
but because of his own moderation. 

How, then, Justus — if I may address him as though Justus, not 
he were present — how, most clever of historians, as res^ponsibie 
vou boast yourself to be, can I and the Galilaeans be ^°'^ ^'!^ ^ 

111 •ii/'i. • r • levolt of 

held responsible tor the insurrection ot your native Tiberias 
city against the Romans and against the king ; seeing *^°"^ Home, 
that, before I was elected by the general assembly 
at Jerusalem to the command of Galilee, you and all 
the citizens of Tiberias had not only resorted to arms, 
but were actually at war with the towns of the Syrian 
Decapolis ? It was you who burnt their villages, 
and your domestic fell in the engagement on that 
occasion. This is no unsupported assertion of my 
own. The facts are recorded in the Commentaries^ 

notes of Vespasian. Cf. § 358, and the Commentaries of 
Julius Caesar on the Gallic War. 



Kpdropos VTTOfjLvrjfiaGLP ovtojs yeyparrrai, Kai riva 
rpoTTOv iv IlroAe/LtatSt OveaTraoriavov Kare^orjaav 
ol rcbv heKa rroXecov kvoLKOi, TLpiojpiav V7tog)(€IV 

343 (J€ rov aiTiov a^iovvres- koI heSojK€LS dv SiKirjv 
OvearraGLavov KeXeduavros , €l (jLtj ^auiXevs AypiTT- 
TTas Xa^dw e^ovaiav drroK^elvai G€, rroXXd rrjs 
dSeXchrjs ^epevLK-qg SeVjdeLGrjg, ovk dveXdw 3e8e- 

344 fjievov eTrl rroXvv -x^povov icjivXa^ev. Kal at /xerd 
ravra 8e TToXirelai gov GaSojg iiJL(f)avLi,ovGiv rov re 
I^LOV rov dAAoy Kal on gv rrjv TrarplSa 'PojfMaicjv 
dTriGrrjGas' ojv rd reKji'qpia Kayoj h'qXojGOj fxer 

345 BowAo/xat d' ^IrreZv Kal Trpds rovs dXXovs Tt/Se- 
piels dXiya hid g€ Kal TrapaGrrJGai rots ivrvyxd- 
V€LV p.iXXovGiv rat? tcxropiats" on jjLTjre ^iXopajp^aLOi 

346 jiTire (j^iXoBaGiXeis y€y6vare. row iv rfj FaAtAaia. 
TToXeojv at p^eyiGrai ^€7T(f)copLS Kal Tt/5eptds" '/] G'q 
TTarpis, oj 'loucrre. dAAd He7T(j)(jjpLS p-^v ev rep 
p^eGairdroj rrjg FaAtAatas" K€Lp.€VTj Kal Trepl avrrjv 
KcLp^as exovGa TroAAds", /cat n Kal 6paGdv€GdaL 
Svvap.evrj rrpos 'V(jjpi,aLOVS, etWp rjdeX-qGev, €V)(€pdjs, 
SieyvojKvla rfj rrpos rovs heorroras ip^p^eveiv TTiGrei 
KdpL€ rrjs TToXeojs avrojv i^eKXecGe Kal Grparev- 
GaGdal rtya rojv TToXtrajv lovhaiois iKwXvG€v. 

347 OTTO)? he Kal rd rrpds rjlJids dG(f)aXels eUv, 'qrrarrjGav 
/.t€ r€LX€Giv avrwv rrjv ttoXlv dp^upcDcrat Trpo- 
rpeijjavreSy Kal jrapd KecrrtoL' raAAou rov row iv 
rfj Hvpla 'Pa>p,aLKd)v raypbdrojv -qyep.ovevovros (f)pov- 
pdv eKovres ihi^avro, KaracjjpovqGavres ipLov rore 
/xeya hwapiivov Kal rraGiv 8t iKTrXij^eajg ovros. 

348 TToXiopKovpLevTqs re rrjs p^eyiGnqs rjpidjv TToXeojs 


THE LIFE, 342-348 

of the Emperor Vespasian, which further relate how 
insistently the inhabitants of Decapolis pressed 
Vespasian, when at Ptolemais, to punish you, as the 
culprit. And punished you would have been under 
his orders, had not King Agrippa, though empowered 
to put you to death, at the urgent entreaty of his 
sister Berenice, commuted the death penalty to a 
long term of imprisonment. Moreover, your sub- 
sequent public life is a sure index of character and 
proves that it was you w^ho caused the revolt of your 
native city from Rome. Proofs of these statements 
I shall adduce presently. 

I have, however, a few words which I would address, Contrast 
on your account, to the other inhabitants of Tiberias, pro-Roman 
in order to demonstrate to future readers of this Sepphoris 
history " that' you and your fellow-citizens were 
friendly neither to the Romans nor to the king. Of 
the cities of Galilee the largest are Sepphoris and 
Tiberias — your native Tiberias, Justus. Now, 
Sepphoris, situated in the heart of Galilee, surrounded 
by numerous villages, and in a position, without any 
difficulty, had she been so inclined, to make a bold 
stand against the Romans, nevertheless decided to 
remain loyal to her masters, excluded me from the 
town, and forbade any of her citizens to take service 
with the Jews. Moreover, in order to secure them- 
selves against me, they inveigled me into fortifying 
the city with walls, and then voluntarily admitted a 
garrison provided by Cestius Gallus, commander-in- 
chief of the Roman legions in Syria ; flouting me at 
a time when I exercised great powder and was 
universally held in awe. Again, when Jerusalem, a.d. to. 

" Literally " the histories," perhaps meaning " our (rival) 
histories." «« 



'lepocroXiJuow /cat rod kolvov rrdvrojv Upov KLvhv- 
veTJOVTos iv TTj Tojv rroXeiJ^Low i^ovata yeviadai, 
ovfJbiJLaxiOLV ovK erreiiipav, /xt) ^ovX6jjl€vol Sok€lv 

349 Kara PojjJiaLOJV OTrXa Xaf^elv. rj Se crrj Trarpis, w 

\ovure, Keiixivq iv^ rfj T ewrjaapirihi^ XljJivrj Kal 
a7T€')(ovoa "Ittttov jxkv crrahia rpiaKovra, Vahdpojv 
8e i^rjKovra, ^KvdoTToXeojs he e'iKoai Kal eKarov 
rrj? VTTTjKoov ^aoiXeZ, p,rjheiJiids he TToXeoJS lovdalow 
TTapaKeijieviqs , €l rjOeXev r-qv Trpo? 'Voj}xaiovs TTLariv 

350 4>vXdrreLv, pahicog ihvvaro. Kal yap ttoXv? rjre 
hFjiJLog Kal ottXojv rjiiTTopelre. dXX\ cos" crv ^r}9, 
alno? vfJAv"^ iyoj rore. fxerd ravra he ris, (h 
'lovGre ; rrpo yap rrj£ 'lepoaoXvpiajv rroXiopKias 
olha? V7TO 'Pojfialois ifie yevofievov , kol ^lajrairara 
Kara Kpdros XTjcfidevra c^povpid re ttoXXo., ttoXtjv re 

351 FaAtAatojv oxXov Kara r-qv jxa-xjiv Treuovra. ror 
ovv e\pr\v v\xas rravros aTT'qXXayjJievovs rod St efie 
cbol^ov piipal re rd orrXa Kal TrapaGrrjcraL roj re 
pacriAeL Kat rajfxaioLS on orj ov^ eKovres aAA 
dvayKaadevres errl rov Trpo? avrovg ajpfM-qcrare TToXe- 

352 jiov. vfxel? he Kal Trepiepieivare OveorraGiavov , 
eojs avrog a(j)LK6[jbevog jierd Trdu-qs rfj? hwap^eajs 
TTpocreXdoL rols reix^-Otv, Kal rore hid ^o^ov ra 
OTrXa KareBeuOe^- Kal Trdvrwg dv vfJLwv -q ttoXis -qXoj 
Kara. Kparog, el jitj roj f^aoiXel heofieva) Kal rrjv 

^ eirl Cobet. - Yeui'Tja-apidL PR. 

^ Niese : mss. viiJ.rjv (perhaps rightly) or v/j.i2v. 

* Hudson : KaraOeadai MSS. 

° " Thi^ only means that Scythopolis was on the side of 
Agrippa and the Romans." It was " an independent town 


THE LIFE, 348-352 

our capital, was besieged, and the Temple, which 
was common to us all, was in danger of falling into 
the enemy's hands, they sent no assistance, wishing 
to avoid all suspicion of having borne arms against 
the Romans. 

Your native city, Justus, on the contrary, situated and anti- 
on the lake of Gennesaret, and distant from Hippos Tiberias. 
thirty furlongs, from Gadara sixty and from Scytho- 
polis, which was under the king's jurisdiction, '^ one 
hundred and twenty, with no Jewish city in the 
vicinity, might easily, had it so desired, have kept 
faith with the Romans. You were a populous com- 
munity and well supplied with arms. But, you 
maintain, it was I who was responsible for your 
revolt at that time. Well, who was responsible, 
Justus, later on ? For you are aware that before 
the siege of Jerusalem I was taken prisoner by the 
Romans, that Jotapata and many other fortresses 
had been carried by storm, and that a large number 
of Galilaeans had fallen in battle. That was the 
proper occasion for you, when you had nothing 
whatever to fear from me, to abandon hostilities and 
to convince the king and the Romans that it was not 
your own free will but compulsion which drove you 
into war against them. Instead, you waited until 
Vespasian arrived in person, with his whole army, 
beneath your walls ; and then, at last, in alarm, you 
did lay down your arms. But your city would 
undoubtedly have been taken by storm, had not 

under Roman supremacy," and never, apparently, in the 
possession of any of the Herods. Schiirer, H.J. P., div. ii., 
vol. i. p. 112. "You had pro-Roman towns at hand to 
protect you " is the argument. Josephus is here hard put 
to it to answer Justus, since, for all his temporizing, he did 
take the lead against the Romans in the opening campaign. 

VOL. I K 129 


avoLav vfJLOw rrapairovfidvcp GVvex<-opr](jev OveaTra- 
Giavog. ovK eyoj to'lvvv atVtos", aAA vfiels^ ol 

353 TToXefJLLKci cf)povrjGavTeg. tj ov fiefivqade on roaav- 
TaKLS vfjLcov iyKparrjg yevojievos ouSeVa Sie(f)deLpa, 
araaudCovTe? 8' vjxeZs Trpos dXXrjXov? , ov Sta Trjv 
TTpos 'Pojfiaiovs Kal rov f^acrcXea €Vvoiav, hid he 
TTjV vfierepav avrojv TTOvrjpLav, eKarov oySorjKovra 
Trivre row ttoXltcov aTTeKreLvare, Kara rov Kaipov 
eKelvov €[j,ov rroXiopKOvpievov iv lajrarraroig vtto 

354: ^Pojfj^alojv ; ri 8'; ov-)(l Kal Kara rrjv row 'lepo- 
GoXvparow TToXiopKLav hiG^^iXioi Ti^epLeajv i^- 
TjrdGOrjGaVy ol pi^ev TreTrrojKores ol be Xr](j)6evres 
alxP'dXojroL; dXXd av TToXefxios ov yeyovevai <^'q- 
aeis, on rrpds jSacriAea ror" e(j)vyeg. Kal rovro he 

355 Sid rov i^ ifiov (ho^ov (j}-qp.i oe TreTTOnqKevai. Kdycb 
l^ev TTOvTjpo?, COS Xeyeis' 6 8e ^auiXevs 'AyptVTras" o 
rr^v ipv')(rjv ooi Gvy)(cnprjaas v-tto OveoTTaoiavov 
davelv KaraKpiOevn, 6 roGovroLS hojprjGdiievos 
■)(prjiJLaGLv, rivos eveKev VGrepov his p^ev ehrjGe, 
roGavrdKLs he (jivyelv rrjV rrarplha irpoGera^ev Kal 
arrodavelv he KeXevGas drra^ rfj dh€Xcf)fj BepevLKrj 

356 TToAAa herjdeiGTj rrjv gtjv Gojrrjpiav e^^apiGaro ; Kal 
pierd roGavra he gov KaKovpyqp.ara rd^iv eTn- 
GroXow GOi TTLGrevGag, cus" Kal ravrais evpe pahi- 
ovpyov, drrviXaGe rrjs dipeojs. dXXd rrepl p,ev rovrojv 
eAeyx^i-v err aKpipeg eoj. 

357 QavfidteLv 8' eneiGL pbOL rrjV gtjv dvaihetav , on 
roXp^qs Xeyeiv dTrdvrwv rcov rr^v Trpayp^areiav 
ravrrjv yeypafhorojv avros dp^eivov e^-qyyeXKevai, 
P'Tjre ra rrpax^^vra Kara rrjv TaXiXaiav imGrdp^evog , 

** Or " your native place." 

THE LIFE, 352-357 

Vespasian yielded to the king's intercession to 
condone your folly. The responsibility therefore 
rests not with me, but with you, Tiberians, and your 
passion for war. Have you forgotten how, often as I 
had you in my power, I put not one of you to death ; 
whereas you in your party quarrels, not from any 
loyalty to the Romans and the king, but of your 
own malice, slew one hundred and eighty-five of 
your fellow-citizens at the time when I was besieged 
in Jotapata by the Romans ? Again, were there 
not two thousand Tiberians found at the siege of 
Jerusalem, of whom some fell and others were taken 
prisoners ? 

But you, Justus, will urge that you at least were Relations 
no enemy [of Rome], because in those early days jf^g^us and 
you sought refuge with the king. I reply that it Agrippa. 
was fear of me which drove you to do so. I too, 
then, you assert, was a knave. Well, how do 
you account for your treatment by King Agrippa, 
to whom you owed your hfe, when condemned to 
death by Vespasian, and all that wealth which he 
lavished upon you ? Why did he subsequently twice 
put you in irons and as often command you to quit 
the country,^ and once order you to execution, when 
he spared your life only at the earnest entreaty of his 
sister Berenice ? And when, after all your knavish 
tricks, he had appointed you his private secretary, 
he detected you once more in fraudulent practices 
and banished you from his sight. But I forbear to 
scrutinize these matters too closely. 

I cannot, however, but wonder at your impudence Justus's 

•t . . j_.i. j.-'j.u belated and 

in daring to assert tiiat your narrative is to be pre- erroneous 
ferred to that of all who have written on this subject, JJ^^^^^^ °^ 
when you neither knew what happened in Galilee — 



rj£ yap ev l^-qpvroj rore Trapa ^acnXel, p^rjO^ ocra 
€77a9ov 'Pco/xatot eTrl rrj? lajraTTarojv TToXiopKiag 
r) ehpaoav rjfjids jrapaKoXovdi^orag , fJnjO ocra Kar 
ifxavTov errpa^a TToXiopKoviMevo? Svvrjdelg TTvOeaOai' 
TTCtrre? ya.p ol aTrayyeiXavTe? av SL€cf)9apr]Gav eVt 
358 'T'^yS" TTapard^eojg iKeiv-qs- o-AA taw? ra Kara ttjv 
'lepoGoXvfJLLrcov rrpaxOevra p.€Ta aKpijieias (f)-qG€L£ 
Gvyyeypachevai. Kat rrajg olov re; ovre yap roj 
TToXejjLOj rrapirvx^S ovre ra Kataapos" aveyvojs 
VTTOjxvqiJLara. ixeyiGrov he reKjJi7]pLOV' rots Lyap]^ 
Kataapos" VTropivijpLaGLv ivavriav TreTTOirjGai rrjv 

359 ypaSrjv. el he dappelg ajxeLvov arravrow Gvyyeypa- 
(j)evai, hia ri tojvrojv QveGTraGiavov Kai Ttrou rojv 
avroKparopowrov TToXefjLov yevofjuevcov' Kal ^aGiXeco? 
^AypLTTTTa rrepiovros eVt Kal row eK yevov? avrov 
TTavrojVy avhpojv rrjs ^^XX-qviKrj? rraihela^ errl 
TrXelGrov rjKovrojv, r-qv iGroptav ovk e(f)epe? etV 

360 P'^GOV ; 7Tp6 yap eiKOGiv irojv etx^s yeypap^fievrjv 
Kal Trap" elhorojv ep.eXXe? rrjg aKpiBeLa? r-qv 
pbaprvplav aTTO^epeGdai. vvv h , or eKelvoi p,€v 
ovKer^ elGLV p,e^' rjpLcoVy eXeyxdrjvai h ov vofjiiL^eL?, 

361 Ov pLTjv eyoj gol rov avrov rporrov rrepl rrj? 
epiavrov ypa(f)rj? eheiGa, dXX avroZs eTrehojKa rols 
avroKpdropGL ra ^i^Xia piovov ov rcov epyojv en 
^XeTTOfievow GVvfjheLV yap ep.avro) rerrjp-qKori rrjv 
rrj£ dXr]6eia^ TrapdhoGLV, e^' fj pLaprvplag rev^eGOai 

362 TTpoGhoKiqGas ov hirjpaprov. Kal dXXocs he ttoXXoXs 
evdv£ eTrehojKa rrjv LGropiav, chv evLOi Kai napa- 
rerev'x^eiGav roj rroXepLO), KaOdrrep ^o.GiXevs AypuTT- 

^ ins. R: the rest orait. 
^ Tov TToX. yep.]'TCL)v top irokeixov KaTepyaaafj-efuv R, 


THE LIFE, 357-362 

for you were then at Berytus « with the king— nor 
acquainted yourself with all that the Romans endured 
or inflicted upon us at the siege of Jotapata ; nor 
was it in your power to ascertain the part which I 
myself played in the siege, since all possible inform- 
ants perished in that conflict. Perhaps, however, 
you will say that you have accurately narrated the 
events which took place at Jerusalem. How, pray, 
can that be, seeing that neither were you a combatant 
nor had you perused the Commentaries of Caesar,^ as 
is abundantly proved by your contradictory account ? 
But, if you are so confident that your history excels 
all others, why did you not publish it in the lifetime 
of the Emperors Vespasian and Titus, who conducted 
the war, and while King Agrippa and all his family, 
persons thoroughly conversant with Hellenic culture, 
were still among us ? You had it written twenty 
years ago, and might then have obtained the evidence 
of eyewitnesses to your accuracy. But not until now, 
when those persons are no longer with us and you After 
think you cannot be confuted, have you ventured to ^'^' ^^^' 
publish it. 

I had no such apprehensions concerning my work, contrasted 
No ; I presented the volumes to the Emperors them- of josephus 
selves, when the events had hardly passed out of sight, 
conscious as I was that I had preserved the true 
story. I expected to receive testimony to my 
accuracy, and was not disappointed. To many others 
also I immediately presented my History, some of 
whom had taken part in the war, such as King 

" Beirut. " i.e. Titus ; cf. § 342 (note). 



363 T^o-S" f<o.^ TLves avrov rcov crvyyevcov . 6 jiev yap 
avroKparcop Tiros \ovtojs^^ eV fjbovcov avrcov 
i^ovXrjdr] ttjv yvojuiv toZs dvOpcoTroig Trapahovvai 
Tojv TTpd^eojV) ware y^apd^as rfj iavrov X^^P'^ '^^ 

364 ^L^Xla h-qp.OGidjuai TTpoaera^ev 6 8e ^aaiXevg 
^ XypiTTTTas e^rjKovra Svo yiypa(f)ev eTTLcrroXd? rfj 
rrj£ dXrjdeLag TrapahoueL piaprvpdjv. cLv St) Kal 8i;o 
VTTera^a Kal ^ovXrjdevn goi rd yeypap^pbiva yvdjvai 
Trdpeunv i^ avrdw 

365 " BacrtAet'S' AypiTTTTas ^IcoorjTroj rw cf)LXrdrcp 
XOLLpecv. rjhLura SirjXOov r-qv ^l^Xov,' Kal jjlol ttoXv 
eTTLp^eXearepov eho^ag rojv ravra avyypailjdvra>v 
r)Kpi^8ojK€vaL. 7T€p7T€ 8e pLOL Kal rds XoLTrds. 

366 '' BacrtAeus' AypiTTTTas ^Icjlxt^tto) ro) (l)iXrdrcp 
Xcitpeiv. i^ (hv eypaipas ouSe/xtas" eoiKas XPTI^^^^ 
hihaGKaXias VTrep rod piadelv rjpds dXovs dpxrjOev. 
drav pevroi GvvrvxD? P'OL, Kal avros g€ ttoAAo, 
Kar-qx'rjCTO^ tojv ayvoovpevojv ." 

367 E/LAOt Se^ dTTaprLGd€LG7]9 rrjs LGropias dXt]- 
deiq.y'' ov KoXaKevojv, ot'Se yap irre^aXXev aura), 

OVde €LpOJV€v6p.€VOS, d)5 GV <j)rjG€L?, TTOppOJ yap TjV 

eKELVOs roiadrrjs KaKo-qdeias, dXXd r'qv dXijdecav 

€paprvp€L, Kadarrep TTavreg ol ralg iGropiaiS 

ivrvyxdvovr€S . dXXd rd pev Trpos ^\ovGrov dvay- 

Kaiav XafSovra r-qv TrapeK^aGLV^ P'^XP^ rovrojv 

[yiP'lv \' XeXexOoj. 

1 ora. PR. 2 ^^,^Xov PA. 

3 RAMW add (piXrare. 

* Text doubtful : R ovtccs 5e uoc : Niese marks a lacuna. 

° Doubtful: Hudson suggests 'A7pt7r7ras. 

^ irapadecLv PR. ' P : the rest omit. 


THE LIFE, 363-367 

Agrippa and certain of his relatives. Indeed, so 
anxious was the Emperor Titus tliat my volumes 
should be the sole authority from which the world 
should learn the facts, that he affixed his own 
signature to them and gave orders for their publica- 
tion ; while King Agrippa wrote sixty-two letters 
testifying to the truth of the record. Two of these I 
subjoin, from which you may, if you will, learn the 
nature of his communications : 

" King Agrippa to dearest Josephus, greeting. I 
have perused the book with the greatest pleasure. 
You seem to me to have written with much greater 
care and accuracy than any who have dealt with 
the subject. Send me the remaining volumes. 

" King Agrippa to dearest Josephus, greeting. 
From what you have written you appear to stand 
in no need of instruction, to enable us all to learn 
(everything from you) from the beginning." But 
when you meet me, I will myself by word of 
mouth inform you of much that is not generally 

And, on the completion of my History^ not in 
flattery, which was contrary to his nature, nor yet, 
as you ^ no doubt will say, in irony, for he was far 
above such malignity, but in all sincerity, he, in 
common with all readers of my volumes, bore witness 
to their accuracy. But here let me close this digres- 
sion on Justus which he has forced upon me. 

" The king's alleged " culture " here fails him ; the Greek 
is vulgar and obscure. For ^/xSs 6\cvs, " us all," perhaps we 
should read 7?/.tas oXw;, " us completely." 

^ i.e. Justus, whom he again addresses. 



368 (66) ^LOLK-qaas S iyoj ra Kara rrjv Tt^eptaSa 
KaL KaOioas rwv (j)iXojv avveSpcov i^ovX€v6jJL7]v Trepl 
TOJV Trpos Icodvvrjv TTpaxdrjcroiJLevcov . iSoKei fxev 
ovv TTOLGL rots' YaXcXaloLg oTrXiaavra TTovras oltt- 
eXdelv irrl rov ^lojdvvqv Kal Xa^elv Trap" avrov hcKa? 

369 COS" TTaarjs rrjg Graaews cltlov yeyovoros . ovk 
TipeoKoix-qv 8 iyoj rals yvcofjLais avrcov irpoaipeGiv 
k-xojv Tcis rapaxd-s X^P^^ (f)6vov KaraareXXeLv. 
odev St] 7TaprjV€Ga TraGav etGeveyKaGdai Trpovoiav 
VTTep rod yvajvai ra ovofJLara tojv vtto to) ^Icodvvrj 

370 ovTOJV. TTOirjGavrwv 8' iKeivojv yvovg iyoj rovs 
avdpcoTTOvg olrives rjGav i^eOrjKa Trpoypapjia, Sta 
Tovrov TTLGTLv Kal Se^idv Trporeivajv rots- fierd 

lojdvvov OeXrjGaGLV Xafjelv jxerdvoiav , Kal rjijuepcov 
€iKOGi xpovov rrpoereiva rots' ^ovXevGaGdai diXovGiv 
7T€pi TOW eavTols Gvp.(j)ep6vrojv . riTreiXovv Se, el 
/XT] piipovGLv ra oTrXa, KaraTrpiqGeiv avrojv rds ol- 

371 KTjGeis Kal S-qpiOGLcoGeiv ra? ovGLag. ravra 8e 
aKOVGavres ol dvdpojTTOL Kal rapaxQ^vres ov n 
pierpLOJS KaraXeLTTOVGLv [lev rov ^la>dvv7]v, ra 8' 
oTrXa piijjavres tjkov rrpos pie rerpaKiGXiXiOL rov 

372 apiOpbdv ovres. pLovoi 8e rqj ^lojdvvr] rrapepLecvav ol 
TToXlrai^ Kal ^evoi rivks €K rrjs Tvplojv pL-qrpoTToXeojs 
oj£ ;)(;tAtot Kal nevraKOGioL. "lojdvviqs p.ev ovv ovroj 
KaraGrparriy-qdels vrr^ ipiov rd Xolttov iv rfj TrarplSi 
rrepL(j}0^os epbeivev. 

373 (67) Kara rovrov 8e rov Kacpdv HeTTcfxxjplraL 
OapprjGavres dvaXapL^dvovGLV drrXa, Trerroiddres rfj 
re rcx)V reix^ov oxvporrjri Kal roj rrpds irepoLS ovra 
pie opdv. 7T€pL7TovGL Stj TTpos \\eGriov TdXXov, 
Hvpias 8' Tjv ovros rjyepicov, TrapaKaXovvres '^ 
avrov TjKeiv ddrrov TTapaXrjipopLevov avrcov rrjv 

THE LIFE, 368-373 

(66) Having; settled the affairs of Tiberias," I called John of 


a meeting of my friends, to deliberate on the measures deserted by 
to be taken against John. Tlie Galilaeans were ™^ost of his 

n ■ • 1 Till 1 n adherents, 

unanimously oi opinion that 1 should arm tliem ail, 
march against him and punish him as the author of 
all these disturbances. This opinion I was unable 
to share, being determined to quell these disorders 
without bloodshed. I, accordingly, advised them to 
do their utmost to discover the names of John's 
followers This they did, and I, on learning who 
these men were, issued a proclamation tendering 
pledges of security to any of John's adherents who 
were prepared to change their policy. I allowed 
twenty days' grace for deliberation as to the course 
most conducive to their own interests ; threatening, 
on the other hand, unless they abandoned their arms, 
to burn their houses to the ground and confiscate 
their property. On hearing this they were in the 
utmost alarm, deserted John, flung down their 
arms, and joined me, to the number of four thousand. 
John was left with no more than his fellow-citizens 
and some fifteen hundred foreigners from the Tyrian 
metropolis. Thus outmanoeuvred by me, he re- 
mained thencefortli, completely cowed, in his native 

(67) About this time the Sepphorites, emboldened Seppiioris, 

by the strength of their walls and my pre-occupation "uies'to^c?'^ 

with other affairs, ventured to take up arms.^ They Gaiius is 

accordingly sent a request to Cestius Gallus, the josephusand 

governor of Syria, either to come himself without nearly de- 
Si 111-. 11 stroyed by 

delay and take over their city, or to send them a his soldiers. 

« The narrative, broken oflF at § 335, is here resumed. 
Cf. B. ii. 622-625. ^ Gf. B. ii. 645 f. 

1 So, surely rightly, MW : oTrXrrai PRA. 



374 TToXiv 7) TrefJiifjaL rov£ (f)povp-qGOVTa?. 6 Se FaAAo? 
iXevGeaOai fiev vTreax^ro, TTore 8e ov Stccra^r^aev. 
Kayoj ravra TTvOo/Jbevog, dvaXa^ojv rov? avv efjiot 
Grpanojras koI opfjirjaag eTrl rovg SeTT^CDptras" 

375 elXov avrcjv Kara Kpdros rrjv ttoXlv. Xa^opLevoL 
3' d(f)oppirjg OL FaAtAatot Kal Trapelvai rod p^iaovs 
rov Kacpov ov ^ovXrjdevreg, elxov yap dir^x^das Kai 
Trpos" ravrrjv r-qv ttoXcv, a)ppL7]Gav d)£ dphr]v d(j)avi- 

376 GOVT€s TTavrag gvv rols eTTOiKois ■ elGhpap^ovres 
ovv iv€7TLpiTrpaGav avrojv rd? oiKias epr^pLovs 
KaraXapb^dvovT€9' ol ydp dvOpcoTTOL Setcravres" et? 
rrjV dKpoTToXiv Gwecf^vyov St?]/3Tra^ov Se Travra 
Kal rpoTTOv ovSeva 7Topdi]G€ajg Kara rcov 6p,o(f)vXa>v 

377 TTapeXipLTTavov . ravr^ iyd) ^eacra/xevo? G(f)6Spa 
^Leredrjv dviapajs Kal TraveGdai TrpoGerarrov avrots", 
VTTOpLLfMvrjGKcov OTL TOiavTa Spdv 6p.o(j)vXovs OVK 

378 €GTLV oGiov. irrel 8' oure TrapaKaXovvrog ovre 
TvpoGrdGGovros rJKOvov, ivLKa Se to pAGOs ra? 
7TapaiviG€igy rovs TTiGTOTdrovs rcov TrepL ipLe (piXcjv 
eKeXevGa StaSowat Xoyovs cLg 'PojpLaLOJV /xera 
pi€ydXr]s hvvdpieojg Kard ro erepov ftepos" rrjg 

379 TToXeojg eLG^e^XrjKorojv. ravra 8' eTToiovv VTrep 
rod rrj? (f)ijpirjg ipLrreGOVGr]? eTTLGX^^v pL€V^ rcov 
VaXiXaicov rd? opp^ds, hiaGajGai he r-qv rcov 
Y,€7T(j)0jpLr(x)v TToXiv. Kal reXo£ TTpovxojprjGe ro 

380 Grparrjyrjpba- rrjg ydp dyy eXta? dKOVGavres i(f)0^r]- 
dr]Gav VTTep avrd)V Kal KaraXiTTovreg rd? aprrayas 
ecpevyov, pidXiGra 8' eVct Kdpue rov orparrjyov 
iojpcov ravrd rroLovvra' Trpos yap ro TTiGrov rrjg 
(f)-qp-q£ eGK-qTTropirjv opLOLCog avrols oiarLveGuai. 
H€7rcf)coplr at 8e Trap' eATitSa rrjv iavrcov vtto rod 
epLOV GO(f)LGpbarog eGcoOriGav . 


THE LIFE, 374-380 

garrison. Gallus promised to come, but named no 
date. Apprised of these negotiations, I marched 
with such troops as I had against Sepphoris and took 
the city by assault. The Gahlaeans, seizing this 
opportunity, too good to be missed, of venting their 
hatred on one of the cities which they detested, 
rushed forward, with the intention of exterminating 
the population, aliens and all. Plunging into the 
town they set fire to the houses, which they found 
deserted, the terrified inhabitants having fled in a 
body to the citadel. They looted everything, sparing 
their countrymen no conceivable form of devastation. 
I was deeply distressed by this spectacle and ordered 
them to desist, reminding them that such treatment 
of one's compatriots was impious. As, however, they 
refused to listen to either remonstration or command, 
my exhortations being overborne by their hatred, I 
instructed some of my friends around me, on whom 
I could fully rely, to circulate a report that the 
Romans had made their way into another quarter 
of the city with a large force. I did this in order 
that, when the rumour reached their ears, I might 
check the fury of the Galilaeans and so save Sepphoris. 
The ruse was eventually successful; for on hearing the 
news they were in terror of their lives, and abandoned 
their spoils and fled. They were the more impelled to 
do so, when they saw me, their general, setting 
them the example ; for, in order to lend colour to 
the rumour, I pretended to share their alarm. Thus 
were the Sepphorites, beyond their own expectations, 
saved by this device of mine from destruction. 

^ Hudson : jxe mss. 



381 (68) ^^o.l Tt^iSeptas" Se Trap' oAt'yoy avr^pTrdadrj 
VTTO YaXiXaiojv roiavrrjs alrias vrroTreGovcirjg . tow 
€K rrjs l^ovXrj? ol rrpajrot ypdcjiovGL rrpos tov 
^acriXea TrapaKaXovvre? a(f)LKeG9aL rrpos airrovs 

382 rrapaXrjipofievov rrjv ttoXlv. vrreax^TO 8' o ^acn- 
Xev? ep-)(€udai kol rds imGroXas dvriypd(j)eL koX 


TO Se yivos 'louSatoj, hihojGi Trpos tovs Ti^epiels 

383 <l>ep€LV. TOVTOV KopLiuavTa tcl ypapLpiaTa yvojpl- 
GavT€S ol FaAtAatot Kal GvXXaj^ovTes dyovGiv €7t^ 
ijjL€' TO 8e rrdv rrX'qdos, ojs rJKovcrev, rrapo^vvdev 

384 e(/)' orrXa TpeTreTai. GVva)(divTe? he ttoXXoI rravTa- 
Xodev^ KaTO. ttjv irrLOVGav tjkov €L£ Wgoj^Iv ttoXlv, 
evda hrj ttjv KaTaXvGLv iTTOLovfirjv, KaTa^o-qGeis re 
GSohpa eTTOLovvTO TTpoSoTiv oLTTOKaXovvTes rrjv 
Tt/jeptada Kal (SaGuXdo)? (ftiXrjv, eTTLTpeTreiV re 
Tj^Lovv avTols KaTa^aGLv dpS'qv d<j)avLGai' Kal 
yap TTpos Tovs ^ijiepLels el^ov d7T€)(d(J^S d->? Trpos 

TOVS T,€7T(bojpLTa5. 

385 (69) ^YyOJ 8' O-KOVGag TjTTOpOVV TlVa TpOTTOV 

e^apTTaGOj ttjV TifSepLaba tt]? TaXiXaiow opyrjs. 
apvfjGaGOai yap ovk iSvvdfirjv pLTj yeypacjievai tovs 
Ti^epiels KaXovvTas tov ^aGiXea- rjXeyxov yap at 
Trap €Keivov rrpos avTovs dvTLypa<^ai T-qv dXi^deLav. 

386 G-uvvovs ovv TToXX-qv yevojievos ojpav, " otl fjiev 

Tj^LK-qKaGLV," €L770V, " TL^€pL€LS olSa KayCO, TTjV 

ttoXlv 8 avTow Vfids ov kojXvgoj hiapTrdGai. hel 8' 
bfiojs Kai pera KpiGeojs rd T-qXiKavTa rrpdTTeiv. 
ov yap fiovoL TifjepLeLS rrpohoTai ttjs iXevOepias 
rjfjLow yeyovaGLv, aAAd ttoXXol Kal tcov iv FaAiAata 

387 hoKLpuOJTdTow . TTpoGp.eivaT€ Srj {Jiexpi' tovs aLTiovs 
aKpL^ojs eKpiddoj, Kal t6t€ TrdvTas VTrox^Lplovs 

THE LIFE, 381-387 

(68) Tiberias, likewise, had a narrow escape from Tiberias, 

wr-* hirIc ill '^ 

being sacked by the Galilaeans. The occasion was as overtures to 
follows. The leading councillors had written to the j^^sun^k/^ 
king, inviting him to come and take over their city, danger. 
The king promised to come, writing a letter in reply, 
which he handed to a Jew named Crispus, a groom 
of the bedchamber, to convey to the Tiberians. On 
his arrival with the letter he was recognized by the 
Galilaeans, who arrested him and brought him to 
me. The news created general indignation and all 
were up in arms. On the following day large numbers 
flocked together from all quarters to the town of 
Asochis " where I was then residing, loudly denounc- 
ing the Tiberians as traitors and friendly to the king, 
and requiring permission to go down and exterminate 
their city. For they had the same detestation for the 
Tiberians as for the inhabitants of Sepphoris. 

(69) On hearing this uproar, I was at a loss to How 

J. /. . rp.i . r ,1 /. Joseph ns 

discover means oi rescuing liberias from the rage of saved it. 
the Galilaeans. I could not deny that the Tiberians 
had sent a written invitation to the king ; for his 
letter in answer to them proved this to be a fact. 
So, after long and anxious reflection I said : " That 
the Tiberians have done wrong I am well aware, nor 
shall I forbid you to sack their city. Yet even such 
things must be done with discretion. The Tiberians 
are not the only persons who have betrayed our 
country's independence ; many of the most eminent 
men in GaUlee have done the same. Wait, therefore, 
until I have discovered exactly who are guilty, and 

« Cf. §§ 207, 233. 
1 ToWaxodev PMW. 



388 €^eT€ Kal oGOvg Ihia eVa^at Suyrycrea^e." ravr 
eLTTwv eTTeiaa ro ttXtjOo? Kal 7Tav<jdfj.€voL rrj? opyrjg 
SieXvO-qaav. tov rrapa ^auiXetog he 7T€fJL(f)devTa 
SrjaaL KeXevaa?, {JLer' ov^ rroXXa? rjfiepag Ittl riva 
rcov ifjiavTov "x^peiajv iTrelyovaav GKrjipdpievos eV- 
h'qfjbeiv TTJs ^aorcXela? , KaXloas tov K.pLCTTTOV XdOpa 
TTpoaera^a pbedvcrai tov GTpaTLcoTrjv (f)vXaKa Kal 

389 (j)vyelv rrpos /3acrtAea' (jlt) yap Siajx^rjoreaOaL. Kal 
6 fiev Tals vrroBrjKais rreiodeis SL€(f)vy€, Tt^cpta? 
Se filXXovua SevTepov a(f)avLL,€adaL UTpaTi^yia ttj 
ip.fl Kal TTpovoia Trj rrepl avTrj? o^uv ovtojs klvSvvov 
hii(j)vy€V . 

390 (70) Kara tovtov 8e tov Kaipov \ov(ttos o 
Yi'iGTOv TTals Xadojv ep.€ 8ta8t8pacr/cet rrpos tov 
paoLAea' ttjv aiTtav oe ol rjv tout errpagev a<p- 

391 T) Xa^ovTos dpy^qv louSatot? tov Tvpo^ 
'Pojpialovs TToXejJLOv Ti^epiels hi€yv(x>K€Luav vtt- 
aKoveiv ^auiXel Kal 'Poj/xatajj^ piTj a(f)LGTa(T9aL. 
rreidei 8' avrovs "Iovgtos €(/>' oVAa ■x^ojprjGaiy 
veojTepojv avTos iStip^evog Trpayp^aTajv Kal 8t' 
iXTTiSo? e^ojv dp^€Lv TaXiXaiajv re /cat ttj? eavTov 

392 rraTpiho^. ov firjv tow rrpoaSoKirjOevTayv irreTVX^v. 
TaXcXaloL T€ yap i)(9pa)9 e^ovTes 'rrpos tovs Tc- 
^epiels 8ia pirjviv chv vtt avTov Trpo tov TToXifjiov 
TTeTTOvdeiGav, ovk rjvelxovTO GTpaTiqyovvTO? avriov 

393 ^\ovGTOV , Kaycb 8e tt^v rrpoGTaGiav ttj? TaXiXalas 
TTiGTevOels vrro tov kolvov tow ^lepoGoXvpnTcvv 
TToXXdKig el? roGavTTjv rjKov opyqv ojs oXiyov heZv 
drroKTelvai tov ^Iovgtov, (f)6peLV avTov ttjv puoxO'q- 

^ fier' ov ed. pr. : juerd MSS. 

" Tiberias now formed part of the "kingdom "of Agrippa II 

THE LIFE, 388-393 

then you shall have them all at your mercy, together 
with any whom you may be able to produce on your 
own account." With these words I pacified the 
crowd ; their anger subsided and they dispersed. I 
gave orders to keep the king's messenger a prisoner, 
but, a few days later, pretending to be leaving the 
kingdom ^ on urgent business of my own, I summoned 
Crispus and gave him secret instructions to make the 
soldier who guarded him drunk and then escape to 
the king ; assuring him that he would not be pursued. 
He acted on this hint and took himself oflf. Thus was 
Tiberias, when for the second time on the verge of 
destruction, delivered by my adroitness and con- 
siderate forethought from such imminent peril. 

(70) It was about this time that Justus, son of J^'^^^us goes 

^ ■' over to 

Pistus, without my knowledge, absconded to the Agrippa. 
king. I will explain why he did so. On the outbreak 
of the war between the Jews and the Romans, the 
Tiberians had determined to maintain their allegiance 
to the king and not to revolt from Rome.^ Justus 
endeavoured to persuade them to resort to arms, 
being personally anxious for revolution and having 
hopes of obtaining the command of Galilee and of his 
native place. In these expectations he was dis- 
appointed ; for the Galilaeans, resenting the miseries 
which he had inflicted on them before the war,^ 
were embittered against the Tiberians and would 
not tolerate him as their chief. Moreover, I myself, 
when entrusted by the general assembly at Jerusalem 
with the command of Galilee, was often so bitterly 
enraged with Justus that, unable to endure his 

{B. ii. 252, A. xx. 159) ; Asochis, the headquarters of Josephus 
(§ 384), apparently did not. 

^ C/. §32flF. C/. §341. 



piav ov hvvdjxevos . Setcra? ouv eKelvog jit] koI Xd^rj 
reXo? drra^ 6 Ovfio?, eTrefJufje rrpog ^acrtAea l\pLU7TOV, 
[cos'j^ OLGcfyaXeGTepov OLKYJaeiv Trap' eKeivip vopiiL^cov . 

394 (71) H€77(l)OJ plr ai 8e rrapaSo^oj? rov Trpojrov 
KivSwov hLa(j)vy6vT€s rrpos \\euriov TdXkov eTrefMipav 
TjKeiv TTapaKaXovvreg ojg avrovs ddrrov TrapaXrji/jo- 
pLevov rrjV ttoXlv, tj TrepiTTeLV SvvapLLV rrjv dva- 
Koipovaav rag £77 avrovs tow rroXepblajv iinhpopids . 
Kai reAo? eTreiGav rov TaXXov TrefJLipai hwapnv 
avroLS LTTTTLK-qv re koI rreCiKTjV rrdvv ovxvrjv, "^v 

395 iXdovaav vvKros elaeSe^avro . KaKovjJLevrjg Se 13770 
rrjs I^ojpba'LKTJs arparids rrjs rrept^ ^(^(jjpas dvaXa^dw 
iyoj Tovs rrepi ipue orparicoras tjkov els Tapels 
Ka)pbr]v evBa ^aXopuevos ^^apaara rroppoj rrjs Se77<^co- 
pirojv TToXeojs a770 GraSiow e'lKOGi, vvktos £ri^ 
avrfj TTpooepA^a Kal rols reix^GC rrpoGe^aXXov, 

396 Kal Sid KXipLaKow e/x/jt^acras" Gvxyovs rojv Grpa- 
TLcorojv iyKparrjs rod nXeiGrov rrjs rroXecos p^epovs 
eyevopLTjv . pier ov ttoXv be Sta rrfv ra)v roTTOJV 
dyvoLav dvayKaoOevres vrTexcoprjGap.ev , aveXovres 
pikv hvoKaiheKa rreL,ovs^ oXiyovs Se ILeTT^iopirwv , 

397 avrol S' eva p.6vov dTre^dXopbev. yevopbevqs S' 
VGrepov TjpAV Kard ro rrehiov pLa^^JS Trpos rovs 
LTTTTels P'^XP'- '^oXXov Kaprepojs hiaKivSwevGavres 
Tjrrrjdrjpbev rrepieXOovrojv yap rwv Pajpuaicuv ol pber 
epLov he'iGavres ec^vyov els rovTTLGco. rriTrrei 8 e77t 
rxjs rrapard^eojs eKeivqs els row TremGrevpievojv 
rrjV rov GOjpLaros pLov cfyvXaKi^v, ^Iovgtos rovvop,a, 
Kal TTapd ^aGiXeZ rrork rrjv avrrjv rd^iv eGX'rjKCJS. 

^ Kpicnroi> P, -fci;s R : Kpelaaov ( -f /.at A) the rest. 

2 Niese : eV mss. 

^ I retain the shorter text of P. The other mss., in a 


THE LIFE, 393-397 

villainy, I had almost killed him. Fearing, therefore, 
that my indignation might one day proceed to 
extremes, he sent overtures by Crispus to the king, 
in the hope of enjoying a life of greater security 
with him. 

(71) The Sepphorites, after their unexpected sepphons, 
escape from the first crisis," dispatched a messenger application, 
to Cestius Gallus, requesting him either to come at obtains help 
once and take over the city, or to send sufficient Gaiius.' 
troops to repel the incursions of the enemy. They 
eventually prevailed on him to send quite a large 
force of both cavalry and infantry, which arrived and 
was admitted under cover of night. The neighbour- 
hood being now molested by the Roman troops, I 
proceeded with such soldiers as I had to the village of 
Garis, where I entrenched myself at a distance of 
twenty furlongs from Sepphoris. I then made a 
night attack upon it, and, assailing the walls, threw 
in a considerable number of my men by means of 
scaling-ladders and so became master of the greater 
part of the city. Our ignorance of the locality, 
however, compelled us before long to retire, after 
killing twelve of the infantry and a few Sepphorites, 
with the loss of only one of our own men. In a 
subsequent encounter with the cavalry in the plain 
we, after a long and stubborn resistance, were 
defeated ; for, on being surrounded by the Romans, 
my men took alarm and fled. In that engagement I 
lost one of my bodyguard, named Justus, who had 
formerly served the king in the same capacity. 

« § 373 if. 

variety of forms, which betrays the glossator, insert an 
unnecessary 'Pw/^at'wj/ and, imfamiliar with the form dvoKaideKa, 
expand the twelve infantry into two cavalry and ten infantry. 

VOL. I L 145 


398 Kara rovrov Se rov Kaipov -q Trapa ^aoiXlajs 
BvvafJLis rJK€V Ittttikt] re kol TreL^iKr] Koi SuAAas" 
eV avrrjs -qyeficoVy 6 irrl raw aojiiaro<f)vXdK(jjv. 
ovros ovv ^aXofievos crrparoTreSov ^lovXidhos o-tt- 
ep^oi^ orahiovs Trevre (f)povpdv e^iuT-qcnv rai^ oSotS", 
rfj re els SeAeu/cetav^ dyovar] kol rfj els TdfiaXa 
ro cf)povpLov, vrrep rod rds rrapd ra)v YaXiXaiajv 
ox^eAeta? rots' IvoLkols aTTOKXeieiv . 

399 ('7'2) Tavra S' ojs iyoj iTrvdofM-qv Tre/XTroj 8tcr;(t- 
Xiovs oTrXiras kol urparrjyov avrcov 'lepefJLiav, ol 
Stj Kal y^dpaKa devres drro orahiov rrj? 'louAtaSo? 
rrXrjCTLOV rov 'lopSdvov rrorapiov ttXIov aKpo^oXiupbcbv 
ouSey errpa^avy /xe;^pt rpuaxt'Xlovs arpariajrag auro? 

400 dvaXa^ojv tjkov Trpos avrovs. Kara Se rr]v imovGav 
rjfjLepav ev nvi cjidpayyi KaOlaas Xoxov ovk drrcuBev 
avrajv rod ^(dpaKos TrpoeKaXovfJLTjv rovg ^auiXi- 
Kovs €LS /Jbax^jv, TTapatveaag rol? fxer^ ifiov orrpano)- 
rais" Grphfjai rd vujra pbexpi-? dv eTTLGTrdocovrai 
roijs rroXe/jLiovs TrpoeXOelv orrep Kal iyevero, 

401 HvXXas yap ccKdcra? raZs dXrjdeiai? rovs rjpierepov? 
cf)€vy€Lv TTpoeXdojv eTTiSicoKeLv old? re rjv, Kara 
vojrov 8 avrdv Xapb^avovdiv ol Ik rrJ£ evedpas Kai 

402 a<^oSpa rrdvra? idopv^-qGav. iyoj 8' evdvs d^ela 
XprjGdjJLevos VTToarpocfyfj fierd rrjs SvvdfJLews vtt- 
rjvr-qaa'^ rolg /SacrtAt/cot? Kal etV (f)vyr]v erpeijsa. kou 
KarojpOojro p,oi Kara rrjv rjp.€.pav eKelvqv rj Trpd^ig 

403 fiTj e/XTToSojy yevopievov haip^ovos rivos' 6 yap lttttos 
i<f) w rrjV pidx'qv eTTOiovpbrjv et? reX/JLarajhr] roTTOv 
ifirreadw ovyKar-qveyKe /xe ettI rovSa(f)og , dpavaeojs 
8e row dpdpojv yevopblvqs eirl rov rapudv rrjg 
1 Kava MW. 

« Cf. § 381, 

THE LIFE, 398-403 

About this time reinforcements arrived from the Arrival of 
king," both horse and foot, under the command of trSops'undf 
Sulla, the captain of his bodyguard. He pitched his Suiia. 
camp at a distance of five furlongs from Julias,^ and 
put out pickets on the roads leading to Seleucia ^ 
and to the fortress of Gamala,*^ to prevent the 
inhabitants [of Julias] from obtaining supplies from 

(72) On receiving intelligence of this, I dispatched Josepims's 
a force of two thousand men under the command of ^ith" he^ 
Jeremiah, who entrenched themselves a furlong away "royalists. 
from Julias close to the river Jordan, but took no 
action beyond skirmishing until I joined them with 
supports, three thousand strong. The next day, 
after laying an ambuscade in a ravine not far from 
their earthworks, I offered battle to the royal troops, 
directing my division to retire until they had lured 
the enemy forward ; as actually happened. Sulla, 
supposing that our men were really flying, advanced 
and was on the point of following in pursuit, when the 
others, emerging from their ambush, took him in the 
rear and threw his whole force into the utmost 
disorder. Instantly wheeling the main body about, 
I charged and routed the royalists ; and my success 
on that day would have been complete, had I not 
been thwarted by some evil genius. The horse on 
which I went into action stumbled on a marshy spot His fall fra 
and brought me with him to the ground. Having 
fractured some bones in the ^vl'ist, I was carried to a 

^ Bethsaida Julias {et-Tell) at the northern extremity of 
the Lake of Gennesaret, E. of the Jordan. 

^ Selickiyeh, N.E. of JuHas. 

<* Probably identified on the E. side of the Lake of Gen- 
nesaret, i.e. S. of Julias. 



p^etpo's", eKOjJLLGdrjV elg KcLfJb-qv }^€(f)apvajK6v Xeyo- 
4Q^ jxev-qv . ol d' efMol^ raur' aKov<javr€9 Koi Sehoi- 
Kores jJiTj TL x^lpov €7Ta6ov, rrjs /xev errl rrXeov 
Stco^eajs" d7T€(T)(ovro , V7TeGrp6(f)ov 8e Trepl ifxe Xiav 
ayojviojvres. pieraTTeiJLipdfjLevos ovv larpovs koL 
deparrevOels ttjv rjpLepav iKeivqv avrov KarifieLva 
TTvpe^a^, So^av re rots' larpols rrjs vvktos et? 
Tapi)(aias iiereKopi^iuQ-qv . 

405 (73) St^AAa? 8e koi ol fier^ avrov TTvOo/JbevoL rd 
/car' e/xe TrdXiV iddppr]crav, /cat yvovre? dixeXeZudai 
rd 77€pl rrjv (pvXaKTjv rov urparoTrihov, hid vvKrds 
LTTrrdojv Xo^ov Ihpvdavres iv rw irepav rov \op- 
havov, yevop.evTjs r^fxipas et? fjidx'rjv rjiJidg rrpo- 

406 €KaXiuavro . row 8' vrraKovoavrajv koi p^€.-)(pi tov 
TTeSiov TTpoeXOovrojv e7n(j)avivres ol eK rrjg iveSpa? 
Irrrrets kol rapd^avre? avrovs els (f)vyrjv krpeijjav, 
€^ re row rjfjLerepojv drreKreivav . ov fJLTjV piexpi' 
reXovs rrjv vlktjv rjyayov KaraTrerrXevKevaL yap 
rivas orrXira? aKovoavres arrd TapL-)(ai(jJV eis 

louAtaSa (jio^rjdevres dvexojpr]Gav . 

407 (74-) Mer* ov ttoXvv he y^povov OveoTraGiavos els 
Tvpov d(f)LKvelraL Kal ovv avroj 6 ^acnXevs 'AyptV- 
77a?. Kal OL TvpLOL ^XaG(f)rjiJ,elv rjp^avro rov 
^aGiXea, Tvplajv' avrov KaXovvres Kal PojfiaLOJV 
TToXepiLOV rov yap Grparo7TeSdp)(r)v avrov OlXlttttov 
eXeyov rrpohebojKevai rrjv ^aGiXiKi^v avXrjv /cat ras 
'Pco/xatojy hwdfieis rds ovoas ev 'lepoaoXvfioLS 

408 /caret rrjV avrov Trpoara^LV. OveoTrauiavos Se 
aKOVuas Tvplois p^ev errerrX-q^ev v^piL^ovuLV dvSpa 
Kal ^acrtAea /cat 'Pw/xatots" ^iXov, ro) Se /SacrtAet 
Traprjveaev rrep^ipai (^lXlttttov els 'PcopLrjv v(f)e^ovra 

THE LIFE, 403-408 

village called Cepharnocus.'* My men, hearing of 
this, and fearing that a worse fate had befallen me, 
desisted from further pm'suit and returned in the 
deepest anxiety on my account. I sent for physicians 
and, after receiving their attention, remained there 
for that day in a feverish condition ; at night, under 
medical advice, I was removed to Tarichaeae. 

(73) Sulla and his troops, learning of my accident, 
again took heart ; and, finding that the watch kept 
in our camp was slack, placed, under cover of night, 
a squadron of cavalry in ambush beyond the Jordan, 
and at daybreak offered us battle. Accepting the 
challenge, my troops advanced into the plain, when 
the cavalry, suddenly appearing from their ambush, 
threw them into disorder and routed them, killing 
six of our men. They did not, however, follow up 
their success ; for, on hearing that reinforcements 
shipped at Tarichaeae had reached Julias, they 
retired in alarm. 

(74) Not long after this Vespasian arrived at Tyre, Arrival of 
accompanied by King Agrippa. The king was met ^"^0^07'*"' 
by the invectives of the citizens, who denounced him spring. 
as an enemy of their own and of the Romans ; 
because, as they asserted, Philip,^ his commander-in- 
chief, had, under orders from him, betrayed the 

royal palace and the Roman forces in Jerusalem. 
Vespasian, having heard them, reprimanded the 
Tyrians for insulting one who was at once a king 
and an ally of the Romans ; at the same time advis- 
ing the king to send Philip to Rome to render an 

" Or " Capharnomon " ; the name takes divergent forms 
in the mss. Capernaum is doubtless meant. 
^ Cf. §§ 46 flf., 179 flF. 

^ P omits e/xot, reading oi 5e. ^ Ivpiov jmss. 



409 Xoyov y^epojvL Trepl row TreTrpayixivcov. ^lXlttttos 
8e 77€/x<^^ets' oijx rjK€v els oipiv ^epojvf KaraXa^ojv 
yap avrov iv rdls icrxo^roi? ovra 8ta ras" ejiTreaovGa'S 
rapaxoL? kol rov epiS-uXiov TToXefiov VTrearpeipe rrpos 

410 Tov ^aaiXia. irrel 3e OveGTraGuavog etj riroAe/xaVda 
Trapeyevero, ol Trpajrot row rrj? Hvpia? Ae/ca- 
TToXeoJS Kare^oow ^lovarov rod Ti^epUw?, on ras 
Kcofias avrojv ifiTrp-qaeiev. rrapihcoKev ovv avrov 
OveGTTaoiavos ro) ^acrtAet KoXaaO-qcropievov vtto rGiV 
rrjs ^auiXeias VTToreXow 6 ^auiXevs S avrov 
e8rjG€v, imKpviJjdfievos rovro OveaTraaLavov, ojs 

411 dvojrepoj heSrjXojKajJLev. lle7T(f)a>piraL 8' vrravrrj- 
aavre? /cat aGTraadfJLevoL OvecrTraoLavov XafjifSdvovai 
SvvafJLLV Kal Grparrjyov YlXdKiSov, dva^dvres 8e 
jjLerd rovrojv . . .^ eTTopiivov piov dxpi' rrjs €ls 

412 FaAtAatav OveGTraGiavov d(f)L^€<jj£. Trepl rj? riva 
rporrov iyevero, Kal ttojs rrepl Tapts^ Kcupi-qv rrjv 
TTpcorrjV TTpos e/xe p.dx'f]v eTTOirjGaro,^ Kal co? eKeWev 
€LS rd ^lojrdirara dvex^pT)(^o., Kal rd rreTT pay pieva 
pbOL Kara rrjV ravr7]s TToXtopKLav, Kai ov rpoirov 
l,a)V Xiq(^8els iSed-qv, Kal ttlos iXvdr]V, Travra re 
rd 7T€7TpaypL€va pLoi Kard rdv ^lovSatKov TToXepbov 
Kal rrjv 'l€poGoXvp,a>v TToXtopKiav^ aKpi^eta? 
iv rals Trepl rod ^lovSa'iKov TioXepuov ^l^Xol? aTT- 

413 T^yyeA/ca. dvayKalov 8 eGnv, d>£ ot/xat, Kac ocra 
pLT] Kard rov 'louSat/cov TToXepLov dveypaipa rojv iv 
ro) ^LOJ pLOV TT€TTpaypL€vajv vvv rrpoGavaypaipai. 

414 (^^5) Tt^s" ydp rojv ^Iwrarrdrajv rroXiopKLas 
Xa^ovGTjs riXos yevop^evos Trapa Pco/xatots" pier a 
TTaG-qs iTTip^eXelas i(f)vXaGG6p,rjv, rd ttoAAo, 8ta 


THE LIFE, 409-414 

account of his actions to Nero. Thither, accordingly, 
Philip was dispatched, but never had audience of 
Nero, whom he found in extremities owing to the 
prevailing disorders and the civil war, and so returned 
to the king. 

On reaching Ptolemais, Vespasian received indig- 
nant remonstrances from the chief men of the Syrian 
Decapolis against Justus of Tiberias for setting fire 
to their villages. Vespasian handed him over to the 
king for execution by the subjects of his realm. The 
king, however, merely detained him in prison, con- 
cealing this from Vespasian, as previously narrated. '^ 

The Sepphorites, who met and saluted Vespasian, The reader 
were given a garrison under the command of Placidus. the^Jewis/i 
With this force they proceeded into the interior, iF«r for 
being closely followed by me until Vespasian's history- 
arrival in Galilee. Of the manner of his arrival and 
of his first engagement with me in the neighbourhood 
of the village of Garis ; of my withdrawal from there 
to Jotapata and my conduct during the siege of that 
place ; of my capture, imprisonment, and subsequent 
liberation ; of my conduct throughout the whole 
campaign and at the siege of Jerusalem, I have given 
a detailed description in my books on the Jewish War. 
It is, however, I think, incumbent upon me now to 
append an account of such particulars of my life as 
were not recorded in my earlier work. 

(75) After the siege of Jotapata I was in the hands After the 
of the Romans and was kept under guard, while 7.d^' (57 
receiving every attention. Vespasian showed in 
« Cf. §§ 341-3. 

^ Lacuna in text. 

^ Tdpts {Tapi-x^as) Mss. : 7). iii. 1^29 supplies the correct name. 

^ iiroLTjaauTO PRA. 



TLiirjs ayovrog [le Oveu-aGLavov . kol Stj KeXev- 
aavros avrov riyayo/JL-qv rn'o, TrapOevov eK rojv 
aL-)(iJiaXojTiSajv rojv Kara Katcrcipetav clXovgojv 
■il5 iy)(ojpLov ov Trapefjievev S avr-q {jlol ttoXvv xpovov, 
dAAa Xvdevros kol {jLera OuecrTracrtayoi} TTopevdevros 
€L£ rrjp 'AAe^avSpetay dTTTjXXdyrj .^ yvvoLKa 8 

416 irepav rjyayofJLrjv Kara Trjv AXe^drhpeiav . KaKel- 

deV €7tI TTjV 'lepOCroXvjJiaJV TToXlOpKiaV aVflTT€[JL(j)d€L5 

Ttrco TToXXoLKLs OLTToOavelv iKLvSvvevGa, rd)v re lov- 
haiojv did GTTOvhrjg e)(6vrojv V7TO)(^eipi6v /xe Xa^elv 
rLjiajpiag eveKa, Kal 'Poj^atojv dcraxrt VLKTjOelev 
77dG)(€Li' rovro Kar^ ipi^rjv rrpohoGiav hoKOVvrojv 
avvexel? Kara^oiJG€i? eTrl rod avroKparopos eyt- 
vovro, KoXdL,€Lv pie oj? Kal avrcov rrpohoriqv d^uovv- 

417 rcxjv. Tiro? he Katcrap rds TToXepbov rvxoi? ovk 
dyvodw GLyfj rds err^ ipLe rdJv Grpariojrdw e^eXvev 
oppidg. rj8r] he Kara Kpdros rrjg rcov lepoGO- 
Xvpardw rroXeojs exofJLevrjg Ttro? Katcjap erreidev 
pie TToXXaKLS eK rrjg KaraGKa(f)'fjs rrjs Trarpibog Trdv 
6 n BeXoipi Xa^elv Gvyxcjopelv yap avros k(j)aGK€v. 

418 iyco 8e rrj£ Trarpihos TreGOVGTjs pu-qSev exojv npno)- 
repoVy o raw ipiavrov ovpL(f)opd)v et? rrapap^vOtav 
XajSow c^yXd^aip^L, Gojpdrojv eXevdepojv rrjv atrrjGiV 
erroLovpLrjV Tlrov Kal ^Lf^Xtow lepcov . . .^ eXa^ov 

419 X'^P'-^'^l^^^^^ TtVou. ^er' ov rroXv he Kau top 
dheX(:f)6v puerd rrevrrjKOvra cfyuXajv alr-qGapuevog ovk 
drrervxoV' Kal els ro lepov he rropevdeig Ttrou 
rrjV e^ovGiav hovros, evda ttoXv ttXtjOo? alxP'OLXwrojv 
eyKeKXeiGro yvvaiKOJv re Kai reKvcov, ogovs 
irreyvajv (jiiXojv epicov Kal gvvtjBojv VTrapxovras 

^ So ed. pr. : aTn-jWayrjv mss. 
^ Apparent lacuna : Bekker inserts Kal. 


THE LIFE, 414-419 

many ways the honoiir in which he held me, and it was 
by his command that I married one of the women 
taken captive at Caesarea, a virgin and a native of 
that place. She did not, however, remain long with 
me, for she left me on my obtaining my release and 
accompanying Vespasian to Alexandria. There I 
married again. From Alexandria I was sent with 
Titus to the siege of Jerusalem, where my life was a.d. 
frequently in danger, both from the Jews, who were 
eager to get me into their hands, to gratify their 
revenge, and from the Romans, who attributed every 
reverse to some treachery on my part, and were 
constantly and clamorously demanding of the 
Emperor that he should punish me as their betrayer. 
Titus Caesar, however, knowing well the varying 
fortunes of war, repressed by his silence the soldiers' 
outbursts against me. 

Again, when at last Jerusalem was on the point of 
being carried by assault, Titus Caesar repeatedly 
urged me to take whatever I would from the wreck 
of my country, stating that I had his permission. 
And I, now that my native place had fallen, having 
nothing more precious to take and preserve as a 
solace for my personal misfortunes, made request to 
Titus for the freedom of some of my countrymen ; 
I also received by his gracious favour a gift of sacred 
books. Not long after I made petition for my 
brother and fifty friends, and my request .was granted. 
Again, by permission of Titus, I entered the Temple, 
where a great multitude of captive women and 
children had been imprisoned, and liberated all the 
friends and acquaintances whom I recognized, in 



ipvGdjJLrjV, TTepl eKarov Kal ivevrjKOvra ovras rov 
dpidfjiov, Kal ovSe Xvrpa KaraOepbevovs aTreXvaa 

420 (Jvyx^ajpTjuas airrovs rfj Trporepa rvxD- 77€p.(f)d€i? 8 
VTTO Tltov \\aiuapo? crvv KepeaAtcu Kal ^lXlols 
LTTTTevGLV €LS Kajp^Tiv TLvd QeKojav Xeyop.evqv 
TTpoKaravoTjGOJV el tottos eTTLTrjheios icmv y(^dpaKa 
Se^aadai, ojs eKeWev V7TOGTp€(f)OJV etSov rroXXov^ 
alxi-i^aXojrov? dveuTavpajpuivovs Kai rpels eyvojpiGa 
(7VVT]d€L£ pLOL y6Vop,6vov5, TjXyqud re r-qv 4'^X'^^ '^^^ 

421 pLerd SaKpvcov TrpooeXdow Ttroj elrrov. 6 8' e'udvs 
eKeXevG€v KadaipeOevras avroijs depaTreuas im- 
pLeXeGrdrrjS- tv)(^€.Iv . Kal ol pL€v Svo reXevraxjLV 
OepaTTevopbevoL, 6 8e rpiros e^rjcrev. 

422 (76) 'Eyret 8e Karerravaev rds iv rfj lovSaua 
rapa^ds Tiros, eiKdaas rovg dypovs ovs el-ypv iv 
roXs 'lepoGoXvpLOL9 dvovr^rovs iaopuevovg piOL 8ta 
rrjv pL€/\Xov(jav eKel 'Pco/xatojv (fipovpdv iyKad- 
e^ecr^at, eScoKev irepav ^(^ojpav iv Trehioy pbcXXojv re 
dTTaipeiv €LS rrjv 'Pco/xryv (T'up.rrXovv iSe^aro rrdaav 

423 rLpLTjV drrovep^ajv. irrel 8' et? rrjv 'PojpLTjV r]KopL€V, 
7T0/\Xrjs ervxov rrapd OveaTracnavov Trpovoias' Kau 
ydp Kal KardXvGLV €Sa>K€v iv rfj olklo. rij Trpo rrj? 
TjyepbovLas avroj yevopbivr], TroAtreta re Poj/xatcuv 
irlpLrjaev Kal a-uvra^Lv -)(p-qpiarcL>v edojKev, Kau 
TLpbojv hieriXei piixP^ '^l^ ^^ '^°^ ^lov p^eraaraaeajg 
ovSev rijs Trpos ipL€ ;)(p7]crTdT7]TOS' vcfyeXcov 6 pLOL 

424 Sta rov (f)66vov rjveyKe klvSvvov. lovhalog yap rts", 
^lowdO'i'iS rovvop^a, Grdoiv i^eyelpas iv \\vprjvij Kai 

<* Meaning doubtful. TraiU renders: " paying that com- 
pliment to their former fortune." 


THE LIFE, 419-424 

number about a hundred and ninety ; I took no 
ransom for their release and restored them to ^ their 
former fortune. Once more, when I was sent by 
Titus Caesar with Cereahus and a thousand horse to a 
village called Tekoa,^ to prospect whether it was a 
suitable place for an entrenched camp, and on my 
return saw many prisoners who had been crucified, 
and recognized three of my acquaintances among 
them, I was cut to the heart and came and told Titus 
with tears what I had seen. He gave orders immedi- 
ately that they should be taken down and receive 
the most careful treatment. Two of them died in the 
physicians' hands ; the third survived. 
V^ "^ (76) When Titus had quelled the disturbances in Josephus 
'Judaea, conjecturing that the lands which I held at 'J?j.j^g,\"'^'^ 
Jerusalem would be unprofitable to me, because a 
Roman garrison was to be quartered there, he gave 
me another parcel of ground in the plain. On his 
departure for Rome, he took me with him on board, 
treating me with every mark of respect. On our 
arrival in Rome I met with great consideration from 
Vespasian. He gave me a lodging in the house 
which he had occupied before he became Emperor ; 
he honoured me with the privilege of Roman citizen- 
ship ; and he assigned me a pension. He continued 
to honour me up to the time of his departure from 
this life, without any abatement in his kindness 
towards me. 

My privileged position excited envy and thereby 
'exposed me to danger. A certain Jew,'' named 
TTonathan, who had promoted an insurrection in 

^ The birth-place of Amos, some twelve miles S. of 

" Cf. B. vii. 437-450 (Jonathan is tortured and burnt 



Stcrp^tAtous' row eyx^ojpiojv crvvavaTreicrag cKeivoig 
fjiev airios oiTrcjoXelas iyevero, avrog de viro rod rrjs 
XcopcLS TjyeiJLovevovrog SeOeu? /cat evrt rov avroKpa- 
ropa 7T€p.(f)d€L£ €(f)a<JK€V i/JLE avroj orrXa TrcTTO/xc^eVat 

425 Koi XPVH'^'^^- *^^ H'W OveGTTauiavov ipevSofjuevos 
eXaOev, dAAo. Kareyvoj ddvarov avrov, Kal rrapa- 
SoOels OLTTedavev. TToXXaKLS Se Kol [lerd ravra 
row ^aGKaiVovrojv fiOL rrj^ €vrvx^o.£ Kar-qyopias 
Itt^ ifxe Gvvdivrcjv deov Trpovoua ndaa? hiicjivyov. 
eXa^ov Se rrapd OveGTraGiavov hojpedv yrjv ovk 

426 oXiyrjv iv rfj 'louSata, Kad^ ov Sr) Kaipov kol rrjv 
yvvaiKa pbrj dpeGKOfievog avrrjs rolg rjdeGiv o-tt- 
eTTejJUpdfiTji', rpLOJV rraihow y€VO{JL€vr]v pb-qrepa, ojv ol 
fi€V Sijo ireXedrrjGav, et? Se ov YpKavov TrpoG-qyo- 

427 pevGa TrepieGriv . /xera ravra rjyayopurjv yvvalKa 
KarcpKTjKvlav /xey iv l\p-qrrj, ro Se ylvos ^\ovhaiav , 
yoveojv €vy€V€Grarojv Kau row Kara rrjv x^P^^ 
€77 L(f)av€Grdrow, rjBei rroXXojv yvvaiKow Sta(^€- 
povGav, d)9 d pi€rd ravra ^ios avr-qg o.TreSet^e^'. 
EK ravrrjs Sij piOL yivovr ai TratSes" hvo, rrpeG^vrepos 
jjiev ^lovGrog, ^ip.ojvihiqs 8e ^er' iKeZvov, 6 Kal 

428 WypLTTTTag imKXrjOeig. ravra p,ev p^oL rd Kard 

rov OLKOV. 

Ate/X€ty€v 8e opboia Kau ra Trapa row 
ropojv. 0v6G7TaGiavov ydp reXevrrjGavros Tiros 
TTjV dpx^jv SiaSe^dpLevos opLotav roj Ttarpl rrjv 
rtpb-qv pLOL hie(f}vXa^ev y rroXXdKi'S re Karrjyoprjdevros 

429 OVK eTTLGrevGev . SiaSe^dp^evog Se Tltov ^opberiavog 
Kal TrpoG-qv^-qGev rdg el? e/xe rip^ds' rods re ydp 
Kar-qyoprjGavrds p^ov lovhaiovs eKoXaGev Kal 
hovXov evvov^ov, rraibayojyov rod Traihos p^ov, 
Karr^yop-qGavra KoXaGdrjvai rrpoGera^ev, ep.ol he 

THE LIFE, 424-429 

Cyrene, occasioning the destruction of two thousand 
of the natives, whom he had induced to join him, on 
being sent in chains by the governor of the district 
to the Emperor, asserted that I had provided him 
with arms and money. Undeceived by this mendaci- 
ous statement, Vespasian condemned him to death, 
and he was dehvered over to execution. Subse- 
quently, f numerous accusations against me were 
fabricated by persons who envied me my good 
fortune ; but, by the providence of God, I came safe 
through all. Vespasian also presented me with a 
considerable tract of land in Judaea. ' 

At this period I divorced my wife, being displeased Domestic 
at her behaviour. She had borne me three children, ^''^ ^^' 
of whom two died ; one, whom I named Hyrcanus, is 
still alive. Afterwards I married a woman of Jewish 
extraction who had settled in Crete. She came of 
very distinguished parents, indeed the most notable 
people in that country. In character she surpassed 
many of her sex, as her subsequent life showed. By 
her I had two sons, Justus the elder, and then 
Simonides, surnamed Agrippa. Such is my domestic 

\ The treatment which I received from the Emperors 
continued unaltered. On Vespasian's decease Titus, a.d. to. 
who succeeded to the empire, showed the same 
esteem for me as did his father, and never credited 
the accusations to which I was constantly subjected. 
Domitian succeeded Titus and added to my honours, a.d. si. 
He punished my Jewish accusers, and for a similar 
offence gave orders for the chastisement of a slave, 
a eunuch and my son's tutor. He also exempted my 

^ 157 


TTJ? iv 'loudata ^copag areAeiay eScoKev, rJTrep €Gtl 
fjLeyLUT'q rcfjir] toj Xa^ovrt. koL ttoAAo. d' r] rod 
Katcrapo? yvvrj ^ofierla SiereXeaev evepyerovGa fJL€. 
430 Tavra jiev ra Trerrpay/xeVa /xot Sta vravros 
rod ^Lov iarlv, Kpivirojaav 5' e^ avrojv ro tjBos 
OTTOJS 0.V ideXojGLV erepoL. gol 8' aTToSeSajKa)?, 
Kpanare avSpojv KTrat^pohcre, rrjv Trdaav rrj? 
ap'xaioXoyias dvaypa(f)rjv irrl rov Trapovros ivravda 
KaraTTavoj rov Xoyov. 


THE LIFE, 429-430 

property in Judaea from taxation — a mark of the 
highest honour to the privileged individual. More- 
over, Domitia, Caesar's wife, never ceased conferring 
favours upon me. 

Such are the events of my whole life ; from them 
\let others judge as they will of my character. 

Having now, most excellent Epaphroditus, ren- 
dered you a complete account of our antiquities," I 
shall here for the present conclude my narrative. 

"■ The Life (at least in its final edition) formed an appendix 
to the Antiquities. See Ant. xx. 266, with Introduction to 
this volume, p. xiii. 








1 (l) 'Iko-vcos {JLev vrroXayi^dvoj koI dta ti]s rrepl 
TTjv dpxoH'oXoylav Gvyypacjirjs, KpariGTe dvhpcjv Ett- 
a(f)p6hLT€, ToZs hnev^oixivoLs avrfj TreTToi-qKevai (f)a- 
vepov TTepl rod yevovg -qfxow row lovhalcov , on 
Kal TTaXaiOTarov ecrrt kol rrjv Trpojrrjv vrrocrraaLV 
€GX€V Ih'iav, Kal rrojs ttjv -^^ajpav tjv vvv exofiev 
KarqjK'qaev <i^y>^ TrevraKiaxi'XLOJV ird)V dpiOixov 
laropiav 7Tepie-)(ovGav e/c rcov rrap 7]fjLLV tepcov 
^L^Xojv Sid TTJs '^XX-qvLKTJg (f)a>vrjg crvveypai/jdp.rjv . 

2 cTret he GV)(yov£ opoj rat? vtto Sucr/xevetas" vtto 
TLVcov elpriiievaLS 7:poG€)(ovras I^XaG(hrjp.iaLs Kal 
rots TTepl rrjV apxaoXoylav vtt ep.ov yeypapLfievois 
dTTiurovvras reKpnqpiov re rroLOVfJievovg rod veoj- 
repov elvai rd yevo? rjfJLOJV rd p.rjdejj.ids rrapd roZs 
e7Ti(f)aveaL row '^.XXrjvLKdjv LGropioypd(f)OJV pLvqpirjs 

3 Tj^idjaOai, TTepl rodrow aTTavrow ojT^drjv delv 
ypdipai (TVvrdpiOJS i rd)v~ puev Xoidopodvrojv rrjV 
dvGpLeveiav Kal rrjv eKOTJGLOv eXey^ai ipevdoXoyiav , 
row de rrjv dyvoiav eTTavopOojoaGdai, didd^ai 

^ KaruK-rjae L : r]v added in ed. pr. 
^ Kal tCcv (with Lat.j Bekker. 




(1) In my history of our Antiquities, most excellent Occasion 
Epaphroditus, 1 have, I think, made sumciently clear the work. 
to any who may peruse that work the extreme critic?"" ' 
antiquity of our Jewish race, the purity of the ^J^^^^^^^^^^g 
original stock, and the manner in which it established 
itself in the country which we occupy to-day. That 
history embraces a period of five thousand years," 
and was written by me in Greek on the basis of our 
sacred books. Since, however, I observe that a con- 
siderable number of persons, influenced by the 
malicious calumnies of certain individuals, discredit 
the statements in my history concerning our an- 
tiquity, and adduce as proof of the comparative 
modernity of our race the fact that it has not been 
thought worthy of mention by the best known Greek 
historians, I consider it my duty to devote a brief 
treatise to all these points ; in order at once to 
convict our detractors of malignity and deliberate 
falsehood, to correct the ignorance of others, and to 
" The same round number in A. i. 13, 



8e Travras ouoi raXrjOeg etdeVat j^o'uXovTaL rrepu 

4 rijs -qfi^ripag dpy^aiorriros . p(;p7y(7o/xat 8e row fxev 
V77^ e/xou XeyofJLevojv (jLaprvcn roZ? d^LOTTLOTordroLS 
elvai rrepl rrdcrrjs dpxo.LoXoyLa£ vtto tow 'EAAt^vcdv 
KeKpLpiivoLSi Toijs Se liXaG(f)-qfJbOJS Trept tjjjlojv /cat 
ifjevhojs 'yeypa<f)6ras axrrovs 8t eavrayv iXeyxo- 

5 jxevovs rrape^oj. rreLpduopjii Se /cat rd's atrta? 
aTToSouvat, dt' a? ov rroXXol rod kdvovs rjfjLcov ev 
rat? IcrroplaLS "EAATyves" ipLvrjpLoveTJKaGLv . eVt pbevroL 
Kal roL'i ou rrapaXiTTOvras r-qv rrepL -qpLow Luropiav 
TTOLTidOj (havepov? rot? firj yiyvojGKOVGiv -q rrpou- 
TTOLOvpbevoi? a'/i'oelv. 

6 (2) Upojrov ovv eTTepxerai p-OL rrdvv Oavpidt^eiv rovs 
OLOfievovs helv rrepl row rraXaiordrow kpyojv 
jiovois 7rpoG€X€Lv Tol? "EAAT^CTt Kal TTapd rovrojv 
rrvvOdveodai rrjV dXriOecav, rjplv 5e /cat rols d'AAotS" 
dvdpojTTOis dTnurelv. rr5.v yap eyoj rowavriov opco 
Gvp^^e^riKos, el ye del p.rj rals p^araiais ho^ais 
e7TaKoXov9eZv, dAA' e^ avrow ro hiKaiov row 

7 Trpayfidrow Xap^j^dveLV. rd fjuev yap Trapa rot? 
"KXXrjrnv aTTavra vea Kal X^^^ ^"^^ 77p<^''7^> <^'^? dv 
etTTOt ri£, evpoC' yeyovora, Xeyoj he rds Krioeis 
row TToXeow Kal rd Trepl rag eTTivoias row rexyow 
Kal rd TTepl rds row vopiow dvaypa(f>d?' Trdvrojv Be 
veojrdrrj ux^hov ecrrt rrap avrolg tj rrepi rod 

8 GvyypdSeiv rds tcrropta? eTTLjieXeia. ra p.evroi 
rrap" XlyvTrriois re Kal XaAdatot? /cat Ooti^t^ty, 
eoj yap vvv rijids eKeivois GvyKaraXeyeiv , avroc 

^ cognovi {d'pov '.) Lat. 

'^ Josephus in this and the following sections (note the 
reference to "catastrophes"' in § lOj borrows from Plato, 



instruct all who desire to know the trutli concerning 
the antiquity of our race. As witnesses to my 
statements I propose to call the writers who, in the 
estimation of the Greeks, are the most trustworthy 
authorities on antiquity as a whole. The authors 
of scurrilous and mendacious statements about us 
will be shown to be confuted by themselves. I 
shall further endeavour to set out the various 
reasons which explain why our nation is mentioned 
by a few only of the Greek historians ; at the same 
time I shall bring those authors who have not 
neglected our history to the notice of any who either 
are, or feign to be, ignorant of them. 

(2) My first thought is one of intense astonishment The Greek) 
at the current opinion that, in the study of primeval wortiw as 
history, the Greeks alone deserve serious attention, anti- 
that the truth should be sought from them, and that *^^^^'^'^"^- 
neither we nor any others in the world are to be 
trusted. In my view the very reverse of this is the 
case, if, that is to say, we are not to take idle 
prejudices as our guide, but to extract the truth 
from the facts themselves. For in the Greek world 
everything will be found to be modern," and dating, 
so to speak, from yesterday or the day before : I 
refer to the foundation of their cities, the invention 
of the arts, and the compilation of a code of laws ; 
but the most recent, or nearly the most recent, of 
all their attainments is care in historical composition. 
On the contrary, as is admitted even by themselves, 
the Egyptians, the Chaldaeans, and the Phoenicians 
— for the moment I omit to add our nation to the 

Timaeus, 23 b and c, where an Eg-yptian priest discourses to 
Solon in similar terms on the modernity of the Greeks. Cf. 
Ap. ii. 192, 224 for other parallels to that dialogue. 



hrjTTOvOev ofjLoXoyovGLv dp)(aLordr7]v re Kal fjLOVLfJLOj- 
9 rarrjv k^^LV rr]g iJuvrjixTj? rrjv TrapaSocnv Kal yap 
roTTOvs diravres olkovglv rjKLora rats eV rod 
7T€piexovTO? (f)dopalg vrroKeLiievovs Kal ttoXXt^v 
€7TOL7^aavTO TTpovoiav rod fxrjoev dpivrjcrrov tow Trap 
avTois 7TpaTTop.eviov rrapaXiTTelv, dXX iv Sry/xoCTtats" 
avaypa(j)als vtto tojv GOfjicordrow del KadicpovudaL. 

10 rov be 7T€pl r-qv 'EAAa3a tottov fivpiai fxev cf)6opal 
KareG^ov e^aAet(^oucrat rrjv pLVT^pur^v row yeyovorojv , 
ael Se Kaivovg KaOiGrdfJievoi ^iovs rod rravros 
ivopLil^ov dpx^Lv €KaGroL rov^ dcf)^ iavrow, oifje 8e 
Kal fJLoXis eyvojGav (f)VGiv ypajJLpidrojv. ol yovv 
ap)(aLordr-qv avro)v rr]v XP^^^'^ elvai deXovreg 
TTapd ^OLVLKow Kal KaS/xou GejJLVuvovrai pbadelv. 

11 ou fjLTjv oi)S' (xtt'^ eKeivov rod xp^i^^v Swatro ng 
dv Sel^ac Gojt^ojjievrjv dvaypa(f)rjv ovr^ iv lepols 
ovr €V SrjfjLOGLOig dvaO-qpiaGiv , ottov ye Kat Trepi 
row irrl Tpolav roGovroLS ereGL GrparevGavrojv 
VGrepov rroXX-q yeyovev dTTopia re Kal CrjrrjGigy 
el ypdiijiaGLV ixpowro, Kal rdXrjOeg eTTLKpareZ 
pbdXXov rrepl rov rrjv vvv ovGav row ypapLpidrajv 

12 xP'f]cn-v eKeivovs dyvoeZv. dXcog 8e TTapd rols 
"EAArycTtv odoev op.oXoyovp.evov evpiGKerai ypapupua 
rr]g Op.rjpov TTOirjGeojs TrpeG^vrepov, ovros 8e 
Kai row T pojLKow VGrepos (j^aiverai yevopbevog, 
/cat (j>aGLV ovhe rovrov iv ypdp.p.aGi rrjV avrov 
TToirjGLV KaraXiTTelv, dXXd SLapLvr]pLovevopLevi]v iK 
row aGpidrojv VGrepov GvvredrjvaL Kal Sta rovro 

^ So Eus. (one ms.) : tQu L. ^ Eus. : eV L Lat. 

" Perhaps referring to stories of the floods of Ogyges and 
Deucalion, etc. 

* Cf., e.ff., Herod, v. 58. 



list — possess a very ancient and permanent record of 
the past. For all these nations inhabit countries 
which are least exposed to the ravages of the atmo- 
sphere, and they have been very careful to let none 
of the events in their history be forgotten, but always 
to have them enshrined in official records written by 
their greatest sages. The land of Greece, on the 
contrary, has experienced countless catastrophes," 
which have obliterated the memory of the past ; and 
as one civilization succeeded another the men of each 
epoch believed that the world began with them. 
They were late in learning the alphabet and found 
the lesson difficult ; for those who would assign the 
earliest date to its use pride themselves on having 
learnt it from the Phoenicians and Cadmus.^ Even 
of that date no record, preserved either in temples 
or on public monuments, could now be produced ; 
seeing that it is a highly controversial and disputed 
question whether even those who took part in the 
Trojan campaign so many years later made use of 
letters,^ and the true and prevalent view is rather 
that they were ignorant of the present-day mode of 
writing. Throughout the whole range of Greek 
literature no undisputed work is found more ancient 
than the poetry of Homer. His date, however, is 
clearly later than the Trojan war ; and even he, 
they say, did not leave his poems in writing. At 
first transmitted by memory, the scattered songs 
were not united until later ; to which circumstance 

" Allusion to the debated interpretation of the phrase 
(rrj/jLara \vypd, "baneful tokens " (Horn. //. vi. 168) ; referring 
to a message intended to bring about the death of Bellero- 
phon. "The balance of probabihties seems to be in favour 
of the view that " the words " denote some kind of alphabetic 
or syllabic writing" (Jebb, Homer, 1887, p. 112). 



13 TToAAas" iv avrfj G)(€lv ra? Stat^covta?. ol fxivroi 
ras" LGTopias iTnx^iprjcravres avyypd(f)€LV Trap" av- 
Tols, Xeyoj Se rovg Trepl KaS/xov t€ tov ^YlXtjulov 
Kol TOV \py€iov \KovoiXaov Kai fiera rovrov et 
TLveg a'AAot Xiyovrai yeveadai, jSpa^v ttjS Ylepuchv 
€771 TT^v EAAaSa UTpar€ias ro) -)(p6v(p tt po'uXo.^ov . 

14 aAAa iXTjv kol rovg Trepl rcov ovpaviojv re kol Oeicov 
TTpwrovg Trap' "KXXrjcjL (jiiXoGO<^ViGavTas , olov Oepe- 
KvSr]v re rov HijpLov koI YlvOayopav Kai OaAi^ra, 
TTavreg uvjjl^ojvojs opLoXoyovoiv Alyvrrriajv Kai 
XaASatcDV yevopievovg fiaOr^ra? oXtya ovyypdi/jai, 
Kat ravra rolg "EAAT^crty elvai SoKel Trdvrajv 
o.pxciLorara Kai fJLoXis avrd mGrevovGLV vir 
eKeivLov yeypacfiOai. 

15 (S) Uojg ovv ovK eoTiv aXoyov rervc^coGOaL rovi 
"EAAy^vas" ciJS fJiovovg eTTLGrapievovs rdpxcua Kai 
TTjV dXrjOeiav rrepl avrow aKpi^oJS TrapaStSovrag ; 
rj rug ou 77ap avTa)v dv rcov Gvyy pa(l>eojv fiaOoi 
pahioj?, on pirjSe ev ^e^aiojg elhoreg GVveypa<j)ov, 
aXX ojs eKaGTOL rrepl rcjv Trpaypidrcov e'cKa^ov; 
ro^ TrXeov yovv Sta rchv ^l^Xlcov dXXrjXovs iXey- 
^ovGL Kai rdvavrLOjrara Trepl row avrcav Xeyeiv 

16 OVK OKVOVGI. Trepiepyos S' dv e'iqv iyoj rovs ep^ov 
pidXXov eTTLGrapLevovs SuSaGKOw oGa piev 'KXXdviKos 
' AKovGiXdo) Trepl rwv yeveaXoyiow SiaTrecfxjwqKev, 
OGa he hiopdovrai rov *HcrtoSoy ^XKovGiXaos, rj 
riva rporrov "K(f)opos piev ^^XXdvcKOV iv rolg 
TrXeiGroLS ipevSopievov eTriheLKvvGiv, "l^(f)opov Se 

^ eLKa(^op ; to Gutschmid : ecKa^'oLVTO L. 

<* This is one of the passages on which Wolf relied in his 
epoch-making- Prolegomena (1795). 

^ i.e., the phenomena of the heavenly bodies. 

'^ Of Mityiene, 5th cent, b.c, a contemporary of Herodotus. 


the numerous inconsistencies of the work are attribut- 
able.'* Again, the Greeks who [first] essayed to write 
history, such as Cadmus of Miletus and Acusilaus of t>th cent. 
Argos and any later Avriters who are mentioned, hved ^'^' 
but a short time before the Persian invasion of Greece. 
Once more, the first Greek philosophers to treat of 
celestial^ and divine subjects, such as Pherecydes 
of Syros-, Pythagoras, and Thales, were, as the world 
unanimously admits, in their scanty productions the 
disciples of the Egyptians and Chaldaeans. These 
are the writings which the Greeks regard as the 
oldest of all, and they are sceptical even about their 
authenticity . 

(3) Surely, then, it is absurd that the Greeks should Discrepan- 
be so conceited as to think themselves the sole between 
possessors of a knowledge of antiquity and the only different 


accurate reporters of its history. Anyone can easily historians. 
discover from the historians themselves that their 
writings have no basis of sure knowledge, but merely 
present the facts as conjectured by individual authors. 
More often than not they confute each other in tlieir 
works, not hesitating to give the most contradictory 
accounts of the same events. It would be superfluous 
for me to point out to readers better informed 
than myself M'hat discrepancies there are between 
Hellanicus '^ and Acusilaus on the genealogies,'^ how 
often Acusilaus corrects Hesiod, how the mendacity 
of Hellanicus in most of his statements is exposed 
by Ephorus,^ that of Ephorus by Timaeus,^ that of 

^ Traditions about Greek origins arranged in genealogical 

* Pupil of Isocrates, latter half of 4-th cent. 

f Circa 352-256 b.c. ; wrote a voluminous history of 
Sicily, his native country, down to 264 b.c. ; nicknamed 'Etti- 
rifxaios, " Fault-finder " ; attacked by Polybius. 



TifiaLo?, Kal Tt/xatov ol fier eKelvov yeyovore? , 

17 HpoSorov de rrdvres. aAA' ovhe irepl row Hlk€- 
XiKOJV rot? TTepl WvTiO')(ov Kal OiAtcrrov rj KaAAtav 
Tt^atOb" cnjiJL(hoji'€LV rj^LOjcrev, ou8' au Trepl row 

ArrLKOJV ol rag WrdlSa? Gvyy€ypa(j)6r€£ t) Trepu 
row XpyoXiKow ol ra Trepl "Apyog laropovvreg 

18 aXXi^Xoig KarrjKoXovO-qKacTL . Kal ri heZ Xiyeiv 
TTepi row Kara TToXetg Kal jjpay^vrepow, ottov ye 
77€pL rrjg YlepaLKTjg arpareiag Kai row ev a'urfj 
7Tpa)(9evrojv ol BoKLpicoraroi bLarre^owqKaGi ; rroXXa 
he Kal QovKvSiSrj? cLg ipevSopbevog vtto nvojv Kar- 
Tiyopelraiy Kairoi hoKow aKpLJUarara rrjv^ Kad avrov 
LGropiav GvyypaSeiv. 

19 (^) Alriai de rrjs roLavrrjg' biac^ojvlag TToXXal 
pL€v Ldojg av Kal erepai rolg ^ovXojjLevoig tr^r^iv 
avacjyavelev ,^ iyoj Se Sucrt ralg Xe-)(6'i']aop.€vais rrjv 
pLeyLGrrjV lGy(Vv avariQ-qpiL' Kal rrporepav ipoj rrjv 

20 Kvpiojripav elvai /.lol SoKOVGav . ro yap i^ ap^^qg 
pLrj GrrovbaGOrjvai rrapa rolg "EAAv^crt h-qjioGtag 
yLvead at rrepl row eKaarore rrparrop.€VOJV aya- 
ypa(f)ag rovro fidXiara drj Kal rrjv rrXdvrjv Kal ttjv 
i^ovaiav rod i/jevSeodai roXg /xera ravra ^ovX-q- 

21 delcTL TTepl row rraXaiojv re ypdchetv 7TapeG)(ev . ov 
yap pLovov rrapa, rolg aXXoig "EAAr^crty rjiJLeXrjOrj rd 
rrepl rag dvaypa(j)dg, dAA' ovhe rrapd rolg^ WOrj- 
vaLOcg, ovg avr6')(6ovag elvai Xeyovui Kal TraLoeuag 
eTTLfxeXelg, ovdev roiovrov evpiuKerat yevojievov, 
aXXd row h-qpLoaiow ypapipidrow dp)(aAordrovg 

^ OLKpL^eaTara ttjv Holwerda : aKftL^eaTar-qv L. 

"^ Eus. : ToaavTTis L. 

^ av (pavelev Xiese. 

■* Trap' avTOLS Eus. Lat. 



Timaeus by later writers, and that of Herodotus by 
everybody." Even on Sicilian history Timaeus did 
not condescend to agree with Antiochus,^ Philistus, 
or Callias ; there is similar divergence on Attic affairs 
between the authors of the " Atthides " ^ and on 
Argive aifairs between the historians of Argos. What 
need, however, to speak of the histories of individual 
states and matters of minor importance, when con- 
tradictory accounts of the Persian invasion and the 
events which accompanied it have been given by 
writers of the first rank ? On many points even 
Thucydides is accused of error by some critics, not- 
withstanding his reputation for writing the most 
accurate history of his time. -^ 

(4) For such inconsistency many other causes Reasons for 
might possibly be found if one cared to look for them ; crepancy : 
for my part, I attach the greatest weight to the two ^J/q^IJI^^* 
which I proceed to mention. I will begin with that to keep 
which I regard as the more fundamental. The main fecorc^g, 
responsibility for the errors of later historians who 
aspired to write on antiquity and for the licence 
granted to their mendacity rests with the original 
neglect of the Greeks to keep official records of 
current events. This neglect was not confined to 
the lesser Greek states. Even among the Athenians, 
who are reputed to be indigenous ^ and devoted to 
learning, we find that nothing of the kind existed, 
and their most ancient public records are said to be 

" e.g. Manetho {Ap. i. 73), Ctesias, Strabo, pseudo- 

^ Of Syracuse, 4th cent., wrote histories of Sicily (to 
424 B.C.) and Italy. Philistus and Callias were also Syra- 
cusans (4th-3rd cent.). 

'^ Historical and geographical works on Attica ; among 
the authors were Philochorus, Demon, and Ister. 

^ " Autochthonous." 



eivuL (f)aGL rovg vtto XpaKovros avrolg Trepc rcov 
(/jovLKcov^ ypacjiEvra? voixovs, oXlycn Trporepov rrjg 
YleiGiarpaTov rvpavvihos dvdpcoTTOV yeyovoros. 

22 TTepl ji€v yap WpKaSajv rl Set^ Xeyeiv a-u)(ovvr ojp 
apyaioTTiTa; /xoAt? yap ovtol Acat fiera ravra 
ypapLfxaGLV iTraiSevd-qaav. 

23 (o) "Are Srj roivov ovhepuds TrpoKara^e^Xruievq? 
avaypa(f)rJ9, tj Kal rov? ixadeiv (jovXopLevovs StSa^etv 
kii€/\X€ Kal rovs^ ipevSopievovg iXey^etv, tj ttoXXtj 
TTpog dXXrjXov? iyevero hiacjiojvia rols crvyypa(f}€VOL. 

24 devrepav he Trpog ravrr^ dereov eKeivqv alrlav' ol 
yap eTTL ro ypdcjieiv opixTjuavres ov Trepl rrjv dX'q- 
Oeiav iaTTOvSaaav, Kairoi rovro tt p6)(^€.ip6v iariv 
aeu ro eTrayyeX/jLa, Xoyow be SvvafjLLV iireheiKVVvro , 

25 K:at KaO^ ovnva rpoTTOv eV rovrqj TrapevSoKLfiijaeLV 
rov£ a'AAous" VTTeXdjijjavov , Kara toxttov -qpiJLO^ovro, 
TLves pi€v evTL TO ixvOoXoyelv rpeTTOfJuevoiy nve? Se 
7Tpo£ X'^P''^ V "^^^ TToXeis Tj Tou? j^auiXias eTTaivovv- 
r€£' a'AAot be iirl to Karrjyopelv tow Trpd^eojv 'q 
Twv yeypachorcov ixojprjaav evevhoKip^-qaeiv rovrco 

26 i^o/xt^o lores'. oAojs" §€ ro Trdvrow ivavrLcorarov 
^LGTopia TTparrovreg btareXovGL. r?^? pL€V yap 

aXrjdovg eGru r€Kpbi]piov LGropiaSy et rrepl rcov 
avrayv aTravre? ravra Kal Xeyoiev Kal ypd^oiev 
ol 8' el ravra ypdi/jetav erepcos,^ ovrojs ev6pLil,ov 

27 aurot ^avelGdat Trdvrow dX'qdeGraroi, Xoyow pbev 
ovv eveKa Kai rrjg ev rovroig deLvorrjrog del Trapa- 
■Xcopelv r]pLd? rols Gvyypa(j)evGL rols ^Y.XX'qviKolSy 
ov fji7]v Kat rr^s Trepl rwv dp^alow dXrjOovs LGropias 
Kat fjidXiGrd ye rrj? Trepl row eKdGroLS eTTL)(ajpLOJV. 

^ ed. pr. : (PolvIkusv L Lat. Eus. ^ ed. pr. : ot] L. 

^ el fXT) TO. avTO. ypd-'p. eripOLs Eiis. 



the laws on homicide drafted for them by Dracon, a c. 021 b.o. 
man who lived only a little before the despotism of 
Pisistratus. Of the Arcadians " and their vaunted ^^o b c. 
antiquity it is unnecessary to speak, since even at a 
still later date they had hardly learnt the alphabet. 

(5) It is, then, this lack of any basis of documentary (2) their 
evidence, which would have served at once to instruct style rather 
the eaffer learner and to confute the liar, that ^'^''^" 

® . , ■ p ^ • • • 1 accuracy. 

accounts in the main tor tlie inconsistencies between 
different historians. But a second reason must be 
added. Those who rushed into writing were con- 
cerned not so much to discover the truth, notwith- 
standing the profession which always comes readily 
to their pen, as to display their literary ability ; and 
their choice of a subject was determined by the 
prospect which it offered them of outshining their 
rivals.^ Some turned to mythology, others sought 
popularity by encomiums upon cities or monarchs ; 
others, again, set out to criticize the facts or the 
historians as the road to a reputation. In short, 
their invariable method is the very reverse of his-w_ 
torical. For the proof of historical veracity is 
universal agreement in the description, oral or 
written, of the same events. On the contrary, each*" 
of these writers, in giving his divergent account of 
the same incidents, hoped thereby to be thought the 
most veracious of all. While, then, for eloquence 
and literary abihty we must yield the palm to the 
Greek historians, we have no reason to do so for 
veracity in the history of antiquity, least of all where 
the particular history of each separate foreign nation 
is concerned. 

"■ Also regarded as autochthonous (Herod, viii. 73). 
^ Cf. A. i. 2. 



28 (6) "Otl [jL€V ovv Trap" AlyvTrTiois re Koi Ba^u- 
XojvioLs eK {jLaKpordrojv dvojOev )(p6vcjv ttjv Trepl 
rag dvaypa^ds eTTifieXeLav ottov fiev ol lepeZs rjuav 
eyKe-)(eLpiGiJ.evoi koi Trepl ravTOs ecjuXoGocjiovv , XaA- 
baloi he Trapd rolg Ba^vXowLOLS, koL on /xaAtcrTa 
hrj rojv "EAAryati' iTnpiiyvvfJbevcov ixp'ijcro.vro Oot- 
VLKe£ ypdpLjiaGiv eis re rds rrepi rov ^lov olko- 
vopLLag KOL rrpos ttjv row koivojv epyojv rrapahoGiv, 
eTTeidrj Gvy^ojpovGiv drravres, edGeiv puoL hoKOj. 

29 TTepl he tow rifierepow Trpoyovojv on rrjv a-ur^v, 
idj yap Xeyeiv el koI TrXeiw tow elpr]p.evojv, eTTOLTj- 
GavTo TTepl Tas dvaypacbd? eTnixeXeiav, toIs dp)(- 
LepevGL Kal Tolg TTpo(f)i^TaLg tovto TrpoGrd^avTeSy 
KciL ojs P'^XP'- '^^-'^ /ca^' Ty/xas" ;\;poycrjp TTe(f)'uXaKTai 
fieTa T7oXXrj£ aKpi^eias, el he <hel>^ dpaGVTepov 
elrrelv Kal t^vXaxOriGeTac, Tretpacro/xat GVVTop.ojs 

30 (J) C)u yap pLovov e^ '^PXV^ ^'^'^ tovtojv' tovs dpiG- 
Tovs Kal Trj deparrela Tov deov TrpoGehpevovTa? KaT- 
eGTTjGav, dXX OTTOJS TO yevos tow lepeojv dpuKTOv 

31 Kal Kadapov hiap^evel rrpovvoTjGav. hel yap rov 
pieTexovTa ttjs lepojGVvr^g e^ opLoeOvovs yvvaiKos 
TTaihoTToielGd ai Kal pLrj Trpos ;Yp7^/Lcara pi-qhe Tas 
dXXas aTTO^XeTTeiv Tipids, dXXd to yevos e^eTdteiv 
eK TOW dpxeiojv^ Xap.^dvovTa ttjv hiahox^jv Kal 

32 TTO?C\ov? rrapexop-evov pidpTvpas. Kal TavTa TrpdT- 

^ ins. Gutschraid from the Lat. 

^ TovTif Xiese. 

^ Gutschraid : apx^'-^v L. 

° As Reinach remarks, Jos. confuses the keeping- of genea- 
losrical registers by the priesthood in the time of the second 
Temple with the wholly different manner in which the books 
of the Old Testament were written. It must be remembered 



(6) Of the care bestowed by the Egyptians and The Jewish 
Babylonians on their chronicles from the remotest ancUiiTcan 
affes, and how the charge and exposition of these bestowed 

■ , T ' ,^ r ,.1 . upon them. 

was entrusted, m the lormer country to the priests, 
in the latter to the Chaldaeans ; and how, among 
the nations in touch with the Greeks, it was the 
Phoenicians who made the largest use of writing, 
both for the ordinary affairs of life and for the com- 
memoration of public events ; of all this I think 
I need say nothing, as the facts are universally 
admitted. But that our forefathers took no less, not 
to say even greater, care than the nations I have 
mentioned in the keeping of their records — a task 
which they assigned to their chief priests and The writers 
prophets^ — and that down to our own times these todians of 
records have been, and if I may venture to say so, ^'^^^ lecords. 
will continue to be, preserved with scrupulous 

I, accuracy, I will now endeavour briefly to demonstrate. 
(7) Not only did our ancestors in the first instance Selection 
set over this business men of the highest character, custodians. 
i devoted to the service of God, but they took pre- ^"nitiny of 
I cautions to ensure that the priests' lineage should marriages 
I be kept unadulterated and pure.^ A member of the f^eneaiogies 
/ priestly order must, to beget a family, marry a 
woman of his own race,^ without regard to her 
wealth or other distinctions ; but he must investigate 
her pedigree, obtaining the genealogy from the 
archives '^ and producing a number of witnesses. 

that the historical books of the Old Testament after the 
Pentateuch were included in the second or prophetical 
portion of the Hebrew Canon and attri])uted to prophetical 

" Cf. Lev. xxi. 7 fF. ^ Jb. U. 

** Cf. the pedigree of his own family taken from " the 
public registers " by Josephus, Vita, 3-6. 



rojJLev 01) jJLovov Itt" avrrj? 'louSata?, aAA ottov 
TTore GV<TTr]f.La rod yevovs iarlv -qfjuajv KaKel to 
aKpi^es aTroGcoleraL rols UpevGL Trepl rov? yo^fiovg' 

33 Xeyoj Se rovs ^v AlyvTrroj Kal l^aBvXcbvL Kal et 
7TOV rrjs aXkrjS OLKovfJievr]? rod yivovs tcjv tepecov 
ecGL nve? StccrTrap/xeVot. TrefiTTovGL yap et? lepo- 
GoXvfJLa (jvyypdijjavT€S Trarpodev rovvofia rrj? re 
yajJL€T-q9^ Kal ra)V eVdvoj vrpoyovcov Kal rtves" ot 

Z4: fjiaprvpovvres. noXepios 8' el KardaxoL, Kaddnep 
7]6-q yiyove 7To}\XdKL?, Avtloxov re rod Etti- 
<^avovs €L? TTjV "x^cLpav ipL^aXovrog Kat HopiTTrjLov 
}^[dyvov Kal \\vvTLXiov Ovdpov /xciAtara Se Kal iv 

35 rol? Kad^ rjpids XP^^'^'-^' ^^ TTepiXeiTTopievoi rcov 
Upiojv Kaivd TrdXiv ek rcov dpx€La>v ypdp.}xara^ 
uvvioravraL Kal hoKip.dt,ovGi rds vrroXeLcjydeLGas 
yvvalKag. ov yap en^ ras" alxP'O.Xojrovs yevop^ivas 
TTpoGLevTai TToXXdKis yeyovvlav avrals ttjv rrpos 

^^ dXX6(j)vXov Koivojviav v(j)opojp.evoi. reKpnqpiov he 
pulyiGTOv TTJ? aKpi^eia?' ol yap apxt-epets ol Trap 
rjpuv 0,770 hiGX^Xiojv erojv 6vop.aGroL Tralhes eK 
TTarpos elGiv ev rals dvaypacfyal?. rots' Se rojv 
elp-qfievajv otlovv Trapaf^ciGiv^ aTnjyopevrai f-i'qre 
TOt? ^(jjpbols TTapi.GraGQai p^r^re pberexei-v rijs dXXrjs 

37 EtVorcos" ovv, puaXXov Se dvayKaiojs, are p,t]Te 
Tov ypd(j)eiv'' avre^ovGLOV TraGiv bvro? [.L-qre nvog 
ev rols ypa(j)opLevois ivovGTjg Stac^ojvtas", aAAa 

1 TTJs re yajxerris Xiese (Lat. nuptoe) : r^s yeypa/j./j.efyjs L : 
tQv yeiva/xevuv ed. pr. 

2 dpxf 'WJ' ypoLfifMaTa Gutschmid : apxo.'i-f^v<j:v L. 
^ ed. pr. : iirl L. 

* Trapa^daiv Niese (after Lat.) : yeuoiro els irapa^acnv L. 
^ Niese : to {tov ed. pr.) viroypdcpeLV L. 



And this practice of ours is not confined to the home 
country of Judaea, but wherever there is a Jewish 
colony, there too a strict account is kept by the 
priests of their marriages ; I allude to the Jews in 
Egypt and Babylon and other parts of the world in 
which any of the priestly order are living in dis- 
persion. A statement is drawn up by them and sent 
to Jerusalem, showing the names of the bride and 
her father and more remote ancestors, together with 
the names of the witnesses. In the not infrequent 
event of war, for instance when our country was in- iio-ios b.c. 
vaded by Antiochus Epiphanes, by Pompey the c^l'^'c. 
Great, by Quintilius Varus, and above all in our own ^■'^- gg-TO. 
times, the surviving priests compile fresh records 
from the archives ; they also pass scrutiny upon the 
remaining women, and disallow marriage with any 
who have been taken captive, suspecting them of 
having had frequent intercourse with foreigners.^ 
But the most convincing proof of our accuracy in this 
matter is that our records contain the names of our 
high priests, with the succession from father to son 
for the last two thousand years .^ And whoever 
violates any of the above rules is forbidden to minister 
at the altars or to take any other part in divine 

It therefore naturally, or rather necessarily, follows The tweniy- 
(seeing that with us it is not open to everybody to ofScriptine. 
write the records, and that there is no discrepancy 
in what is written ; seeing that, on the contrary, the 

« Cf. A. iii. 276, xiii. 292. Yet Josephus himself, a 
priest, married a captive, Vita 414. 
" Gf. A.\.l6 and xx. 22T. 

VOL. I N 177 


fiovow rcov 7Tpo(f)r]ra)V rd jiev dvajraraj Kal TraXato- 
Tara Kara T-qv emTTVOiav Trjv arro rod deov jjuadov- 
Tojv, ra he KaO avrovs oj^ eyevero aacfxjj? ovy- 

38 ypa(j)6vT(jjv, (8) ov fjivpidhes ^l^Xiojv elal 77ap' rifilv 
darufJL(f)(Ji}VCx)V Kal fxaxojJievwv, Svo he [jiova rrpos rolg 
e'lKocn ^L^Xta rod rravros ey^ovra ')(^p6vov rrjv 

39 dvaypa(f)rjv, rd St/<ratco?^ TTemcrrevfJLeva. Kal rov- 
rojv TTevre /xeV ecrrt rd ^lojvcjeojg , d rovs re vopLovs 
'nepie^^ei Kal rrjv arr avdpojTToyovLa? rrapdhoGLV 
piexpi rrjs avrov reXevrrjS' ovros 6 XP^'^'^^ drro- 

40 XeiTTei rpiGX^XiOJv dXiyov erojv. ciTrd he rij? 
Mcoucreco? reXevrrjs fiexpi^?^ Wpra^ep^ov rod fxerd 
'E.ep^Tjv Ylepaujv f^acnXeuJS ol fxerd Xlojvarjv Trpo- 
(f)rjraL rd Kar avrovg rrpaxOevra avveypaipav ev 
rpiul Kal heKa ^l^Xlols, at he Xonral reuoape? 
vpLvov? el? rdv deov Kai roTg avOpcjjTTOig VTTodrjKas 

41 rod ^iov rrepiexovuLV. 0,770 he ^ Apra^ep^ov piexpt 
rod KaO^ Tji-ids XP^'^'^'^ yeypaTrrat fiev eKaara, 
mcrreajs h ovx d/ioiag rj^ioorai rolg rrpo avrcov 
hid rd pLT] yeveudai rrjv row 7rpo(f)rjra)V dKpi^rj 

42 \rjXov h eanv epyoj ttojs rjiiels TTpoGLfjuev rols 
IhiOL? ypdjjLfJLacn'^ rocrovrov ydp alcovog rjhr) 
TTapcpx^jKoros ovre Trpoadeivai ns ovhev ovre 

^ + dela Eus. 

2 Atexpts (after Lat.) Gutschraid: /xexpl rrjs L. 
^ irpoalfxev . . . ypaf^uaffL Eus. : rots Idiois ypd/x/xacn we- 
■jriaT€VKap.ev L Lat. 

" Artaxerxes I (Longimanus) succeeded Xerxes in 465 
B.C. He is identified elsewhere in Josephus {A. xi. 184) 
and in the LXX with Ahasuerus of the book of Esther, 
and is mentioned here because of his supposed connexion 



prophets alone had this privilege, obtaining their 
knowledge of the most remote and ancient history 
through the inspiration which they owed to God, and 
committing to WTiting a clear account of the events 
of their own time just as they occurred) — it follow^s, 
I say, that (8) we do not possess myriads of incon- 
sistent books, conflicting with each other. Our books, 
those which are justly accredited, are but two and 
twenty, and contain the record of all time. 

Of these, five are the books of Moses, comprising 
the laws and the traditional history from the birth 
of man down to the death of the lawgiver. This 
period falls only a little short of three thousand years. 
From the death of Moses until Artaxerxes,** who 
succeeded Xerxes as king of Persia, the prophets 
subsequent to Moses WTote the history of the events 
of their own times in thirteen ^ books. The remain- 
ing four ^ books contain hymns to God and precepts 
for the conduct of human life. 

From Artaxerxes to our own time the complete .' 
history has been written, but has not been deemed 
worthy of equal credit with the earlier records, 
because of the failure of the exact succession of the 

We have given practical proof of our reverence for ^ Jews' 
our own Scriptures. For, although such long ages fo"thdr°" 
have now passed, no one has ventured either to add, Scriptures. 

with that work, chronologically the latest of the "thirteen 

" Probably (1) Joshua, (2) Jd. + Ruth, (3) Sam., (4) Kings, 
(5) Chron., (6) Ezra + Neh., (7) Esther, (8) Job, (9) Isaiah, 
(10) Jeremiah + Lam., (11) Ezekiel, (12) Minor Prophets, 
(13) Daniel. 

« Probably (1) Psalms, (2) Song of Songs, (3) Proverbs, 
(4) Ecclesiastes. ^ Lit. " how we approach." 



d^eAety avrow ovre fieraOelvac TeroXfi-qKev , Tracrt 
Se aviJL<f)VT6y iariv evdvg Ik rrj? TTpojrrjS yevdaecvs 
'louSatot? TO vofjiL^€Lv^ avTcx Oeov hoyfiara Kai 
ToijroLs ififieveiv kol VTiep airrchv, el SeoL, OvquKeiv 

43 TjSeojg. rjhrj ovv ttoXXoI rroXXaKL? iojpavrai rajv 
al-^liaXojTOJV Grpe^Xag Kai TravTOLcov Oavarcov 
rporrovs iv dear pots VTrofj^evovres eVt toj p.rjhev 
p-qfia TTpoeaOai Trapa rovs vofiovs Kai rag fiera 
TOTJTOJV dvaypa(f)OL?. 

44 "0 TtV O.V VTTOjieiveLev '^XX'qvow vrrep <row> 
avTOV ; aAA ovo vrrep rod Kai Travra ra nap 
avrols acbavLadijvaL GvyypapLjJbara rrjv rvyovGav 

45 VTTOorrrjcrerai ^XdBrjV Xoyov? yap avrd vojxitovoiv 
elvai Kara rrjv row ypaipdvrojv ^ovX-quLV eG-)(e- 
oiaGfJievovs . Kai rovro OLKaiojg Kai Trepi row 
TraXaiorepojv (f)povov(jLv, erreLhrj Kai rojv vvv 
eviovs 6po)GL roXfJicbvrag Trepl rovrojv ovyypacjieiv, 
ols l^'Tj'T^ avrol rrapeyevovro jx-qre TTvOeudai rrapd 

46 ro)V elSorojv i(f)iXorLfj.rjd-qGav. dpLeXei Kai Trepl 
rod yevojJLevov vvv r][jLlv rroXepiov nveg loropias 
eTriypdipavreg e^evqvo-^aaiv ovr eis rovs roirovs 
rrapaBaXovre? ovre rrXrjcjLOV rovrojv irparropbevoav 
rrpoaeXdovreg, dXX eV TrapaKOVup^drajv oXiya 
Gvvdevres rqj rrj? laropias ovofiari Atav ayatScDs" 
eveTrapoivTjGav . 

47 (9) 'Eyco he Kai Trepl rod TroXepbov Travros Kai Trepl 
row ev avror Kara p.epos yevopuevajv aXrjdrj ttjv 
dvaypacf)rjv eTroi-qoapbriv rols rrpdypiaGiV avros 

48 aTraGL Traparv^ow . eGrparijyovv p,ev yap rojv Trap' 
TjpXv VaXiXaiojv 6vopLaL,op.evo)v eojs dvre)(eLV Svva- 

^ TO voui^ecv Eus. : 6vo/xd^€Lv L Lat. 
^ iu avT(2 ed. pr. : avrip L: ihi [ = ai'Tov) Lat. 



or to remove," or to alter a syllable ; and it is an 
instinct with every Jew, from the day of his birth, to 
regard them as the decrees of God, to abide by them, 
and, if need be, cheerfully to die for them. Time 
and again ere now the sight has been witnessed of 
prisoners enduring tortures and death in every form 
in the theatres, rather than utter a single word 
against the laws and the allied documents.^ 

What Greek would endure as much for the same Greek dis- 
cause ? Even to save the entire collection of his [^etr 
nation's writings from destruction he would not face records and 

C7 iiisrorioil 

the smallest personal injury. For to the Greeks they accuracy. 
are mere stories improvised according to the fancy 
of their authors ; and in this estimate even of the 
older historians they are quite justified, when they 
see some of their own contemporaries venturing to 
describe events in which they bore no part, without 
taking the trouble to seek information from those 
who know the facts. We have actually had so-called 
histories even of our recent war published by persons 
who never visited the sites nor were anywhere near 
the actions described, but, having put together a few 
hearsay reports, have, with the gross impudence of 
drunken revellers, miscalled their productions by the 
name of history.'' 

(9) I, on the contrary, have written a veracious Defence of 
account, at once comprehensive and detailed, of the jeiuh^l ml,-. 
war, having been present in person at all the events. 
I was in command of those whom we call Galilaeans, 

" Cf. Deut. iv. 2, " Ye shall not add unto the word which 
I command vou, neither shall ye diminish from it." 

* Cf. Ap.'n. 219. 

<^ Cf. B. i. 1 ff. For a rival history of the war by Justus 
of Tiberias see Vita 336 ff. Here he seems to allude to 
untrustworthy histories by Greek writers. 



rov Tjv, iyevofiTjv 8e Trapa 'Pco/xatot? ovXXr^cfideL? 
at;)(/xaAcoTos' Kal yi€ 8td (f)vXaKrjg OveaTraGLavos 
Kal TiTog €)(0VT€s aet 7Tpo(j€hp€V€Lv avrois rjvdy- 
KaaaVy ro jjbev Trpcorov SeSefievov, au^t? 8e Xvdels 
cruv€7T€fJL(l)9rjv 0.770 rfj? WXe^avSpelag Tltoj Trpog 

49 TTjV 'lepoGoXvpiOJV TToXiopKiav. iv to )(p6va)^ row 
TTparToiJLevcov ovk kcrriv 6 rrjv ijjirjv yvojuLV Sie<f}vy€V' 
Kal yap ra Kara ro arparoTreSov ro 'Poj^aicov 
opaJv iTTLfjLeXoj? aviypa(^ov Kal ra rrapa rojv avro- 

50 fJLoXwv aTrayyeXXo/jieva pbovos avros gvvUlv. elra 
GXoXrj? iv rfj 'Pco/jltj Xa^opievo?, Trdarj? pLOL rijs 
TrpaypLarelas iv TrapauKevfj yeyevqpbivrjs, XPV' 
adpLevos riGi irpog rrjV 'EAAryvtSa (f)a>v7]v avvepyoLS, 
ovrojs i7TOLrjGdpi7]v row rrpd^eojv rrjV Trapdhoaiv. 
roGovrov Si pLOL Tfepirjv ddpGos rrjs dX-qOeias wGre 
TTpojrovs TTavrow rovs avroKparopas rod rroXipiov 
yevopiivovs OveGTraGiavov Kal ^irov Tj^iojGa Xa^elv 

51 pidprvpas. rrpcorois yap ehojKa^ ra ^i^Xia Kal 
p.€r^ iK€Lvovg ttoXXoI^ p.ev 'PojjjLalojv rols Gvpc- 
TTeTToXepL-qKOGL, TToXAols Si ro)v TjpLeripojv irfi- 
TTpaGKOVy dvSpdGL Kal rrjg '¥.XXrjVLKijs Gocjiias 
pLereGX'TjKOGLVy ojv iGriv IovXlo? WpxiXaog, 'Hpoj- 
St]? o Gepuvoraros , avros o 9avp,aGLOjraros ^aGiXevg 

52 'Aypt7777a?. ovroL pLev ovv diravres ip.aprvprjGav 

on rrj£ aXrjdeia? TrpovGriqv impieXojg, ovk dv 

V7TOGr€iXdpL€voL Kal GiojTTTjGavres , el n xrar' 

dypoiav tj ;Yapt^o/xevos" [leridrjKa row yeyovorojv 

t) rrapiXirrov. 

^ +yePOfj.evriv L (ora. Lat.). 
^ Niese : oeocoKa L. 

'' B. iii. 408. ^ B. iv. (x. 7) 622 flf. 

« Cf. B. iv. 658. ^ Cf. Vita 361 ff, 



so long as resistance was possible ; after my capture 
I was a prisoner in the Roman camp." Vespasian 
and Titus, keeping me under surveillance, required 
my constant attendance upon them, at first in chains ; 
subsequently I was liberated ^ and sent from Alex- 
andria with Titus to the siege of Jerusalem.^ During 
that time no incident escaped my knowledge. I kept 
a careful record of all that went on under my eyes 
in the Roman camp, and was alone in a position to 
understand the information brought by deserters. 
Then, in the leisure which Rome afforded me, with 
all my materials in readiness, and with the aid of 
some assistants for the sake of the Greek, at last I 
committed to writing my narrative of the events. 
So confident was I of its veracity that I presumed to 
take as my witnesses, before all others, the com- 
manders-in-chief in the war, Vespasian and Titus .'^ 
They were the first to whom I presented my volumes, 
copies being afterwards given to many Romans who 
had taken part in the campaign. Others I sold ^ to 
a large number of my compatriots, persons well 
versed in Greek learning, among whom were Julius 
Archelaus,^ the most venerable Herod,^ and the most 
admirable King Agrippa himself.'^ x\ll these bore 
testimony to my scrupulous safeguarding of the 
truth, and they were not the men to conceal their 
sentiments or keep silence had I, through ignorance 
or partiality, distorted or omitted any of the facts. 

® In the parallel account ( Vita 362) King Agrippa II is 
named, with others, as receiving a presentation copy. 

f Son of Chelcias and husband of Mariamme, sister of 
King Agrippa II ; A. xix. 355, xx. 140. 

3 Unknown ; not, as Reinach suggests, Herod, king of 
Chalcis, who died before the war {A. xx. 104). 

^ Agrippa II. 



53 (10) (^avXoL he rive? avdpojTTOi Sta^aAAetv /xou tt^v 
LGTopiav eTTLKe-xeip-qKaGiv ujGTrep ev o-)(oXfi fji€Lpa- 
KLOJV yu/xvacr/xa TrpoKeladai vofJLLL,ovT€9, KarrjyopMi? 
TTapaho^ov Kal Sia^oXi]?, Seov eKelvo yiyi^ojcrKeLV, 
OTL Set rov aAAots" rrapdSocnv irpd^eajv dXr]OLVcov 
V7Tia)(yo'Uii€vov avrov eVtcrracr^at rairra? Trporepov 
G-Kpi^chs, Tj TTaprjKoXovO-qKora rols yeyovooLV 7] 

5i rrapd row ctSorcov 7TVv9avopi€vov . orrep eyoj fia- 
Xiara rrepl diJi<f)OT€pag vo/jllLoj TTerroLTjKevai rag 
TTpay/jiareLag. r-qv fiev yap dpxciioXoyiav, ojanep 
ecfy-qv, €K tow lepow ypapbfjLdrojv iieOrjppi-qvevKa 
y€yovdjs lepevs €K yevov? Kat iiereaxrjKOJS rrjg 

55 cf)LXoGO(f)Lag TTJs ev eKeivois rot? ypapLfiaaf rod 
8e TToXepLov rrjv laropiav eypaipa ttoAAcDv fiev 
avrovpyos rrpd^eojv, TrXeicrrow S avroTrr-qs yevo- 
fjievos, oAcos" §6 rcjv Xex^evrajv i) TrpaxOevrajv 

56 oi)8' OTLOvv dyvc^aas . ttojs ovv ovk dv dpaaelg 
n? -qy-quairo rovs dvr ay covtCeaO at fiOL Tvepc rrjg 
aXrideias iTTLKexeLprjKorag, ol Kav rols rojv avro- 
Kparopow V770[JivrjfjLao-LV ivrvx^lv Xeyojuiv, dXX ov ye 
Kal rols TjiierepoLs row dvriTToXeiiovvrojv rr pay fiaoi 
napervxov ; 

57 (11) riepi (lev ovv rovrojv avayKaiav erroL'qGafMrjV 
rrjV rrapeK^aGiv eniurjjji'qvaudai ^ovXojJievos rojv 
eTrayyeXXopbivojv rds loropias Gvyypd(j)eiv rrjV ev- 

58 ;^ep€tav. LKavoJs Se (f)avep6v, (Lg oljxai, TTerroi'qKdjs 

°- Cf. Thuc. i. 22, " My history is an everlasting possession, 
not a prize composition which is heard and forgotten." 
Others, making the genitives Karriyopias . . . dia^oXrjs 
dependent on yv/j.uaa/xa, would render : " treating it as an 
exercise for the display of perverse accusation and calumny, 
such as is set," etc. 



(10) Nevertheless, certain despicable persons have j^"!^* ''^p'-^^ 
essayed to malign my history, taking it for a prize 
composition ^ such as is set to boys at school. What 
an extraordinary accusation and calumny ! Surely 
they ought to recognize that it is the duty of one 
who promises to present his readers with actual facts 
first to obtain an exact knoAvledge of them himself, 
either through having been in close touch with the 
events, or by inquiry from those who knew them. 
That duty I consider myself to have amply fulfilled 
in both my works. In my Antiquities, as I said, I * 
have given a translation of our sacred books ; ^ being '{ 
a priest and of priestly ancestry, I am well versed j 
in the philosophy'' of those writings. My qualifica- 
tion as historian of the war M^as that I had been an 
actor in many, and an eyewitness of most, of the 
events ; in short, nothing whatever was said or done 
of which I was ignorant. Surely, then, one cannot 
but regard as audacious the attempt of these critics 
to challenge my veracity. Even if, as they assert, 
they have read the Commentaries of the imperial 
commanders,^ th.^y at any rate had no first-hand 
acquaintance with our position in the opposite camp. 

(11) My desire to expose the levity of those who Topics of 
profess to write history has compelled me to digress. <^|i^u«es 
Having now, I think, sufficiently shown that the 

" Cf, A. i. 5, XX. 261. In the Antiquities (first half), he 
implies, he has given his own paraphrase and interpretation 
of the Old Testament ; but in reality he is largely dependent 
on an older Greek version, the Septuagint. 

'^ Or "study," "scientific treatment"; Josephiis shows 
some knowledge of traditional exegesis {Halakoth, etc.). 

<^ Cf. Vita 342, 358. 




OTL TTOJTpios iariv 7) 7T€pl TOW TToXaLow avaypa(f)rj 
Tols jiap^dpoLS pboXKov Tj rolg "EAAr^crt, ^OTjXojJiai 
jiiKpd Trporepov hiaXe^Q'^vai Trpog rovg im-x^eipovv- 
ras veav rjp.oJv (XTro^atvetv r7]V Kardaracnv €K rod 
fiTjdev TTepl -rjjiojv, ojs" (paGLv eKelvoL, X€Xey(9ai rrapd 

59 rdls 'YXXtjvlkois (Jvyypa(f)€V(jLv. etra he rds" fJLap- 
Tvpiag rrjg dpy^aior-qros eK rwv 77 ap' d'AAots" ypajjL- 
pbdrow rrape^oj Kal rovg (^€^XaG(f)r]iJL-qK6ra? rjfJLcov 
TO yevog aTTodei^oj Xiav dXoyojs;^ ^XaGchrjfiovvTa? . 

60 (12) 'H/zeLS* Toivvv ovT€ -)(Ojpav OLKov/iev rrapaXiov 
ovT^ ipLTTopiaiS )(aLpo}JL€v ovde rat? Trpog d'AAof? Sta 
TO'UTow eTTt/xi^tats", dAA eicrt fiev rjucov at TToAets" 
fiaKpdv aTTo OaXdaoriS avcoKLGfievai, ^(^ojpav hk 
dyadrjv vepLoaevoL TavrrjV eKTTOVOVfjLev, /xdAtcrra Sr] 
TrdvTOJV Trepl 7Tai6oTpo(hiav (f)LXoKaXovvT€£ Kal 
TO (f)vXdrr€Lv rovs vofiovs Kal ttjv Kara tovtovs 
TrapabehojievrjV evae^eiav kpyov dvayKaioTaTov 

61 rravTog tov f^iov neTTOLrjfJievoL. TTpoaovarjg to'lvvv 
Tols elprjjievoLS Kal rrjg rrepl tov ^lov rjpiojv iStd- 
rrjTos ovhkv'^ ev toIs rraXaiols ;5^pdvoi?^ ttolovv tj/jllv 
TTpos Tovs "EAAvyvas" imiiL^iav , oioirep A-lyvrrTLOis 
fiev TOL Trap'' avTOJv i^ayofieva Kal rrpos avrovs 
eluayopLeva, rot? Se tyiV TrapdXiov Trjg ^olvlktjs 
KaTOLKOvcjLV Tj TTepu Tag KaTT'qXeias Kal Trepl Tas 

62 ifiTToplag GTrovSrj Std to (j)LXoxprjfjiaT€lv. ov jjlt^v 
ovhe TTpos XrjGTeias, ojorrep d'AAot TLvis, tj to 
rrXiov ex^tv d^Lovv TToXepLovvTes^ irpdrrrjaav rjpbcov 
ol 7TaTep€5y KaiToi TToXXds TTjs y^ojpas l\ov<jr]<s 

63 juuptdSa? dvhpojv ovk aroXfJLow. Std tovto OotvtKres" 
pikv avTol Kar^ ifiTToplav rot? "EAAr^o-ty irTeLGTrXeov- 

^ dXcr/cjs Hudson : ev toU Xoyois L. ^ + rjv ed. pr. 

^ -T TO ed. pr. * d^toCf res tt/joj TroXeyuois Lat. (apparently). 



tradition of keeping chronicles of antiquity is found 
rather among the non-Hellenic " races than with the 
Greeks, I propose, in the first place,^ to reply briefly 
to those critics who endeavour to prove the late origin 
of our constitution from the alleged silence of the 
Greek historians concerning us. I shall then " proceed 
to cite testimonies to our antiquity from external 
literature, and finally ^ to show the utter absurdity 
of the calumnies of the traducers of our race. 

(12) Well, ours is not a maritime country ; neither (i.)Expiana- 
commerce nor the intercourse which it promotes gjieijce q}^ 
with the outside world has any attraction for us. Greek 
Our cities are built inland, remote from the sea ; and about The 
we devote ourselves to the cultivation of the pro- Jews. 
ductive country with which we are blessed. Above 
all we pride ourselves on the education of our children, 
and regard as the most essential task in life the 
observance of our laws and of the pious practices, 
based thereupon, which we have inherited. If to 
these reasons one adds the peculiarity of our mode 
of life, there was clearly nothing in ancient times 
to bring us into contact with the Greeks, as the 
Egyptians were brought by their exports and im- 
ports, and the inhabitants of the sea-board of 
Phoenicia by their mercenary devotion to trade and 
commerce. (Nor, again, did our forefathers, like 
some others, have recourse to piracy,^ or to military 
schemes of aggrandizement, although their country 
contained myriads of courageous men.) It was to 
their coming on their ships to traffic with the Greeks 

« " Barbarian." ^ §§ 60-68. 

" §§ 69-218. '^ Ap. i. 319-ii. 1 14. 

^ After Thuc. i. 5 (who says that before the time of Minos 
piracy was regarded as an honourable occupation) ; cf. 
Horn. Od. ill. 71 if. 



r€£ evdvs iyi'coadrjGav, /cat St' eKetvcov AlyvTrrioi 
/cat TTavres d(f)^ d>v rov (f)6prov el? rous" "EAAr/ya? 

64 Ste/co/.tt^op' jjLeydXa TreXdyrj hialpovres . ^Irjhoi he 
fjberd ravra /cat Hepuai cf)av€pol Karearrjaav rrj? 
'Acrtas" irrdp^avre?, ol he /cat p^^XP^ "^V^ erepa?^ 
rj7T€Lpov YlepGat OTpareduavTes - Gpa/cc? he hid 
yeiroviav /cat ro HkvOlkov vtto^ tcov el? rov Uovrov 

65 eyi'cocrdr] TrXeovTCOV . oXws yap dnavreg ol irapd ttjv 
OdXarrav /cat ttjv rrpos rats' ayaroAats" /cat^ rr^v 
eGTTepLov KaroLKOVvres rols Gvyypd^eiv tl ^ov- 
Xopievois yvujpipiWTepoL Karearrjaav, ol he ravrrjg 
dvojrepoj ras" olKrjGeis exovreg evrt TrXelarov rjyvorj- 

66 Q-quav. /cat tovto (jiaLverai /cat rrepi rrjv YiVpojrriqv 
(jvp^^e^r^Ko?, 07T0V ye rrj? 'PcopLalajv TroXecos, 
ToiavTTjv e'/c p^aKpov hvvapnv KeKrrjpbevrjs /cat 
rotaura? Tipd^eis KaropOovcr-qg TToXepHKa?, ovO * 
'HpohoTos ovre QovKuhihr]? ovre tcov a/xa rovroLS 
yevopLevcov ovhe els epLvqpLovevKev, dAA' oipe TTore 
/cat /xoAtS" avrow els tovs "EAAyyvas" r] yvcoGig 

67 hie^TjXdev. Trepl puev yap FaAarajy re /cat l^-qpcov 
ovrojs TjyvoTjGav ol hoKovvres a/cpt^ecrrarot Gvy- 
ypa^els, ojv eorLv "E^opos", ojGre ttoXlv olerai 
jjLiav elvat rovs "l^rjpag rovs roGovro p^epos rrjs 
eGTTepiov yfjs KaroLKovvras, /cat rd pi^re yevopLeva 
Trap" avrols eOt] pb-qre XeyopLeva ypa(j)eiv ojg eKeivatv 

68 avrols ;\;poj^eV6DV eroXpbrjGav. alnov he rod /xev pb7) 
yiyvojGKeiv rdXrjOes rd Xiav dveTTLpuKrov, rov he 
ypd<^eiv ipevhrj ro ^ovXeGdai hoKelv ri rrXeov rcov 

^ irepas ( = Lat. alteram) Hudson: rnxeripa^ L. 
^ Niese : d-n-b L. ^ + 7r/)6s L. * + 6 L. 

" So Dionysius of Halicarnassus (1st century B.C.), Ant. 



that the Phoenicians owed their own early notoriety ; 
and through their agency the Egyptians became 
known and all whose merchandise the Phoenicians 
conveyed across great oceans to the Greeks. At a 
later date, the Medes and Persians were brought 
before the world by their dominion in Asia, the latter 
more particularly by their invasion of the other 
continent. The Thracians were known as near 
neighbours, the Scythians through the navigators of 
the Euxine. As a general rule, all the nations with 
a sea-board, whether on the eastern or the western 
sea, were better known by authors desirous of 
writing history, while those who lived further inland 
remained for the most part unknown. That this 
rule holds good also for Europe appears, for instance, 
from the fact that the city of Rome, which had long 
before their time attained such power and been so 
successful in war, is mentioned neither by Herodotus 
nor by Thucydides nor by anyone of their contem- 
poraries ; it was only at quite a late date that a 
knowledge of the Romans with difficulty penetrated 
to the Greeks.'* On the Gauls and Iberians such was 
the ignorance of persons reputed to be the most exact 
of historians, such as Ephorus, that this writer 
imagined that the Iberians, who occupy so large a 
portion of the western world, were a single city ; 
while others ventured to ascribe to them customs 
destitute of all foundation in fact or tradition. While 
their ignorance of the facts is explained by their 
never having had the remotest relations with those 
peoples,^ their false statements are due to an am- 

Rom. i. 4. 2, " The ancient history of the city of Rome is 
still unknown to wellnigh all the Greeks." 

^ Or, perhaps, " by the complete isolation [of these 
nations] from the world." 



aXkow LGropeiv. ttojs ovv ert davfJidCeiv TrpoarJKev, 
€L p.Tjhe TO Tjfiirepov edvo? ttoXXoT? iyiyv(x>UK€TO 
IXTjhe TTjS ev roZs GvyypdfJLfjLaGt p,vrjp.rjs d(j)opiiriv 
rrapeax^v , ovrcog pLev d7TOJKLGpL€VOV ri^s 6aXdGGr]s, 
ovrojs 8e ^lorevetv Trporjprjpievov; 

69 (is) Oepe roivvv Tjpds d^Lovv TeKpi^piOj )(^prjGdaL 
TTepl row 'EAAr/ycoVj oVt pbTj rraXaiov eariv avrcov ro 
yevos, TO) fXTjOev ev rats rjpLerepaLS dvaypacjyais rrepl 
avTOJV elprjaOaL. dp" q-uxl Trdvrojs dv KareyeXojv 
avras, ot/xat, ras" vtt epuov vvv €Lpr]pL€vas Kopui^ovres 
alrias, Kal p^dprvpas dv rovs TTXrjGiox^povs 

70 rrapei'x^ovTO rrjg avroiv dpxaiorrjros ; Kdyoj roivvv 
rr€ rovro TTOielv. AlyvTrriois yap Kal 
^OLVL^i pidXiora St) )(prjo-opiaL pudprvcrLV, ovk dv 
rivos (jjs il'€vSi] rrjv p^aprvpiav hiaf^dXXeiv hvvrj- 
devros' (jyaivovrai yap Kal St) pidXiura Trpds rapids 
hvufievd)? Siare9evr€S kolvtj pL€V drravres AlyvTrrtoL, 

71 <^oLVLKwv 8e TvptoL. nepl pbcvroi XaASatcor ovketl 
ravro rovro^ hvvalpi'qv dv Xiyeiv, irrel Kal rod 
yevovs TjpiOJV dp-)(r^yol Kadeor-qKaai Kal Sta rrjv 
avyydveiav iv ralg avrcov avaypa(f)al? lovSaicxJv 

72 pLV7]pbov€Vovcnv . orav Se rag rrapd^ rovrcov Trior eis 
rrapdu^ajy rore Kal rcov 'KXXijvwv uvyypa<^ia>v 
d7T0cf)avdj rovs piVT]p.rjv lovSaiojv rreTTOLrjKorag, 
Iva pbTjSe ravrrjv ert rrjv Trpo^aaiv ol ^auKaivovres 
exojcri rrjs Trpds rjpidg dvnXoyias. 

73 (l4) " \p^ Srj Trpdjrov arrd rcov Trap AlyvTmois 
ypapuparcov. avra puev ovv ov^ olov re Trapa- 
riOeoSai rdKeivcov, ^lavedcos^ S' tjv ro yevos At- 

^ ravTo Tovro] hoc Lat. ^ conj. : irepl L. 

^ Eus. : 3Iafe^ccj/ L Lat. (and so elsewhere). 



bition to appear better informed than the rest of the 
world. Surely, then, it should no longer excite 
surprise that our nation, so remote from the sea, and 
so deliberately living its own life, likewise remained 
largely unknown and oJflPered no occasion to historians 
to mention it. 

(IS) Suppose that we were to presume to dispute (ii.) witness 
the antiquity of the Greek nation and to base our nations 
contention on the absence of any mention of them in ^o the 

111 1 1 n 1 1 antiquity of 

our literature. Would they not undoubtedly laugh the Jews, 
us to scorn ? They would, I imagine, offer the very 
reasons which I have just given for such silence,^ 
and produce the neighbouring nations as witnesses 
to their antiquity. Well, that is just what I shall 
endeavour to do. As my principal witnesses I shall 
cite the Egyptians and Phoenicians, whose evidence 
is quite unimpeachable ; for the Egyptians, the whole 
race without exception, and among the Phoenicians 
the Tyrians, are notoriously our bitterest enemies. 
Of the Chaldaeans I could not say the same, because ' 
they are the original ancestors of our race, and this 
blood-relationship accounts for the mention which is 
made of the Jews in their annals. After producing 
the evidence supplied by these nations, I shall then 
bring forward those Greek historians who have spoken 
of the Jews, in order to deprive our jealous enemies 
of even this pretext for controversy. 

(14<) I will beffin with the Effvptian documents. I (a) Evi- 

. flence of 

cannot quote from the originals ; but in Manetho " we the 

* An Egyptian priest who lived under the first and, ivune'tho. 
probably, the second of the Ptolemies, "the first Ec:yptian 
who gave in the Greek language an account of the doctrines, 
wisdom, hii^tory and chronology of his country," based on 
Egyptian records ; his History was divided into three books, 



yuTTTLOs, dvrjp rrjg 'EAAi^vtACT^? fJierecrx'QKaj? TratSeias", 
ojg SrjXog icTTL- yeypaSe yap 'EAAaSt cfiojvfj rrjv 
TrdrpLov Icrropiav eV heXrojv^ Upow, Jj? (f)r]GLV 
avrog, pLerachpacrag, o?' /cat rroXXd rov Hpo- 
80TOV iXey)(€L TOW AiyvTTTLaKwv vtt dyvola? 

74 eijj€VupL€vov. ovros orj tolvvv o Mave^w? iv rfj 
hevrepa tow AlyvTTTiaKow raura rrept rjpiow 
ypdchei' TrapaOrjaopLac de ttjv Xe^tv avTov KaOdrrep 
avTov EKelvov vrapayaycov pidpTvpa' 

75 lovTLpLaLog. em tovtov ovk olo ottoj? o c/eo? 
dvT€Trv6VG6v Kal TTapaho^ojs eK TOW TTpos avaToXrjV 
ixepojv dvdpojrroi to yevo? dcr'qp.oi KaTa6apprjoavT€S 
irrl TrfV ;)(ojpav iaTpdTevaav Kal paSiOJS dfJba-)(r]TL 

76 To.vTTjv Acard KpaTO£ elXov, Kai tov? 'qyepbovevaav- 
Tag iv avTrj )(€Lpo)aapb€voL to Xolttov Tds re 77oAeis' 
ojpLOjg eveTTprjaav Kai ra to)v Oeojv lepa /car- 
ecTKadiav, rrdcn Se Tolg eTny(^ojpiOL? i^OpoTaTa ttoj? 
€XP'''jCra.vT0 , tov? pukv G(j)dLovTes, tow he Kal to, 

77 TeKva Kal yvvalKas els hovXeiav dyovTes- Trepag 
Se Kal ^acrtAea eva e^ avTow eTTOL-qcrav, ch bvopia 
rjv SdAtrt?.'* Kal ovtos ev ttj }^lep.(f)LSi KaTeyiveTo 
Tiqv T€ dvoj Kal KaTOj )(^ojpav SaGpuoXoycov Kat 
(f)povpdv ev Tolg emT-qSeLOTdTOLg KaTaXeiTTOJV^ 
TOTTOLS. /xdAtcrra he Kal rd rrpos dvaToXrjV rjaSa- 
XlcraTO p^eprj, Trpoopojpievog ^ Xuorvpiojv TroTe pLelL,ov 
LGXVOVTOJV eaopLevqv eTTLOvpLLO? ttj? avTov /Sacrt- 

78 Xeias e(f)ohov. evpow he ev vopLoj toj ^eOpoiTrf 

^ beXruv Gutschmid : -re ri^v L. ^ 5s EilS. : om. L. 

^ After Gutschmid and Reinach : tov Tiaaios oi/ofj-a L Eus. 
(the last word probably a gloss). 
* 6 Eus. : ora. L. 

° laiTTjs Manetho as cited by others. 
^ ed. pr. : KaraXnT^'v L. ' Bekker : ewidvfuav L. 


have one who was both a native of Egypt and also 
proficient in Greek learning. This is evident from 
the history of his nation m hich he wrote in Greek, a 
translation, as he says himself, from the sacred books," 
in which he convicts Herodotus of being misled 
through ignorance on many points of Egyptian 
history. In the second book of his History of Egypt 
this Manetho WTites about us as follows. I will quote 
his own words, just as if I had produced the man 
himself in the witness-box : 

" Tutimaeus. In his reign, I know not why, a His account 
blast of God's displeasure broke upon us. A Hyc!sos 
people of ignoble origin from the east, whose dynasty. 
coming was unforeseen, had the audacity to invade 
the country, which they mastered by main force 
without difficulty or even a battle. Having over- 
powered the chiefs, they then savagely burnt the 
cities, razed the temples of the gods to the ground, 
and treated the whole native population with the 
utmost cruelty, massacring some, and carrying off 
the wives and children of others ^ into slavery. 
Finally they made one of their number, named 
Salitis, king. He resided at Memphis, exacted 
tribute from Upper and Lower Egypt, and left 
garrisons in the places most suited for defence. In 
particular he secured his eastern flank, as he fore- 
saw that the Assyrians, as their power increased in 
future, would covet and attack his realm. Having 
discovered in the Sethroite nome . a city very 

« Or " tablets." 

* Possibly " massacring the men . . . their wives and 

^ Manetho (as elsewhere cited): SaiV?? L. 
VOL. I O 193 


TToAtv eTTLKaipordrrjV, Keifxivrjv jJLev npog dvaroXrjV 
rod Bou/^acTTiTOU TTora/jLov, KaXovfJiev^qv S' oltto 
Ttvos" dp')(aLas deoXoyia? Avaptv, ravrrjv eKriaiv 
re Kol rols Tet;)(ecrtv oxvpojrdrrjv eTTOirjuev, €v- 
oiKLGas avrfj Kal ttXtjOos oTrXircbv ets eiKoai Kai 

79 recrcrapa? ixvpidhas dvSpow 77po(f)vXaKrjV. ivOdSe^ 
Kara depeiav rjp)(€ro rd p^ev cnropLerpojv Kat 
p.L(jdo<^opiav 7Tap6Xopi€vo£, rd Se /cat rats i^- 
OTrXiGiais Trpo? (f)6i3ov rojv e^coOev eTTLfieXaJS yvjivd- 
l,wv. dp^as S' ivveaKalSeKa eriq rdv ^iov ireXevrrjcre. 

80 pi€rd rovrov Se erepos e^acrtAcucrev reauapa Kai 
reauapdKovra err] KaXovpievos Bvcov/ /xe^ ov 
aAAos" Arrax^dg e^ Kal rpidKovra errj Kai pLrjvag 
eirra, erretra oe Kai A^Traxpis ev Kai egrjKovra Kat 

81 lawds TrevrrjKovra Kal pbrjva eva, eirl rrdui he 
Kal " Aggls ewea Kal recraapdKovra Kal pbrjva? hvo. 
Kal ovroL jxev e^ ev avrois eyevridrjaav Trpwroi 
dpxovreg, rroBovvres^ del Kal pidXXov rrJ£ AlyvTrrov 

82 e^dpai rrjv pitav. eKaXelro he ro avpLTrav avra)v^ 
eOvos 'YacctoSs'/ rovro he euriv ^acjiXeZs TTOt/xeVes" 
ro yap vk KaO lepdv yXdjauav jjaatXea ar^piaivei, 
ro he Gojs rroipuqv ean Kal TTOipieves Kara rrjV 
KOLVTjv hidXeKrov, Kal ovrojs GvvnOepLevov yiverai 

IKGOJS. rives oe AeyovGiv avrovs Apapas ewai. 

83 [ev^ h d'AAoj dvriypd<^cp ov ^aGiXels GTjpiaLveGdai 

^ evda 6e Lat. 
^ Jul. Africanus : B-qdiv L. 
^ TTopdovvres L : text of clause doubtful. 
* (jVjj.Trav avTu;u Eus., Lat. : om. L. 
^ 'TKovaaios Eus. (and so always). 

^ The bracketed clause (already in Eus.) is apparently a 



favourably situated on the east of the Bubastis 
arm of the river, called after some ancient theo- 
logical tradition Auaris,'^ he rebuilt and strongly 
fortified it with walls, and established a garrison 
there numbering as many as two hundred and 
forty thousand armed men to protect his frontier. 
This place he used to visit every summer, partly 
to serve out rations and pay to his troops, partly 
to give them a careful training in manoeuvres, in 
order to intimidate foreigners. After a reign of 
nineteen years he died. A second king, named 
Bnon, succeeded and reigned for forty-four years ; 
his successor, Apachnas, ruled for thirty-six years 
and seven months ; next Apophis for sixty-one, 
and Jannas for fifty years and one month ; and 
finally Assis for forty-nine years and two months. 
The continually growing ambition of these six:, 
their first rulers, was to extirpate the Egyptian 
people. Their race bore the generic name of 
Hycsos,^ which means * king-shepherds.' For 
HYC in the sacred language denotes ' king,' and 
SOS in the common dialect means ' shepherd ' or 
* shepherds ' ; the combined words form Hycsos. 
Some say that they were Arabians." .^ 

[In another copy, however, it is stated that the 

" Cf. § 237. Aiiaris is perhaps Pelusium. 

'' The correct form Hycussos means, according to W. E. 
Crum (art. Egypt, Hastings, B.D. i. 659 b), " Sheikhs of the 
(south Syrian) Bedawin " ; he regards the interpretation of 
the last syllable as " shepherd " as a late gloss. The 
domination of the Hycsos lasted from (?) c. 1800 B.C. to c. 
1580 B.C. They were finally expelled by Ahmose, the founder 
of the eighteenth dynasty. Their connexion with the Jews 
is a disputed question, but in the opinion of some critics 
{e.g. Dr. H. R. Hall) Josephus is correct in regarding their 
expulsion as the original of the Biblical story of the Exodus. 


Slol tt]? rod VK TrpocrrjyopLag, aAAa rovvavnov aiX' 
fMaXojrovg Sr^XouaOai TTOifJievas'^ to yap vk TraXtv 
AlyvrrrLGTi koL to olk SaovvoiJievov alxiJ^ciXcoTovg 
p-qrojg fJirjvv€L.^^ Kal rovro fxaXXov mOavcorepov /xot 
<f}aLV€rai koI rraXaidg loropias e;^o^evoy. 

84 ToiJTovg rovs 7TpoKaTowop,aGpLivov£ j^aGiXeas 
[/cat] rov£ Tojv Trot/xeVcDV KoXovjxivojv kol rovg 
i^ avToJv yevojjLevovs Kparrjaac rrjs AlyvTrrov 

35 (^r^alv err] Trpos rolg TTevraKOGiois eV8e/ca. /xera 
ravra Se row Ik rrj? Q-q^atSog Kal rrjs aXXrj? 
AlyvTTrov ^acnXeojv yeveuOai (fyrjalv irrl rov? 
7T0L{jL€va£ eTTavaGrauLV Kal TToXepLOv^ Gvppay7]vai 

86 fieyav Kal rroXvxpovLov. em 8e (^aaiXecog, oj 
ovofjua elvac ^\io(j)paypiOTj6(jjGig ,^ rjrrojpievovs'^ (^tjoI 
rovs TTOLpuevas'' eK /xev ri^s aAAi^s" Alyvrrrov Trdarjs 
eKTreaelv, KaraKXeiadrjvaL 8 el? roTTov apovpojv 
e^ovra fivpiajv rrjv TTepipierpov' Avapts ovofia roj 

37 roTTCp. rovrov (hiqoiv 6 ^laveOcos diTavra r€L)(€L 
T€ fJLeydXoj Kal iGxypoj Trepi^aXelv rovg Trot/xeVas", 
oTTcos rrjv re KrrJGiv aTrauav k^oJOLV iv oxvpoj 

88 Kal rrjv Xelav rrjV iavrwv. rov Se ^liacjipaypLOV- 

^ After Eus. 

^ -f ai'Tols L Lat. : om. Eus.- 

^ Eus. : ' A\Lcr4>pay,uovdo}(jLS L (Lat.) and so below. 

* TjTTT^aevovs should probably be read (Xiese). 

° -r it avTOv L : om. Eus. 

^ If this passage is genuine, " in another copy " must 
mean "in another book {of Mayiefho) '' ; cf. § 91. But 
avriypacpov is not interchangeable with ^i^Xos, and the 
paragraph is suspicious on other grounds, viz. (1) its partial 
repetition in § 9 1 , (;2 j the proximity of two marginal notes in the 
MS. of Josephus, in §§ 92 and 98, referring to readings found 



word HYC does not mean " kings," but indicates, on 
the contrary, that the shepherds were " captives." 
For HYC in Egyptian, as w^ell as hag Avith an aspirate, 
expressly denotes " captives."] " 

This view appears to nie the more probable and 
more reconcilable with ancient history. 

The kings of the so-called shepherds, enumerated 
above, and their descendants, remained masters of 
Egypt, according to Manetho, for five hundred and 
eleven years. 

Then ^ the kings of the Thebaid and of the rest of Their ex. 
Egypt rose in revolt against the shepherds, and a fi'^m Egypt 
ffreat war broke out, which was of lone; duration, and founda- 

tion of 

Under a king named Misphragmouthosis, the jemsaiem. 
shepherds, he says, were defeated, driven out of 
all the rest of Egypt, and confined in a place called 
Auaris, containing ten thousand arourae.^ The 
shepherds, according to Manetho, enclosed the 
whole of this area with a great strong wall, in order 
to secure all their possessions and spoils. Thoum- 

" in another copy," i.e. as is clear in § 92, of Josephus. The 
bracketed words here are doubtless a similar gloss which has 
crept into the text. What the " other copy " may have been we 
do not know ; but Josephus, who contemplated a fuller treat- 
ment of this subject (§ 92), may have revised this work as he 
revised his Antiquities, and conceivably we have in these 
glosses relics of another edition. The last sentence of § 83 
apparently forms no part of the gloss. The " view " here 
referred to is that the Hycsos were Arabians, which Josephus 
regards as " more probable " than that mentioned later, that 
they were ancestors of the Jcavs. 

* In this paragraph Josephus gives a paraphrase of 

" Lit. " containing a circumference of 10,000 arourasi''' 
The aroura was an Egyptian measure of land ( = about half 
an acre), which Josephus, by his paraphrase, appears to have 
mistaken for a measure of length. For Auaris cf. § 78. 



OcOUeOJS VLOV Qo-UfllJLOJGLV i7TLX€Lpf]Gai [lEV auTov^ 

Std TToXiopKLas iXelv Kara Kparog, oktoj /cat recr- 
uapaKovra pivpiduL arparov TrpoGehpevaavra rol? 
reix^aiv' eTrel Se rrjs rroXiopKias^ arreyvoj, ttoltj- 
oaaOai crupL^dcreLg, Iva ttjv AtyvTrrov cKXiTrovres 

89 OTTOL ^ovXovraL rravre? d^Xa^els aTreXOajGL. rovs 
Se errl rals ojioXoyiaLS TravoiK-quia /xera rwv 
KTrjU€OJv ovK eXdrrovs ixvpidScov ovrag et/coat /cat 
r€G(jdpojv (1770 rrjs AlyvTZTOV ttjv eprjfiov els Hvpuav 

90 SLohoLTToprjaai. (fio^ovfievovs Se r-qv 'Acrcruptcoy 
hvvaoT€iav , rore ydp eKeivovs rrj? Acrtas" Kparelv, 
ev rfj vvv ^lovhala KaXovfievrj ttoXlv OLKOoofJLTqGa- 
jjLevovs Toaavrais jivpidaiv avOpojTTOJV apKeuovaav 
^lepoGoXviia ravrrjv ovojiaGai. 

91 'Ev dXXrj he tlvl /St^Aoj rcov AlyvTrriaKCov 
yiavedojs Tovro (f)rjGL <t6> eOvos rovg KaXov- 
pievov? rroLpLevas alxp^aXojTovs ev iepais 
avTcov ^i^Xois yeypd(f)6aL, Xeywv opdcos' Kal 
ydp TOL? dvojrdroj Trpoyovocs r]p.cov ro TTOLpbaLveLV 
'ndrpiov rjv Kal vopLaStKov exovres rov ^lov ovrojs 

92 eKaXovvro rroifjieveg. alxp^dXcoroi re ndXiv ovk 
oAoyoj? VTTO row XlyvTrriow dveypd^rjoav, eTreiS-q- 
TTep 6 rrpoyovos rjpiojv ^IcoGrjTTog eavrov e(f)rj rrpos 
rov ^aCTtAea rcov AlyvTrrlcov alxi^o-Xcorov elvau, 
Kal rovg dSeXSovg els rrjv A'lyvrrrov varepov 
fxererreiju/jaro rod ^aaiXeajs eTTirpeifiavros. ciAAa 

^ Tr]v Tro\iopKiau Eus. 



mosis, the son of Misphragmouthosis (he continues), 
invested the walls with an army of 480,000 men, 
and endeavoured to reduce them to submission by 
siege. Despairing of achieving his object, he con- 
cluded a treaty, under which they were all to 
evacuate Egypt and go whither they would un- 
molested. Upon these terms no fewer than two 
hundred and forty thousand,'* entire households 
with their possessions, left Egypt and traversed 
the desert to Syria. Then, terrified by the might 
of the Assyrians, wlio at that time were masters 
of Asia, they built a city in the country now called 
Judaea, capable of accommodating their vast com- 
pany, and gave it the name of Jerusalem. 

In another book of his Egyptian history Manetho 
states that this race, the so-called shepherds, were 
described as captives in the sacred books of his 
country.^ In this statement he is correct. Sheep-" 
breeding was a hereditary custom of our remotest 
ancestors, and from this nomadic life they came to 
be called shepherds. But their other name of 
captives in the Egyptian records was given not with- 
out reason, since our ancestor Joseph told the king 
of Egypt " that he was a captive, and afterwards, 
with the king's permission, had his brethren brought 

* The number of the garrison mentioned in § 78. ' 
^ Lit. " in their sacred books " ; § 92 shows that the 
Egyptian books are intended. 

" In the Biblical account he told his cup-bearer (Gen. 
xl. 15). The Florentine ms. adds the following marginal 
note : " In another copy was found this reading : ' was 
sold by his brethren and brought down into Egypt to the 
king of Egypt ; and again afterwards, with the king's 
permission, sent for his brethren.' " See note ** on p. 196. 



Trepl [-Lev rovTOJV iv a'AAots" TTOi'qoojiai ttjv i^eracnv 
aKpi^earepav . 

93 (lo) ISvvl Se TTJg dp)(aL6Tr]TOS Tavrr^s TTapanOeiiaL 
rovs AlyvTTriovs fxaprvpas. tto-Xlv ovv tol rod 
ISlavedo)^ TTchs ex^i irpos ttjv tojv ■)(^p6vojv raftv 

94: VTToypdijjco. (jiTjol Se ovrojg' " fxerd to i^eXOelv i^ 
AlyvTTTov TOP Xaov TOJV TTOLfievcjv ctV 'lepooroXvfjba 
6 eK^aXdw avTOVs i$ Alyvrrrov ^acrLXevg Te^/xcocrts" 
i^acTiXevoev jierd ravTa err] elKooiirevTe Kat 
IXTjvas TeuGapcxs kcI eTeXevrr^crev, koI TrapeXa^ev 
TTjV a.p)(i)v 6 avTOV utos" Xe)Spa>v eT-q heKarpia. 

95 p.€d^ ov WfJL€vaj(f)Lg e'lKoon Kal iirjva? eTrra. tov 
8e dd€X(f)rj WpLeaarj? elkogl iv Kal firivag ivvea. 
rrjs Se ^{-qcfyprjs SojSc/ca Kal firjvag ivvea. tov 
8e ^l'q(f)pajJLO'u9ojoi9 el'/cocrt rrevTe Kai ixTjva'S heKa. 

96 TOV Se QfJLOjais ivvea Kal fjirjva? oktoj. tov S 

^ ApL€vaj(j)LS TpiaKOVTa Kal fiijvag heKa. tov he 
"^Qpog TpiaKOVTa e^ Kal fjLrjva? rrevTe. tov he 
dvyaTiqp WKeyx^pT]? hcnheKa Kal fJLrjva eva. Trjg 

97 he 'IPdOcoTcg dheXchog evvea. tov he W.Keyx'jprjS 
hojheKa Kal jJLTjvas rrevTe. tov he AKeyx'>]pT^5 
erepos hcoheKa Kal [jL-qvag Tpels. tov he " Xpjia'is 
Teaaapa Kal jjbrjva eva. tov he 'VaixeGurjs €v Kat 
fjLTJvag Teoaapa?. tov he Wpfiecrcrrj? Mia/xouv 
e^-qKOVTa e^ Kal [jLrjva? hvo. tov he WjJieva)(f)LS 

98 heKaewea Kal p.'qva? e^. tov he Hedojs o Kai 
* Pa/xecrcTT^S'^ lttttlktjv Kal vavTLKT]v excov hvvapnv 

^ 'SlavedCbvos L. 
^ Ze'^ws 6 Kol 'Fa/JL. Eus. : "ZedmaLS Kal 'Va,ueaai]s L. 



into Egypt. However, I propose to investigate these 
matters more fully elsewhere.'^ 

(15) For the moment I am citing; the Egyptians as Subsequert 

kiii'^s of 

witnesses to our antiquity. I will therefore resume Egypt. 
my extracts from Manetho bearing on the chronology. 
The following are his words : 

" After the departure of the pastoral people 
from Egypt to Jerusalem, Tethmosis,^ the king 
who expelled them from Egypt, reigned twenty- 
five years and four months, and on his death the 
kingdom passed to his son Chebron, who reigned 
thirteen years. After him Amenophis reigned 
twenty years and seven months ; then his sister 
Amesses twenty-one years and nine months ; her 
son Mephres twelve years and nine months ; then 
from father to son Mephramouthosis twenty-five 
years and ten months, Thmosis nine years and 
eight months, Amenophis thirty ^^ears and ten 
months, Orus thirty-six years and five months ; 
his daughter Akencheres twelve years and one 
month ; her brother Rathotis nine years ; then 
from father to son Akencheres twelve years and 
five months, Akencheres II twelve years and three 
months, Harmais four years and one month, 
Ramesses one year and four months, Harmesses 
Miamoun sixty-six years and two months, 
Amenophis nineteen years and six months, and 
then Sethosis,^ also called Ramesses. The last- Rani(es).ses 
named king, who possessed an army of cavalry and 1273 


* Perhaps looking on to §§ 227 If., where he reverts to 
Manetho. But we should expect varcpov or the like ; iv 
dWoLS usually refers to a separate work. 

'' Called Thoummosis above, §88. Perhaps Thmosis (§ 96) 
is the correct form. <= Perhaps " Sethos " (c/. § 231). 



rov fJL€V aSeA^ov "ApjiaLV iTnrpoTTOv rrjs AlyvTrrov 
Kar€GrrjG€v kol rrdaav fxev avroj rrjv dXXrjv ^a- 
glXlktjv TTepLeOrjKev i^ovcnaVy [lovov Se iverelXaro 
SidS-qfjia iiTj (^opeiv fJirjSe rrjv ^aaiXiha [irjrepa re 
Tojv T€Kva>v dhiKelv, aTTex^odaL Se kol rcov aXXcov 
99 ^adiXiKOJV TTaXXriKiBajv . avros 8e €7tI Y^-urrpov kol 


arparevcrag aTravras, rovs p^€V Sopart, rov? Se 
a/xa;(7]rt (po^co 3e i-qg ttoAAt^s" SvvapL€OJS V7ro)(^eipiovs 
kXa^€y Kol iJLeya (jipovi^uag irrl rals evTrpayiais en 
KOL dapaaXecorepov eTreTropeuero rdg Trpos dvaroXds 

100 TToXeis T€ KOL )(Ojpas KaraarpecfiopLevog . ■)(p6vov 
T€ LKavov yeyovoro? " Xpfia'Cs 6 AcaraAetc^^et? ev 
AtyuTTTOj TTcivra TCLfjUTTaXiv ots" dSeA^os"^ Trapfivei 
fjirj TTOLelv dbeojs err parr ev kol yap r-qv ^acrtAtSa 
/Statcos' €GX€V Kal rals d'AAats" naXXaKiGLV d(f)eLh6js 
StereAet )(pdj}ievos, TTeidofievos 8s" vtto rojv <j>iXa)v 

101 hidh'qpia i(f)6p€L Kal dvrfjpe rep dSeXcjxjj. 6 Se 
reraypbivos irrl row lepojv^ rrjs AlyvTrrov ypdipag 
BlJ^Xlov errepupe roj ^edojaeL, BrjXojv avrcp Trdvra 
Kal on dvrTjpev 6 ddeXchos avroj^ "Appeals, rrapa- 

XP'TJpid OVV V7r€Grp€l/j€V €i? IlrjXoVGLOV Kal €KpdrrjG€V 

102 rrjs Ideas ^aGiXeias. t} 8e X^'^P^ iKX-qOrj dno rov 
avrov ovoparos Alyvirros." Xiyei yap on 6 pikv 

^ a.5e\(pbs Gutschrnid : doeX^oj L. 

^ re Xiese. 

^ Hudson (after Lat. and Eus.) : lepewv L. 

^ Xiese : avrov L. 

" In § 231 called Hermaeus. 

* The MS. has the marginal note : " In another copy was 
found this reading : ' After him Sethosis and Ramesses, two 
brothers. The former, possessing a strong fleet, blockaded 



a strong fleet, made his brother Harmais " viceroy 
of Egypt ^ and conferred upon him all the royal 
prerogatives, except that he enjoined upon him 
not to wear a diadem, not to wrong the queen, the 
mother of his children, and to show similar respect 
to the royal concubines. He then departed on a 
campaign against Cyprus and Phoenicia, and later 
against the Assyrians and Medes, and with or 
without a contest, through the terror inspired by 
his mighty army, reduced all these nations to sub- 
mission. Emboldened by these successes he, with 
yet greater audacity, continued his advance, sub- 
duing the cities and districts of the east. Mean- 
while, some time after his departure, Harmais, 
whom he had left in Egypt, unscrupulously defied 
all his brother's injunctions. He violated the 
queen, freely indulged himself with the concubines, 
and, at the instigation of his friends, put on a 
diadem and rose in revolt against his brother. The 
keeper of the Egyptian temples thereupon wrote 
a letter which he sent to Sethosis, telling him 
everything, including the insurrection of his 
brother Harmais. Sethosis instantly returned to 
Pelusium and recovered his kingdom ; and the 
country was called after him Aegyptus." 

this maritime opponents who were causing great loss of 
lifet [text doubtful]. Not long after he slew Ramesses and 
appointed Harmais, another of his brothers, viceroy of Egypt.' " 
See note" on p. 196, and, for the naval action of Sethos(is) in 
the Red Sea, Herod, ii. 102, to which Josephus alludes in A. 
viii. 260 ff, ; Herodotus calls him Sesostris, Josephus there 
identifies him with Shishak, the enemy of Rehoboam. The 
relationship of Ramesses to Sethos(is) is variously stated 
in the accounts. In the text above R. is another name of 
Sethos(is) ; in the marginal note he is his brother ; in § 231 
below Rampses is his son. 



YdiBojs eKaXelro Ar/VTrro?, "Apfxais Se o aSeXcfyog 
avTOV Aavaog. 

103 (l6) Tavra ijlev 6 ^^laveOcog. 8r)Aoy 8' iarlv eK 
row elprjfjLevojv ircvv rod XP^'^'^'^ cruXXoyLaOevros 
on OL KaXovfievoi rroLjieves, rjjJLerepoL 3e^ rrpoyovoiy 
rpial Koi evevqKovra kol rpLaKooioi? TrpoaOev erccrtv 
eK rrjg AlyvTrrov arraXXayevres r-qv p^ojpay ravrrjv 
eTTOJKrjGav i) Aavaov €ls "Apyos" a<f)LK€G6ai' Kairoi 

104 rovrov dpy^aiorarov ApyeloL vojilLovgi. hvo roivvv 
o ^laveOoJS 'qpu.v ra fieyiGra [lefiaprvp-qKev eK rcov 
Trap AtyuTrrtot? ypapLptarajv, Trpcorov piev rrjv ere- 
pojdev a(f)L^LV els AtyvTrrov, eireira he r-qv eKeWev 
OLTTaXXayriv ovrcos a.p)(aiav rols ;\;povoiS', ojs eyyvs 
7T0V rrporepelv' avrrjv row IXtaKow ereat p^iAtots". 

105 vrrep ow 3' o ^laveOaJS ovk eK rcov Trap' AlyvTmoLS 
ypap.jxarow,^ dAA' ojs avros oju.oX6y'qKev eK rcov 
dSeGTroroj? pLvOoXoyovpbivojv TrpoGreOeiKev, VGrepov 
e^eXey^oj Kara pLepos arrooeLKvvs rrjv aTndavov 
avrov dsevhoXoy lav. 

106 (17) BoL'Aop,ai roivvv d—o rovrow ijhrj'^ p^ereXBelv 
errl ra rrapd rols ^olvl^lv dvayeypapupieva Trepl rod 
yevovs "qi-LOJV Kal rds e^ eKeivojv pLaprvplas rrapa- 

107 G')(eZv. ecrrt roivvv irapd TvpioLS drro TrapbTToXXajv" 
ercov ypdppiara BrjfioGia yeypapLpeva kgI 7Te(f)vXay- 
jieva Xiav emiieXojs rrepL rojv Trap avrols yevo- 
pievojv Kal Trpos dXXovs^ 7Tpo.)(6evrow pivqpLi^s d^iwv. 

108 ev rovroLS yeyparrrai on 6 ev '\epoGoXvpLOLS ojko- 

^ oe Ens. : om. L Lat. 

^ irov -rrporepelv Eus., Lat. : tov irporepov L. 

^ irpayixaTajv L. * Eus. : en L (Lat. rursus). 

° airb Tra/xTT.] iroWihv L Lat. 

^ Gutschmid : aWifKoi-^ L Lat. 


AGAINST APION, I. 102-108 

For Manetho states that Sethos was called Aegyptus 
and his brother Harmais Danaus." 

(16) Such is Manetho's account ; and, if the years ^J\^|^jjj',^^';g 
which he enumerates are summed up, it is clear that evidence. 
the so-called shepherds, our ancestors, left Egypt 

and settled in our * country 393 years ^ before Danaus 
came to Argos. Yet the Argives regard him as one 
of the most ancient of men.'^ Manetho has thus 
furnished us with evidence from Egyptian literature 
on two most important points : first that we came 
into Egypt from elsewhere, and secondly, that we 
left it at a date so remote in the past that it preceded 
the Trojan War by nearly a thousand years. His 
additional statements, which he derived not from the 
Egyptian records, but, as he admits himself, from 
fables of unknown authorship, I shall refute in detail 
later on ^ and show tlie improbability of these lying 

(17) I therefore now propose to pass on to \\\q {^) Phoeni- 
allusions to our race in the Phoenician chronicles, evidence: 
and to produce the evidence which they afford. For ^'j^J/j^"g'^ 
very many years past the people of Tyre have kept 
public records, compiled and very carefully preserved 

by the state, of the memorable events in their in- 
ternal history and in their relations with forer^ii 
nations. It is there recorded that the Temple at 

« Cf. §231. " Lit. "this." 

'^ The total length of the reigns enumerated in chap. 15 
from the expulsion of the Hycsos to the accession of Sethosis 
is only 333 years. To this Josephus (or his source) seems 
to have added sixty years for the reign of Sethosis, the 
duration of which is given in § 231 as fifty-nine years. 

** The mythical Inachus was held to be still more 
ancient. « §§ 227 if. 



hofJb'qOrj vaos vtto HoXo/jlcovo? rod f^o.oiXicog ereat 
Odrrov eKarov recrcrapaKovra Kat rpiULV Kai fXTjOiv 

109 OKTOJ rod Krlo-ai Tvplovg ¥s.apxriS6va. dv€ypdcf)ri 
Se Trap' eKeivois ovk dXoyoj?^ rj rod vaov Kara- 
GKevTj rod Trap" tjijav YXpojp.os yo.p 6 ra)V Tvpiojv 
^aatXevs (j)iXos i)v rod ^auiXeoj? -qiiow T.oX6iJLa)VO? 

110 TTarpLKTjV rrpos avrov (j)iXiav StadeSey/xevos". ovros 
ovv (jvpL(f)LXorLfJLOviJ,evo£ et's" r-qv rod KarauKeva- 
CFfxaros r-cp HoXopbcovi Xap.Trpor-qra ^(^pvGiov jjikv 
etKOGL Kal EKarov ehojKe rdXavra, reficov 8e koX- 
Xlorr-qv vXrjV Ik rod opovg, o KaXelrau AijjavoSy Eig 
rov opoSov drrecrreiXev. dvrehcopriGaro §e avrov^ 
6 SoAd/xojy dXXois re ttoXXoIs Kal yfj Kara ■x^o'jpav 

HJ rrjg YaXiXaiag ev rfj yia^ovXwv Xeyofjidvrj. pidXiara 
8' avrov? €L£ (^tAtay rj rrjg GO<j)ias avvrjyev emOvpua' 
TTpo^XrjpLara yap dXX-jXoi? dvraTreoreXXov Xveuv 
KeXevovres , Kal Kpeirrow iv ro'urois tjv 6 SoAo/xcov 
<(X)V>^ Kal rdAAa Gocfyojrepos. Gojtovrai 8e p^^xpi' 
vdv rrapd roX? TvploL? 77oXXal row eTTLGroXow as 
eKelvoi TTpo? dXXrjXov? eypaipav. 

liZ (Jrt o ov Aoyos eGriv vrr epLov GvyKeif-ievos o 
rrepl rcov Trapd rots TvploLs ypapipLarow, rrapa- 
Oi^GopLai pudprvpa Alov, dvSpa rrepl rrjv ^oiviKLK-qv 

^ OVK dXoyojs Eus. : om. L Lat. 

2 Xaber : avTu L. The text of the whole sentence is 

^ ins. Xiese. 

'^ Calculation derived from the duration of the reigns of 
the Tyrian kings; see chap. 18, especially § 126, below. 
The date given for the foundation of Carthage varies in 
different authorities from c. 1234 to c. 793 B.C. 

'' Biblical Hiram, occasionallv spelt Hirom (ctit). 


AGAINST APION, I. 108-112 

Jerusalem was built by King Solomon 143 years and Temple ■ — 
eight months before the foundation of Carthage by lof] b.c. 
the Tyrians." There was good reason why the 
erection of our temple should be mentioned in their 
records, for Hirom,^ king of Tyre, was a friend of our 
king Solomon, a friendship which he had inherited 
from his father." Sharing Solomon's zeal for the 
splendour of the edifice, Hirom gave him 120 talents 
of gold, and also cut down the finest timber from 
the mountain called Libanus and sent it to him for 
the roof. In return Solomon, among many other 
gifts, made him a present of land in Galilee in the 
district called Chabulon.'^ But the main bond of 
friendship between them was their passion for learn- 
ing. They used to send each other problems to 
solve ; in these Solomon showed the greater pro- 
ficiency, as, in general, he was the cleverer of the 
two. Many of the letters which they exchanged are 
preserved at Tyre to this day.^ 

To prove that these assertions about the Tyrian (i) dius on 
archives are not of my own invention, I will call upon r^dies!^^ 
Dius,^ who is regarded as an accurate historian of 

" Cf. 2 Sam. v. 11, 1 Kings v. 1, where it is Solomon 
who inherits from his father David a friendship with Hiram. 

'^ 1 Kings ix. 10-13. The district apparently took its 
name from the tovv^n or village of Cabul, called Chabolo in 
the Life § 213. 

* Letters between Hiram and Solomon on the building of 
the temple are given in 1 Kings v., paraphrased in Josephus, A . 
viii. 50-54, and others of a more literary character are quoted 
from Eupolemus (2nd cent, b.c.) in Euseb. Praep. Ev. ix. 33 f. 
None of these refer to the riddles mentioned below ; the 
origin of these may perhaps be sought in the story of the 
Queen of Sheba and her " hard questions " (1 Kings x. 1). 

f The same extract is quoted in A. viii. 147. Nothing 
more is known of Dius. 



Lcrropiav aKpi^rj yeyovevat TTeiriareviiivov. ovrog 
Toivvv iv rat? Trepl ^olvikojv taroptat? ypd(j)eL rov 

113 rpoTTOv rovTOV " 'A^t/5aAou reXevrrjCravTO? 6 vlo? 
avrov YApojpLos e^aGiXevGev . ovrog ra rrpos dva- 
roAas" /^f'p^ '^V^ TToXeojs TrpoGey^ojuev /cat ii€lt,ov to 
darv €7ToiiqG€v^ Kai rod OXvpLmov Ato? ro lepov, 
KaO^ iavro ov iv vrjcroj, "x^ojoas rov p^era^v tottov 
Gvvrnfje rfj TroAet /cat ')(pvGois dvaOrjpiauLv eKOGfX'qaev, 
dvaf^ds he els tov \iljavov vXoropLTjGev Trpos T'qv row 

Hi vaujv' KaraGKevTjv. rov he rvpavvovvra ^\epoGo- 
Xvf.LOJV ^oXopLOJva Tripufjai (^acrt rrpog tov Etpoj/xov 
alvLypLara /cat Trap' avrov Xa^elv d^Lovv, tov he 
fj.rj hwqdevra hiaKplvai toj XvoavTL )(p-qp,aTa oltto- 

115 TLveiv. ojJLoXoyrjGavTa he tov YJlpajpiov /cat /xt] hvvq- 
devra XvGat to. atVty/xara 77oAAd tow -)(piqpLdTOJV elg 
TO e7TLl.rjpLL0v dvaXojGO.L. etra he" A^hijp.ovv6v Tiva 
Tvpiov dvhpa TO. TTpoTedevTa Xvoac /cat avTov dXXa 
Trpo^aXelv, d pbrj XvcravTa tov HoXopLowa ttoAAo, tco 
^IpojpLOj rrpoaaTTorlaaL )(piqpiaTa." Atos" /xey ovv 
OVTOJ Trepl row TTpoeiprjjievow -qplv piep.aprvprjKev. 

IIG (18) ^\AAa rrpos rovrqj TrapadijoopLac /cat MeVav- 
hpov rov 'E^ecrtov. yeypa<^ev he ovros rds ecf) 
eKaarov row ^auiXeow rrpd^eis rds rrapd rots "EAAT^crt 
/cat ^apl^dpoLs yevopievag, e/c rcov Trap' eKacrrois'^ eTn- 
^ojpiow ypajjip^drow OTrovhdoag rrjv ioropiav pLadelv. 

117 ypd(f)0w roLvvv'' Trepl row iv Tvpcp ^e^aaiXevKOTcov, 
eVetra yevofievos Kara rov Y.lpojjiov ravrd cl)r]GL' 

^ 7r€7roir]K€v L. 

^ iepu>p Eus. and Jos. Ant. viii. 147. 

^ ot; L. * Eus., Lat. : eKeiuois L. 

° Eus. : 57] L. 

« Or " tyrant." ^ In A. viii. 149 " Abdemon." 


AGAINST APION, I. 112-117 

Phoenicia, for his witness. In his history of the 

Phoenicians he writes as follows : 

On the death of Abibalus, his son Hironi came 
to the throne. He levelled up the eastern part of 
the city with embankments, enlarged the town, 
united to it by a causeway the temple of Olympian 
Zeus, which was isolated on an island, and adorned 
it with offerings of gold ; he also went up to 
Libanus and had timber cut down for the con- 
struction of temples. It is said that Solomon, the 
sovereign" of Jerusalem, sent riddles to Hirom 
and asked for others from him, on the understand- 
ing that the one who failed to solve them should 
pay a sum of money to him who succeeded. Hirom 
agreed, and being unable to guess the riddles, 
spent a large part of his wealth on the fine. After- 
wards they were solved by a certain Abdemun ^ 
of Tyre, who propounded others. Solomon, failing 
to solve these, paid back to Hirom more than he 
had received." 

Thus has Dius attested my previous statements. 

(18) I will, however, cite yet a further witness, ('ip ^Ikk- 
Menander of Ephesus.^ This author has recorded Ephesus. 
the events of each reign, in Hellenic and non-Hellenic'^ 
countries alike, and has taken the trouble to obtain 
his information in each case from the national records. 
Writing on the kings of Tyre, when he comes to 
Hirom he expresses himself thus : 

" The extract below is quoted also in A. viii. 14.4'. The 
writer is probably the same person as the Menander of 
Pergamum quoted by Clement of Alexandria {Strom, i. 
p. 140, § 114) as stating that "Hiram gave his daughter in 
marriage to Solomon at the time when Menelaus visited 
Phoenicia after the capture of Trov." 

<^ " Barbarian." 

VOL. I p 209 


" reXevr'qaavTos he Xj^i^dXov SteSe^aro rriv jSaat- 
Aetav avrov 6 vlos Etpoj/xos', os ^Lojcra? errj vy' 

118 i^aGiXevcrev err] A8'. ovrog k'^ojoe tov ^vpv)(Ojpov 
Tov re )(pvGovv Kiova rov iv rois rod Atos" dved-qKev, 
€771 re^ vXtjv ^vXcdv dneXOajv eKoipev aTro rod Xeyo- 
fievov opovs ALJ^dvov KeSpiva ^vXa elg rd? rwv 
lepojv GreyaSy KadeXojv re ra ap^ola lepd Kaivovs 
vaovg^ (hKohoji-qGev rov re rod 'HpaAcAeous' /cat rrjs 

119 ^'qs ,^ Trpojrov re rov Hpa/cAeof? eyepGiv 
erroiTjGaro ev rqj HepLrioj pb-qvc'^ rots re IrvKaiOLS^ 
eTTeGrparevGaro fiT] dTTohihovGi rov? ^opovs, ovs 

120 KoX VTTord^as eavrw rraXiv aveGrpeipev. em rovrov 
rjv ^ Xjih'qjJLOVvos rrals vecvrepo?, o£ aei eviKa^ ra 
TTpojSXijfjLara, d irrerarre HoXofJLCJV o 'lepoGoXvpbcov 

121 ^dGiXevs." iprjcftLL^eraL 8e o xpoi^os drro roijrov rov 
^aGiXecos d-xpi' "t^S" Kap;^?^ 3 ovos" /crtcrecos" ovrojs' 
reXevrrjGavros EtpoS/xoi; hiehe^aro r-qv ^aGiXeiav 
'BaXjSdi.epos' vlos, os j^LOJGas errj fiy' e^aGiXevGev 

122 CT-)] iL,'.^ jjierd rovrov A^SaGrparos vlos ^LcoGas 
err] X6^ e^aGiXevGev err] 6' . rovrov ol rrjs rpo(f)ov 
avrov viol reGGapes im^ovXevGavres aTTOjXeGav , Sv 
6 TTpeGJSvrepos i^aGiXevGev^ ^ledovGaGrapros 6 
AeXaiacrrdprov , os ^LOJGas err] vh' e^aGiXevaev 

123 ^'^'^ ^1^^ • p^^rd rovrov 6 dSeX(f)6s avrov AGddpvjJLOs 

^ i-iri re Eus. (Lat.) : eTretra L: ert ok Jos. Ant. viii. 145. 

^ KCLVoi'S vaoi'S Dind. : Kal vaovs L. 

' + re/xevos dviepeicrev L. * + elra to ttjs 'AardpTrjs L. 

* Toh re 'It. Gutschmid (c/. Aiit. \iii. 146) : oTrore Titvois L. 

^ + Xvcjp Eus. 

' BaXfcii'epos L. ^ eTrra L Lat. 

^ + ^tt] dcKadvo and (for 'Med.) fxed' oPs'Acrrapros L. 

" Connecting old Tyre on the mainland with the new 
island city. 


AGAINST APION, I. 117-123 

" On the death of Abibahis the kingdom passed 
to his son Hirom, who hved fifty-three years and 
reigned thirty-four. He laid the embankment of 
the Broad Place," dedicated the golden pillar in 
the temple of Zeus,^ went and cut down cedar 
wood on the mount called Libanus for timber for 
the roofs of temples, demolished the ancient 
temples, and built new shrines dedicated to 
Heracles and Astarte. That of Heracles he 
erected first, in the month Peritius.*' He under- 
took a campaign against the people of Utica who 
refused to pay their tribute, and did not return 
home till he had reduced them to submission. 
Under his reign lived Abdemun, a young lad, who 
always succeeded in mastering the problems set 
by Solomon, king of Jerusalem." 

The period intervening between this king and the 
foundation of Carthage is computed as follows : 

^ On the death of Hirom the throne passed to his 
son Balbazer, v/ho lived forty-three years and 
reigned seventeen. His successor Abdastratus 
lived thirty-nine years and reigned nine. The 
four sons of his nurse conspired against him and 
slew him. The eldest of these, Methusastartus, 
son of Deleastartus, mounted the throne and lived 
fifty-four years and reigned twelve. He was 
followed by his brother, Astharymus, who lived 

^ According to Eupolemiis a present from Solomon to 
Suron ( = Hiram) ; Ens. P.E. ix. 34. Herod, (ii. 44) saw a 
golden stele in the temple of Heracles, probably the temple 
here called that of Zeus ; he mentions two temples of Heracles 
and none of Zeus. 

" The fourth month of the Macedonian year (? January). 

<* In this paragraph Josephus apparently paraphrases his 



/Stcocras' err] vq^ i^aaiXevaev krr] 9' . ovrog avr- 
coXero VTTO rou aSeA^ou OeAAT^ro?, os Xa^ow ttjv 
^aGiXeiav Tjp^ev fjirjva? tj' ^lojuas krrj v\ rovrov 
dvelXev ^Wo^aXo? 6 rrj^ 'Aardprrjs Upev?, og 

124 ^tajcas" err] jxr]' i^aatXevaev krr] X^' . rovrov SteSe- 
^aro BaAe^copos" vlo?, os ^lojoas err] pie' e^auiXevGev 

125 err] e^} rovrov StaSo;^©? yeyove ^lerrr]vos^ vlo?, 
OS ^Lojaag err] XfS' e^aalXevaev err] k9\^ rovrov 
SidSoy^os yeyovev livyp^aXiojVy og ^lojuas err] vr]'^ 
epacnAevGev err] /xc . ev oe rqj err avrov epoopap 
erei r) dSeX(f)r] avrov (fivyovaa ev rf] Al^vj] ttoXlv 
ojKohopirjGev Kapvi^Sova. 

126 ^vvdyer ai hr] J' rids d xpovos oltto rrjs ^LpojpLov 
^aaiXeias P'^XP^ l^apx'rj^ovos Krlaecos err] pve* 
pLrjves r]\ errel Se SojSeKdrqj erei rrjs avrov ^acjc- 
Aeta? o ev 'lepoaoXvpiOLs qjKoSopLijOr] vaos, yeyovev 
(1770 rrjs oiKohojJL-qGeojs rod vaov p^e^p^ ¥^apx'r]^ovos 
KriGeojs er'q pp^y' pirjves r]\ 

127 Trjs piev ovv rrapd ^olvlkojv fiaprvpias ri Set 
Trpoudelvai TrXeov ; ^Xerrer ai yap raXr]des laxvpcjs 
(hp.oXoyrip.evov. Kal rroXv hiqrrov Trpoayei rrjs rod 
j^eoj KaraGKevrjs r] rwv rrpoyovojv -qpuchv els rr]v 
Xchpav dcf)L^iS' ore yap avrrjv Trdaav TToXepLOj Trap- 
eXa^ov, rore rov vedjv KareoKevaoav. Kai ravra 
Ga<f)djs eK row lepdjv ypapbp,arojv vrr epiov SedijXa)- 
rac Sta rijs dpxo-LoXoytas . 

^ r{ (elsewhere Lf]') Eus. : i'' Theophilus. 
^ MttTTT^i'os L. ^ v.U. evvea L, oktco, kc'. 

* vS" L Lat. ^ ins. ed. pr. 


AGAINST APION, I. 123-127 

fifty-eight years and reigned nine. He was slain 
by his brother Phelles, wlio seized the throne and 
reigned eight months, having reached the age of 
fifty, when he was slain by Ithobal, priest of 
Astarte, who lived forty-eight years and reigned 
thirty-two. He was succeeded by his son Balezor, 
who lived forty-five years and reigned six. He, 
in turn, was succeeded by his son Metten, who 
lived thirty-two years and reigned twenty-nine ; 
and he by Pygmalion, who lived fifty-eight years 
and reigned forty-seven. It was in the seventh 
year of his reign that his sister " took flight, and 
built the city of Carthage in Libya. 

The whole period from the accession of Hirom to 
the foundation of Carthage thus amounts to 155 years 
and eight months ; ^ and, since the temple at Jeru- 
salem was built in the twelfth year of King Hirom's 
reign,^ 143 years and eight months elapsed between 
the erection of the temple and the foundation of 
Carthage. *"\ 

What need is there to add further Phoenician \ 
evidence ? The agreement of the witnesses, as will 1 
be seen, affords strong confirmation of their veracity, ^^i 
Of course our ancestors arrived in the country long 
before the temple was built ; for it was not until 
they had conquered the whole land that they erected 
it. The facts, derived from the sacred books, have 
been clearly stated in my Archaeology .^ 

"■ Elissa, commonly known as Dido. 

^ There has been some corruption in the figures for the 
individual reigns, which do not amount to the total here given. 

* The source for this statement is unknown. In^i.viii. 62 
the date given for the commencement of the building is the 
eleventh year of Hiram's reign. 

<* A. viii. 61 f. 



128 (19) Ae^co 8e vvv tJStj ra Trapa XaASatotS" dva- 
yeypajJLijLcva' KaV IcrTopoTJjxeva Trepl rjpicov, drrep e;^et 
TToXX'qv op^oXoytav Kal rrepl row d'AAojv rots' rjp^eri- 

129 pots' ypa/i/^aat. jidprvs be rovrojv By^pcDcros", avqp 
XaASatos' pi€v TO yevo£, -/yojpt^o? Se rots' TTcpl 
Traibelav dva(jTpe(f>oiJi€vois , e7T€ihrj Trepl re darpovo- 
jjiiag Kal TTepl rd}v Trapa XaASatots" ^i\oGO(f>ovn,ivojv 
avTos €L£ rovs "EAAryvas" i^ijveyKe rd? arvyypacf)ds. 

130 ovros Toivvv 6 BrypajCTOs" rats" dp^aiordrais err- 
aKoXovOdjv dvaypa(f)al9 rrepi re rod yevofievov Kara- 
kXvgiiov Kal TrjS iv avroj (f)6opds row dvdpdjTra)Vy 
Kaddrrep Moji^ctt^s", ovrojs lorroprjKev Kal Trepl rrjs 
XdpvaK09, ev fj XcD;(os' o tov yevovs rjfiojv dp)(r}yos 
dLeaojdrj TrpoaevexOeLcrrj? avrrjs rats dKpojpeiai'S 

131 row ' ApjjL€VLa)v opcbv. elra rovs arro lSa>-)(ov Kara- 
Xeyojv Kal rovs ;)(povoi;s' avrols TrpoGriBels eTrl ^a^o- 
TjaXdauapov TTapay'iveroA, rov ^afjvXdwos Kal XaA- 

132 haiojv ^auiXea, Kal rds rovrov Trpd^eis d(l)riyov- 
lX€vos Xeyei riva rpoTTOv Trepupas eTrl rrjv A'lyvTrrov 
Kal errl rrjv rjjierepav yrjv rov vlov rov eavrov 
y^a^ovy^ohovouopov^ p.erd ttoAAt^s' hvvdjxeojs, eTrei- 
hrjTTep d(f)eardjras avrovs irrvdero,^ rrdvrow eKpa- 
rrjue Kal rov vaov eveTrp-qae rov ev ^\epoGoXTjp.oLS» 
oXojs re Trdvra rov Trap ■qp.dw Xadv dvaGnqaag els 
^a^vXdwa [jberqjKLGev Gvve^-q 8e Kal rrjV ttoXlv 
iprjpLOjdrjvaL )(p6vov irdw i^dopLTjKovra p^expi Kupou 

133 row YlepGow ^aatXeojs . Kparrjaat be (^iqoi rov 
Jja^vXojvLov AlyvTTrov ILvplas ^olvlktjs Apa^las, 
Trdvras VTiepijaXopLevov rats* Trpd^eai rovs Trpo 

^ "SaSoKoopocopov (after Eus.) Niese ; and so below. 
^ Emend, (after Eus. and Lat.) L. Bos : v-rredero L. 



(19) I will now proceed to the allusions made to (C) ^'/i«?- 
us in the records and literature of the Chaldaeans ; evidence : 
on various points these are in close agreement with Berosus. 
our own scriptures. My witness here is Berosus,'* a 
Chaldaean by birth, but familiar in learned circles 
through his publication for Greek readers of works 
on Chaldaean astronomy and philosophy. This 
author, following the most ancient records, has, like 
Moses, described the flood and the destruction of on the 
mankind thereby, and told of the ark in which Noah, ^°^*^' 
the founder of our race, was saved when it landed on 
the heights of the mountains of Armenia.^ Then he 
enumerates Noah's descendants, appending dates, 
and so comes down to Nabopalassar, king of Babylon 625-604 b.c. 
and Chaldaea. In his narrative of the actions of this 
monarch he relates how he sent his son Nabuchodo- Nebuchad- 
nosor with a large army to Egypt and to our country, 604^5^1 b c. 
on hearing that these people had revolted, and how 
he defeated them all, burnt the temple at Jerusalem,*' '' 
dislodged and transported our entire population to 
Babylon, with the result that the city lay desolate for 
seventy years until the time of Cyrus, king of Persia, c. 537 b.c. 
He adds that the Babylonian monarch conquered 
Egypt, Syria, Phoenicia, and Arabia, his exploits 
surpassing those of all previous kings of Chaldaea 

" Beros(s)us, priest of the temple of Bel at Babylon, 
c. 330-250 B.C., wrote a history of Babylon (XaXdal'Ka or 
Ba^vXioviKa) comprising at least three books (§ 143), besides 
works on astronomy and astrology. 

^ An extract from his account of the flood is given in 
A. i. 93. The name mentioned by Berosus was not Noah, 
but, as we learn from Syncellus, Xisuthrus. 

" The burning of the temple, not mentioned in the extract 
which follows, is presumably interpolated by Josephus, and 
erroneously placed in the reign of Nabopalassar. 



avrov^ XaASaioj^' Kal ^a^vXcovlajv ^e^aaiXevKorag . 

134 [et^' ^i^]? VTTOKara^as oXiyov 6 B-qpcooos TrdXiv 
TTapanOerai ev rfj rr^g apy(^aiOT'qros Luropio- 
ypa^ta." avra Se TTapad-qGopLai tol rod B-qpcoaov 

135 TOVTOV e^ovra rov rpoTTOV " aKovaas 8' o Trarrjp 
avTov Xa/SoTraAacrapos" on 6 reraypLevos GarpaTrrj^ 
kv T€ AtyuTTTOj Kal rot? Trepl rrjv Hvpiav rrjv KotAr^v 

KaL T^qV OoiVLKTjV TOTTOLS d7TOOTdTr]5 y€yov€V , ov 

hvvdpL€vos avTos ert KaKoiradelv, (jvcrrrjaas ro) 
VLcp ^a^ovxoSovoaopo) ovtl 6tl iv rjXiKia p^^pr) riva 

136 '^^? SvvdpL€aj9 i$€7T€pnfj€v 677* avTOV . ovpLpiL^as Se 
^a^ovxoSovoGopog toj aTToardrT] Kal Trapara^d- 
pL€vog avTov r' eKvpUvae Kal rrjV x^^P^^ ^i ^PX^l^ 
VTTo TTjV avrwv^ ^aaiXeiav iTTOirjGaTO . ru) re rrarpL 
avTov ovve^Tj ^sa^OTTaXacrdpcp Kara rovrov rov 
Kaipov appajGr-qoavn iv rfj Ba^fAojvtcov TToAet 
pieraXXd^ai rov f^iov err] ^e^aGiXevKort Ka' .^ 

137 aLG96pL€VOS Se /Lter' ov ttoXv r-qv rod irarpos reXev- 
rrjv y^al^ovxo^ovouopo?, Karacrrrjoag rd Kara rrjv 
AtyvTTrov TrpdypLara Kal rrjv Xolttyjv p^ojpav, Kal 
rovs auxP'aXcorovs 'louSaicuv re Kal OoLVLKa>v Kai 
TiVpojv Kal- rojv Kara rrjv AtyvTrrov eOvojv uvv- 
rd^as rial rojv (j)iXojv pLerd rrjg l^apyrdr-qg Svvdpieajg 
KaL rrjg XoLTrrjs (jj(j}eXeias dvaKopLiteiv els rrjV Ba- 
^vXojvlav, avrds oppL-qoas dXiyoardg rrapeyevero 

138 Sta rijg ep-qpLov etV Ba^vXojva. KaraXa^ojv Se rd 
TTpaypLara SiOiKovpieva vtto XaASatcoy Kal hia- 
rrjpovpLevr]v r-qv ^acnXelav vtto rod f^eXriorov avrcov, 
KvpievGas^ oXoKX-qpov rrjg TTarpiKrjg dpxrjg rots piev 
aiXP^aXojrois TrapayevopLevoLg ovvera^ev^ aTTOLKiag 

^ ed. i>r. : avrCov L. 

AGAINST APION, I. 133-138 

and Babylon.^ But I will quote Berosus's own words, 
w^hich are as follows : ^ 

" His father Nabopalassar, hearing of the defec- On Nabu- 
tion of the satrap in charge of Egypt, Coele-Syria, ci»odonosor 
and Phoenicia, and being himself unequal to the 
fatigues of a campaign, committed part of his army 
to his son Nabuchodonosor, still in the prime of 
life, and sent him against the rebel. Nabu- 
chodonosor engaged and defeated the latter in a 
pitched battle and replaced the district under 
Babylonian rule. Meanwhile, as it happened, his 
father Nabopalassar sickened and died in the city 
of Babylon, after a reign of twenty-one years. 
Being informed ere long of his father's death, 
Nabuchodonosor settled the affairs of Egypt 
and the other countries. The prisoners — Jews, 
Phoenicians, Syrians, and those of Egyptian 
nationality — were consigned to some of his friends, 
with orders to conduct them to Babylonia, along 
with the heavy troops and the rest of the spoils ; 
while he himself, with a small escort, pushed across 
the desert to Babylon. There he found the ad- 
ministration in the hands of the Chaldaeans and 
the throne reserved for him by their chief noble- 
man. Being now master of his father's entire 
realm, he gave orders to allot to the captives, on 

" Here follows the gloss : " Then again [a passage] a little 
lower down in Berosiis is cited in his history of antiquity " 
(or perhaps " in the narrative of the Antiquities.,^^ with refer- 
ence to ^. X. 219). 

^ The passage is quoted also in A. x. 220 ff. 

^ The bracketed words, omitted by Eus. and Lat., are an 
obvious gloss in cod. L. 

^ avTov Eus. cod. and A. x. 221. * Eus.: eLKoaceuvia L. 
5 + e| L. 6 Text follows A. x. 



iv rots eTTLTrjheiOTdroLS rrjg Ba^vXojvLas tottol? 

139 dTToSeX^ai, avro^ 8' (Itto tow Ik rod TToXefiov Aa^u- 
pcov ro re ByyAou lepov koI rd Xoirrd Koofirjoa? (f)iXo- 
rt/xco? rrjv re vrrdpxovaav i^ o.p)(rjs ttoXlv "fKal irepaw 
e^ojOev 7rpo(7)(apLGdiJL€vo? Kal avay/cacras'j*!"^ Trpo? ro 
firjKerL SvvacrdaL rovs TToXiopKovvras rdv TTorapbov 
dvaorpecjiovra? irrl rrjv ttoXlv KaraGK€vat,€iv y^ Trept- 
e^dXero rpeZs fxev rrjs evSov rroXecx)? rrepi^oXovs , 
rpet? oe riqs ^goj, roirrojv |^oeJ rovg fi€V eg OTrriqs 
ttXlvOov Kal dG(f)dXrov , rovg 8e e^ avrrjg rrjs ttXlv- 

140 9ov. Kal reix^uas d^ioXoytos rrjv ttoXlv /cat rovs 
TTvXojvas KoofMrjoag UpoupeTTcos TrpoGKareoKevaoev 
rols TrarpiKoZs j^auiXeiois erepa /SacrtAeta e;)(o/xeva 
eKeivojv, a)v^ rdvdorrjiJia^ Kal rrjV Xoltttjv ttoXv- 
riXeiav jiaKpov taojs ecrrat edv ns i^rjyrjraL, ttXtjv 
ovra ye VTTepfioXrjV djg fieydXa Kal VTrep-q(j)ava avv- 

141 ereXeodr) -qpApais SeKdrrevre. iv 8e rols /SacrtAetots" 
rovrois dvaXrjfjLjJLara XiOuva viprjXd avoLKoBopuijcras 
Kal rrjV oipLV drroSovs ofioLordrrjv rols opeoi, Kara- 
(f)VTev(jas SevSp€(7L TravroSaTTols, i^ecpydoaro Kal 
KareoKevaoe rov KaXoiJixeuov Kpep^acrrov Trapdheioov 
hid ro rrjV yvvalKa avrov imdvp^elv rrjs opeias 
hiaOiueojs redpapipLevqv iv rols Kara rrjv ^IrjSLav 


142 (20) Tavra fjLev ovrojs^ Lar6p'r]K€v TTeplrov 7rpo€Lpr)- 
ixivov ^auiXeajs Kal rroXXd Trpos rovrois iv rfj rpirj) 
^L^Xcp ra)V yLaXSaiKcov, iv fj jjLeiJL(f)€raL rols EAAt]- 

^ Text corrupt. Perhaps for dvayKacras read avaKaLviaas 
with two Mss. of A. (or dvaxwcas Gutschraid), omit the 
preceding Kal and transpose the participle after ttoXlv. For 
irpoaxo-picr.'os has been suggested (Herwerden). 

^ accedere Lat. 


AGAINST APION, I. 138-142 

their arrival, settlements in the most suitable 
districts of Babylonia. He then magnificently 
decorated the temple of Bel and the other temples 
wdth the spoils of war, f restored f the old city, and 
added a new one outside the walls, and, in order to 
prevent the possibility in any future siege of 
taccess being gained! to the city by a diversion of 
the course of the river, he enclosed both the inner 
and the outer city with three lines of ramparts, 
those of the inner city being of baked brick and 
bitumen, those of the outer city of rough brick. 
After fortifying the city on this grand scale and 
adorning the gateways in a manner worthy of their 
sanctity, he constructed a second palace adjoining 
that of his father. It would perhaps be tedious to 
describe the towering height and general magnifi- 
cence of this building ; it need only be remarked 
that, notwithstanding its immense and imposing 
proportions, it was completed in fifteen days. 
Within this palace he erected lofty stone terraces, 
in which he closely reproduced mountain scenery, 
completing the resemblance by planting them 
with all manner of trees and constructing the so- 
called hanging garden" ; because his wife, having 
been brought up in Media, had a passion for 
mountain surroundings." 

(20) Such is the account given by Berosus of this Further 
king, besides much more in the third book of his of Bems^us. 
History of Ckaldaea, where he censures the Greek 

** Regarded as one of the seven wonders of the ancient 
world. A fuller account is quoted from Ctesias in Diodorus, 
ii. 7 ff. 

^ ibv A.: vTrkp &v Syncellus : iiraipup L. 
* Gutschmid : avdaTiqixa L. ^ ouros Naber. 



VLKoTs cruyypa(l)€VGLv ojs jjidrrjv OLOfjLevotg vtto Se/xt- 
pdfieojs rrjs "Xaavpias KTiGdrjvai ttjv Ba^uAcova 
Kal rd davfjiaGLa KaraGKevaGdrjvai Trepl avrrjv utt' 

143 eKeivrjs epya ipevhcos yeypacfyoGL. Kal Kara ravra 
TTjV fjiev rcbv XaASatajj^ dvaypa(l)r]v d^LOTTLGrov 
'qyrjTeov ov /irjv aAAa Kdv rols dp-)(€.ioLS rcov Oot- 
VLKOJV G'uii(j)(jjva rois vtto BrjpcoGov XeyofievoLS dva- 
yeypaTTTai Trepi rod tojv J^a^vXojviojv ^aGiXicjos , on 
Kai Tr]v Hvpuav Kat ttjv ^olvlktjv diraGav eKelvos 

144 KareGT pexjjaro . rrepl tovtojv yovv GvpLcjyojvel Kal 
OtAocrrparos" iv rals LGTopiai's p^efivrjixivos rrjs 
Tvpov rroXiopKLas, Kai ^IcyaGdevrjs iv rfj rerdprrj 
Tiov IvhiKow, hi Tjs a7TO<j)aLV€LV 7T€LpdraL Tov Trpo- 
eipviiiivov ^aGiXea rcov Ba^vXojvlojv ^HpaKXeovs 
avhpeia Kal pb^yedeL Trpd^eow hievqvo-x^ivai' Kara- 
GrpeijjaGOaL yap avrov (fi-qGi Kal Al^vtjs ttjv 7T0/\XrjV 
Kal l^TjpLav. 

145 To, 3e rrepl rod vaov Trpoeiprjpieva rod eV 'lepo- 
GoXdpLOLS, on KareTrprjGOrj p^ev vtto rwv l[^a^vXajVLa)U 
eTTLGrpar€VGavTa>v, I'jp^aro Se TraAtv dvoLKoSoptel- 
oOai l\dpov rrjg Acrtas" rrjv ^aGiXecav 7TapeLXrj(f)6ros, 
€K rdjv ^-qpcoGov Ga(f)d)S imheixOrjGerai Trapa- 

146 reBivrojv Xiyei yap ovrojs Sta rrjs rpirris' " Na^ou- 
^(ohovoGopos p-ev ovv pierd ro dp^aGOai rod Trpoeipr]- 
puevov reixovs ipLrreGow els dppojGriav pLerrjXXa^e 
TOV ^Lov ^e^aGiXevKajs €rr] py' , rijs Se ^aGiXeias 
Kvptos eyevero o vlos avrov KveiXp.apdhovxos. 

" Ctesias (4th cent.) is the main authority for the story of 
Semiramis and Ninus, the mythical founders of the Assyrian 
Empire ; cf. Herod, i. 184. 

^ Philostratus, ^vriter on Indian and Phoenician history, 
known to us only through Josephus ; rf. A. x. 228 (allusion 
to the same passage). 


AGAINST APION, I. 142-146 

historians " for their deluded behef that Babylon 
was founded by the Assyrian Semiramis and their 
erroneous statement that its marvellous buildings 
were her creation. On these matters the Chaldaean 
account must surely be accepted. Moreover, state- 
ments in accordance with those of Berosus are found 
in the Phoenician archives, which relate how the 
king of Babylon subdued Syria and the whole of 
Phoenicia. To the same effect wTites Philostratus 
in his History, where he mentions the siege of Tyre, ^ 
and Megasthenes ^ in the fourth book of his History 
of India, where he attempts to prove that this king 
of Babylon, who according to this wTiter subdued the 
greater part of Libya and Iberia, was in courage and 
in the grandeur of his exploits more than a match for 

The assertions which were made above • concern- 
ing the temple at Jerusalem, that it was burnt down 
by the Babylonian invaders and that its re-erection 
began on the succession of Cyrus to the throne of 
Asia, will be clearly proved by a further quotation 
from Berosus. His words in his third book are as 
folio w^s : 

" After beginning the w^all of W'hich I have 
spoken, Nabuchodonosor fell sick and died, after 
a reign of forty-three years, and the realm passed 
to his son Evilmaraduch. This prince, whose 

<^ The writer to whom later Greek authors mainly owed 
their knowledge of India; was sent by Seleucus I (Nicator) 
on an embassy to the Indian king Chandragupta (Sandra- 
cottus) c. 300 B.C. 

"^ The same passage is referred to in ^. x. 227, and quoted 
(from Abydenus) in Eus. P.E. ix. 41. 

« § 132. The quotation which follows obviously affords 
no proof of these assertions. 



147 ovTos Trpouras row rrpayixarajv avofjuoj^ Kai aaeXyoj? 

£7TL^OvX€vdeL^ VTTO TOV TTjV dheXc^TjV e')(OVTOS aVTOV 

y^TjpLyXiGapGV^ dvr^peOr] ^aaiXevaas err] j8'. puerd 
8e ro dvaipeOrjvai rovrov SiaSe^dpLcvog rrjv ap)(r]v o 
iTTL^ovXevoras avroj y^rjpiyXiuapos ef^adlXevGev errj 

148 S'. rourou vlos AajSopoaodphoxos' eKvpUvae piev 
rrjs ^auiXeias ttols ojv pLTjvas 6' , em^ovXevOels 8e 
8ta ro TToXXa e/X(/>atVetv KaKO'qdr] vtto rcjv ^t'Acoy drr- 

149 erupiTraviuBrj. drroXoiiivov Se rovrov avveXOovre? 
ol imjiovXevGavre? avrqj kolvtj rrjv ^auiXeiav 
TTepidOrjKav y^a^ovvrjbqj rivl rdJv eK Ba^vXowos 
bvri eK rrjs avrrJ£ iTnavGro.Geoj?. ern rovrov ra 
7T€pl rov TTorapLov reL')(T] ri^s Ba^vXcovlcDV TroXeoj? i^ 

150 oTTri]? ttXlvOov koL dG(f)dXrov KareKoapLTiOr]. ovarj? 
Se rrJ£ ^acnXetag avrov iv rw irrraKai^eKdrw erei 
Trpoe^eXrjXvOujs Kvpo? eK rrjg Ylepcrlhos /xera hvva- 
fxeojs TToXXrjs J<^J-^i _^ Karaarpeipdpievog r-qv Xoltttjv 
^aGiXeiav^ Trdoav wpp.rjuev erri rrjs Ba^vXawtas. 

151 aLGd6p.€vo£ 8c Na^owTySos" rrjv ecJioSov avrov, 
dTTavrrjaag pierd rrjg Swdjieajg kol Trapara^dpievo? , 
rjrrrjOels rfj IJ^d^r] kol (f)vydjv oXiyouros gvv- 

152 eKXeioOr] els rrjV H^opGLTTrrr^vow rroXiv. YJjpos 8e 
Ba,5uAa)ya KaraXajSop.evos koI ovvrd^ag rd e^oj 
rrjs TToXeoJS reixf] KarauKdibai Sta rd Xiav avrqj 
TTpayp.ariK'qv kol SvadXcorov (jiavrjvai rrjv ttoXlv 
dvetev^ev erri BopGLTTrrow" eKTroXiopKrJGOJV rov 

153 y^af^ovvrjSov. rov Se y^a^ovvijoov ov^ V7TO{.ieLvavros 

rrfv TToXiopKiav, oAA' eyxeipiGcivros avrov rrporepov, 

XP'f]ordpLevos Kupos" (fiiXavdpojTTWs Kal Sovs oiKrjrrj- 

piov avrcp Kap/xavtav e^eTrefjiipev eK rijs Ba^Su- 

^ Eus. : 'ST]pr/\icr(Topo6pov L (and so below). 
2 Niese : -xooos L. 


AGAINST APION, I. 147-153 

government was arbitrary and licentious, fell a 
victim to a plot, being assassinated by his sister's 
husband, Neriglisar, after a reign of two years. 
On his death Nerighsar, his murderer, succeeded 
to the throne and reigned four years. His son, 
Laborosoardoch, a mere boy, occupied it for nine 
montlis, when, owing to the depraved disposition 
which he showed, a conspiracy was formed against 
him, and he was beaten to death by his friends. 
After his murder the conspirators held a meeting, 
and by common consent conferred the kingdom 
upon Nabonnedus, a Babylonian and one of their 
gang. In his reign the walls of Babylon abutting 
on the river were magnificently built with baked 
brick and bitumen. In the seventeenth year of 
his reign Cjtus advanced from Persia with a large 
army, and, after subjugating the rest of the 
kingdom, marched upon Babylonia. Apprised 
of his coming, Nabonnedus led his army to meet 
him, fought and v/as defeated, whereupon he fled 
with a few followers and shut himself up in the 
town of Borsippa.^ Cyrus took Babylon, and after 
giving orders to raze the outer walls of the city, 
because it presented a very redoubtable and 
formidable appearance, proceeded to Borsippa to 
besiege Nabonnedus. The latter surrendering, with- 
out waiting for investment, w^as humanely treated 
by Cyrus, who dismissed him from Babylonia, 
but gave him Carmania ^ for his residence. There 

* Mod. Birs Nimrud, south of Babylon. 
* A district on the Persian Gulf. 

^ L : om. Eus., Lat. 

* Eus. : 'Aa-iav L Lat. 

^ Gutschmid : BSpa-Linrov L Eus. 



XojVLag. y^a^ovvrjSog fiev ovv ro Xolttov rod xpovov 
Siayevo/jLevog iv eKeivrj rfj X^V?- KareGrperpe top 

O' " 


154 (^l) Taura GVjjLchojvov €)(ei rais 'qixerepais ^[^Xols 
rr]v dXrjdeLav. yiyparrrai yap iv avrals on Sa^ovxo- 
hovoGopos oKTcoKaiheKarcp rrjs avrov ^acnXelas eret 
Tov Trap' rjfjuv vaov rjpijfjLcoGev, Kai tjv acfiavrjg in 
errj TrevraJKOvra,^ hevripoj Se rrjs Kupou ^acrtAetas" 
eret rcov defJieXlcov vrro^XrjOevrojv Sevripco^ ttolXlv 

155 rrjs AapeLOV f^aGiXeias arrereXiGOrj. TrpoGd-qGOJ be 
Kal ras row (^olvlkcov dvaypacpds' ov yap rrapa- 
Xeirrriov rcov drroSet^ecov rrjv rrepiovGiav . ecrrt Se 

156 roiavrT] row xpo^(^^ ^ KarapldpLrjGLS' eV ^lOoj^dXov 
rod j^aGiXiojs iTToXiopKrjGe y^a^ov^obovoGopos rrjv 
Tvpov irr^ eri] heKarpia. /xera rovrov ef^aGtXevGe 

157 BadA err] Se/ca. pLerd rovrov hiKaGral KareGrd- 
Q-qGav Kal ihiKaGav ^^Kvl^aXos ^aGXrjXov pLTJvas ^\ 
\eXf^riS 'A/3Satou pi,rjvas i\ " A^^apos^ dpx^epevs 
p.rjvas y' i MuTTUvos" koX YepdGrparos rod Aj^or]- 
XlpLov SiKaGral errj S"' , ojv /xera^u i^aGiXevGe BaAd- 

158 ropos iviavrdv eva. roijrov reXevr-qGavros arro- 
GreiXavres pLererreiiipavro ^lep^aXov iK rrjs Ba^v- 
XcovoSi Kal i^aGiXevGev errj d\ rovrov reXevrr]- 
Gavros piereTrepLipavro rov dheX(f)OV avrov ^LpcopLov, 

^ Eus. : eTTTo. L Lat. 
2 oeKOLTU} Eus. P.E.: sexto Eus. (Arm.). 
^ Ahalus Lat. Eus. (Arm.). 

<* " The nineteenth year," according to 2 Kings xxv. 8 and 
Jer. hi. 12, was the date of the burning of the Temple by 
Nebuzaradan ; the eighteenth year was that of the capture 
of the city by Nebuchadrezzar (Jer. Hi. 29). 

^ The captivity, reckoned from the fall of Zedekiah 


AGAINST APION, I. 153-158 

Nabonnedus spent the remainder of his life, and 
there he died." 

(21) This statement is both correct and in accord- agrees with 
ance with our books. For in the latter it is recorded phoenSciau 
that Nabuchodonosor in the eighteenth " year of his records. 
reign devastated our temple, that for fifty ^ years it 
ceased to exist, that in the second ^ year of the reign 
of Cyrus the foundations were laid, and lastly that in 
the second ^ year of the reign of Darius it was com- 
pleted. I must not, however, neglect any of the 
superabundant proofs available, and will therefore 
append the Phoenician record.^ The chronological 
calculation there appears as follows : 

Under King Ithobal,^ Nabuchodonosor besieged 
Tyre for thirteen years .^ The next king, Baal, 
reigned ten years. After him judges were 
appointed and held office as follows : Eknibal, son 
of Baslech, two months ; Chelbes, son of Abdaeus, 
ten months ; Abbar the high-priest, three months ; 
Myttyn and Gerastratus, son of Abdelimus, six 
years ; after them Balator was king for one year. 
On his death his subjects sent to Babylon and 
fetched from there Merbal, who reigned four 
years ; and on his death they sent for his brother 

(587 B.C.) to the edict in the first year of Cyrus (538 b.c), 
lasted forty-nine years. The seventy years of Jer. xxv. 12 
(§ 132 above) was a round number. 

« Cf. Ezra ill. 8. 

^ Cf. Ez. iv. 24 ; but this date marks the resumption of 
the interrupted work. The building was not completed till 
four years later (i6. vi. 15). 

« Probably from Menander of Ephesus. 

f Ithobal II. An earlier king of the name is mentioned 
in § 123. 

A.x. 228 (on the authority of Philostratus). 

yoL. I Q 225 


OS" i^aGiXevaev errj elKoaiv. errl rovrou Kvpog 

159 Ilepcrajv ibwdarevaev . ovkovv 6 avfiTras XP^^^^ 
errj vS' /cat rpets" lirjves irpos avrols' i^Sofxco^ }xev 
yap €T€L rrjs ^a^ovxoSovoGopov /SacrtAetas- rjp^aro 
TToXiopKeZv Tvpov, TeaaapecrKaLSeKOLTCp 8 krec rrjg 
ElpajfJiov Kvpos 6 Uepcrrjs to Kpdros TrapeXa^ev. 

160 KOI (jvficfxjova puev eVt^ rod vaov rol? -qp.erepois 
ypdijifxaai rd XaASatcoy Kal Tvplojv, (hjioXoyqiievri 
he Kal dvavrlpp-qros rj irepl rcuv eLp-qfievcov fioL 
fiaprvpLa rrjs rod yevovs rj/jiow dpxcii^orrjros. toIs 
(Jiev ovv [JLTj o(f)6hpa (J)iXov€lkois apKeaetv VTroAafx- 
^dvoj rd irpoeLprjfjLeva. 

161 (22) Aet 8' dpa Kal rcov aTncTrovvrajv p,ev rat? 
iv^ rols ^apiSdpoLs dvaypa(f)al? fjiovous 8e rot? 
"KXXrjCTL TTLcrreveLV d^coijvrojv aTTOTrArypcDcrat rr]v 
€7TL^rirr]GLVy Kal TrapaGX^Iv ttoXXovs Kai rovrcov 
eiTiGraiievovs ro eOvos rjpLcov Kal Kad o Kaipos tjv 
avrols p.vqjioveTJOvras TrapaOeoOai ev loiois avrcov 
GvyypapiixaGi . 

162 Yivdayopas roivvv 6 Hd/JLLOS dpxcuos ojv, aocjaa 
8e Kal rfj rrepl ro OeZov evaef^eia rrdvroiv VTTeiXrjix- 
ixivos Si€V€yK€lv rwv (f)iXoGO(j>rjGdvr(x>v , ov puovov 
iyva>Kdj9 rd Trap' rjfxlv SrjXos eartv, aAAa /cat ^tj- 

163 Xojrrjs avrcov €K rrXeLarov yeyevrjpLevos. avrov fxev 
ovv ovhkv ojjLoXoyelraL GvyypafJLpia, rroXAol 8e rd 

^ Text probably corrupt. 
^ rats iu ed. pr. : om. L. 

° The total of the component fig-iires given above is fifty- 
five years three months. The total of Josephus seems to be 
reached by giving iJ.€Ta^v its classical sense, " between," and 
excluding the one year of Baiator, Reinach, with Gutschmid, 

AGAINST APION, I. 158-163 

.Hirom, who reigned twenty years. It was in his 
reign that Cyrus became monarch of Persia. 

The M'hole period thus amounts to fifty-four years 
and three months.'* For it was in the seventh ^ year 
of his reign that Nabuchodonosor began the siege of 
Tyre, and in the fourteenth year of Hirom's reign 
that Cyrus the Persian came into power. Thus there 
is complete agreement, on the subject of the temple, 
between our own books and those of the Chaldaeans 
and Tyrians, and the evidence for my assertions as to 
the antiquity of our race is consistent and incontro- 
vertible. None but the most contentious of critics, 
I imagine, could fail to be content with the arguments 
already adduced. 

(22) I am, however, it seems, under the further (D) Greek 
obligation of satisfying the requirements of persons *^^'^*^^"^<^- 
who put no faith in non-Hellenic documents, and 
maintain that none but Greeks are to be trusted. I 
must therefore produce a further array of these 
authors who were acquainted with our nation, and 
quote the occasional allusions which they make to 
us in their own works. 

Now, Pythagoras,^ that ancient sage of Samos, who (i.) pyth- 
for wisdom and piety is ranked above all the philo- ^^*^^^^- 
sophers, evidently not only knew of our institutions, 
but was even in those distant ages ^ an ardent admirer 
of them. Of the master himself we possess no 

corrects the total to fifty years three months, to agree with 
the fifty years of § 154 above. 

^ (?) Read " seventeenth." 

'^ The famous head of the fraternity of Crotona in S. Italy 
in the 6th century b.c. 

'^ eK irXela-Tov elsewhere in Josephus {A. xv. 223) has a 
temporal sense " long since." Whiston, however, renders 
" to a very great degree," and so Reinach. 



rrepl avrov LGTopi^Kacn, /cat rovrow eTTLonrjfxoraros 


164/xeAr^S'. Aeyet roivvv iv toj irpajrcp row rrepi 
IlvBayopov ^l^Xlojv on Uvdayopa?, evos avrov 
TOW GwovGiauTchv reXevrrjaavro? , rovvopia KaAAt- 
(jyojVTOS TO yivos Kporcovtarou, ttjv iKeivov iIjv)(7]V 
e'Aeye ovvhiarpifieiv avroj Kal vvKrojp /cat pued ^ 
rjpbepav^ Kal on TrapeKeXevero pirj Siepx^crdat tottov 
i<f)* ov av^ ovos oKXaarj, Kal row Siipiojv vbarojv 

165 OLTTex^cyO ai Kal TraurjS d7Tex€iv ^ ^XaG(f)r]p.Las. elra 
TrpoGriO-qdi pier a ravra Kal rdhe' " ravra 8e 
€7Tparr€ Kal eXeye rds 'louSatajv Kal QpaKcov Solas' 
fXLpLOVpLevos Kal p^eracjiepow els iavrov." Xeyerai 
yap (jjs dX-qdojs 6 dvrjp eKelvos TToXXd ro)v Trapd 
^lovSaloLg vopLLpboJV els rrjv avrov pber€V€yK€LV 

166 ^Hv 3e Kal Kara TroAets" ovk dyvojcrrov rjpbcov 
TidXai ro edvos, Kal tt-oAAo, row idd)v et's" rtvag r^Srj 
Sia7T€(f)OLrr)K€L Kal lijXov Trap' ivcois tj^lovto. 

167 SrjXol Se o Qeocj^paGros iv rots Trepl vopiojv Xiyei 
yap on kojXvovglv ol Tvpicov vopioi ^eviKOVS 
opKovs opLvv€LV, €v ols pL€rd nvojv dXXow Kai rov 
KaXovpL€vov opKov Kop^dv KarapidpLel. Trap ovSevL 
8' dv ovrog evpedeiq ttXtjv puovoLS 'louSatot?, Si-jXol 

^ fieO' ed. pr. : Kad' L. 
^ bv av ed. pr. : 6v L, ov av Niese. 

^ Of SmjTna, 3rd cent. b.c. ; wrote biographies of the 
philosophers and others. 

^^ Possibly referring to the fable of the Jewish cult of the 
ass {Ap. ii. 80, etc.) : allusion to the story of Balaam (Xumb. 
xxii. 27) is improbable. 

"^ Lit. " thirsty " ; exact sense uncertain. The Latin ver- 
sion has " dirty " [feculenta) ; Reinach " brackish." J. 



authentic work, but his history has been told by 
many wTiters. The most distinguished of these is 
Hermippus," always a careful historian. Now, in the 
first book of his work on Pythagoras, this author 
states that the philosopher, on the death of one of 
his disciples, named Calliphon, a native of Crotona, 
remarked that his pupil's soul was with him night 
and day, and admonished him not to pass a certain 
spot, on which an ass had collapsed,^ to abstain from 
thirst-producing ^ water, and to avoid all calumny.^ 
Then he proceeds as follows : 

" In practising and repeating these precepts he 
was imitating and appropriating the doctrines of 
Jews and Thracians." 

In fact, it is actually said ^ that that great man intro- 
duced many points of Jewish law into his philosophy. 
In ancient times various cities were acquainted 
with the existence of our nation, and to some of these 
many of our customs have now found their way, and 
here and there been thought worthy of imitation. 
This is apparent from a passage in the work of (ii.) Theo- 
Theophrastus ^ on Laws, where he says that the laws ^"^^^™^- 
of the Tyrians prohibit the use of foreign oaths, in 
enumerating which he includes among others the 
oath called " Corban." Now this oath will be found 
in no other nation except the Jews, and, translated 

M tiller quotes from Diogenes Laertius an allusion to the 
Pythagorean practice of drinkirtg plain water {\lt6p v8ojp). 

^ Cf. Ex. xxii. 28 ; Lev. xix. 16. 

* e.g. by Aristobulus ap. Eus. P.E. xiii. 12, 664 a. 

f Pupil and successor of Aristotle as head of the Peri- 
patetic school. His work on Laws, recapitulating the laws 
of various nations, seems to have been designed as a pendant 
to Aristotle's Politics. Another allusion of his to the Jews 
is quoted by Eusebius, P.E. ix. 2, 404 a. ^ 



S\ 0J9 av €i7T0L ng, Ik rrjg 'K^palojv fxeOepfJirjvevo- 
ixevos hiaXeKTov Sojpov deov. 

168 Kat /Jir]v ovSe^ UpoSorog 6 ' AXcKapvacrevs -qyvorj- 
K€V TjpLwv ro eBvos, aAAa rpoTTcp tlvl (j^aiverai 
fjLejJLvqfMevos. Trepl yap KoA;)(6oy LGTopojv iv rfj 

169 Seurepa (^If^Xcp (^tjctIv ovrcos' " fJLOvvoL 8e Travrcjv," 

(p7](TL, " IS^oXxOi Kal AlyVTTTiOL Kal AWl07T€£ 7T€pi- 

repbvovraL cltt* apyjis ra alSola. ^olvlk€s Se kol 
HvpLOi ol iv rfi HaXaLcrrivri kol ovtol^ 6p.oXoyovGL 

170 Trap' AlyvTrriajv fxep^ad-qKevai. Hvpioi Se ol Trepi 
QepiJLcoSovra Kal UapOeviov TTorafiov Kat Ma- 
Kpojves ol rovroioiv aurvyeiroves bvres airo 
KoA;Yajy (^aal veojorl iiepLaQ-qKevai. ovroi yap 

eloLV ol 7T€pLr€fJLv6jjb€V0L avOpOJTTOJV pLOVVOi Kal 

ovroL AlyvTTTLOLGL (j)aLVOVTaL TTOLovvres Kara ravrd. 
avrcjv 8e AlyvTmajv Kal Aldiorrojv ovk e)(a) eiTreZv 

171 oTTorepoi rrapa tojv irepojv i^epLaOov." ovkovv 
etprjKe Hvpovs rovs iv rfj HaXaLcrrLvr] rrepLripive- 
adai' ra)v 8e rrjv YlaXaLcrrlvrjv KaroLKovvra)V pbovot 
rovro TTOiovdLV 'louSatot. rovro apa yLyvojGKOJV 
etpv^Kev TTepl avrojv. 

172 Kat XotptAo? 8e dp-)(a2os^ yev6pL€Vos rroirjrr^s 
piipLvrjraL rod eOvovg rjpLcoVy on avvecrrpdrevTai 

^ ed. pr. : ovre L. ^ avrol Herodotus. 

^ Eus., Lat. : apxaiorepos L. 

'^ Strictly "a gift," as interpreted in Josephus, A. iv. 73, 
Mark vii. 11 ; of oblations to God in the sense of "tabooed," 
and then apparently used of the oath which accompanied the 
vow. For corban as an oath cf. Matt, xxiii. 16 with J. 
Lightfoot's note in Hor. Hebr. 

^ Herod, ii. 104 ; a passage to which Josephus alludes in 
A. viii. 262. 



from the Hebrew, one may interpret it as meaning 
*' God's gift." " 

Nor, again, has om* nation been ignored even by (iii) Hero- 
Herodotus of HaHcarnassus, who has an evident, if not ^'^^'^^• 
explicit, allusion to it. Speaking of the Colchians in 
his second book,^ he makes the following statement : 

" The Colchians, the Egyptians, and the Ethio- 
pians are the only nations with whom the practice 
of circumcision is primitive. The Phoenicians and 
the Syrians of Palestine ^ admit that they learnt 
it from the Egyptians. The Syrians on the banks 
of the rivers Thermodon and Parthenius,'^ and 
their neighbours the Macrones,^ say that they 
have adopted it recently from the Colchians. 
These are the only circumcised peoples in the 
world, and it is clear that they all imitate the 
Egyptians. Of the two nations of Egypt and 
Ethiopia, I cannot say which learnt the practice 
from the other." 

Herodotus thus says that the Palestinian Syrians 
were circumcised ; but the Jews are the only in- 
habitants of Palestine who adopt this practice. He 
must therefore have known this, and his allusion is 
to them. 

Again, Choerilus,-^ an ancient poet, mentions our (iv.)CHOE- 
race as taking part in the expedition of Xerxes, king ^^^^^• 

" If, as is probable, Herodotus refers to the Philistines, he 
was mistaken, as they were uncircumcised in Biblical times. 
Josephus is therefore justified in inferring that he alludes to 
the Jews. 

<* Rivers in Asia Minor. * In Pontus. 

^ Of Samos, a younger contemporary and friend of Hero- 
dotus. A few other fragments of his epic poem on the war 
of the Greeks and Persians are extant, e.ff. in Strabo vii. 9. 303. 



—ep^Tj TO) Hepaojv jSaatAet eTrl rrjv "EAAaSa. 
KaTapidiMTjaaiJievos yap Trdvra ra edvrj reAeu- 
TOiov Kal ro -qp^erepov evera^e Xeycov 

173 row S' oTTidev hii^aive yevo? Oavp^aarov ISeadai, 
yXaxjcrav pi€V OotVtcrcray airo Gropbdrow d<f)i€vr€£, 
qjKovv^ 8 iv HoXvpLOL? 6p€Gi TrXarerj Trapd^ XipLVQ, 
avxp,aXeoL Kopvcpd? rpoxoKovpdhes , avrdp vrrepdev 
LTTTTOJV Sapra TrpoaojTT i<j)6povv ioKXrjKora Karrvo). 

174 S^Aov ovv iariv, d)S olpiai, Trdcnv 'qpudw airrdv pL€- 
pbvrjoOai TO) Kal ra HoXvpLa op-q iv rfj -qpierepa 
elvai )(Ojpa, a KaroiKovjieVy /cat rrjv \o<^aXrlriv 
XeyopLevTjV XLpLvrjV avrt] yap rraacov rdjv iv rfj TiVpia 
Xip^vrf TrXarvrepa Kal /xet^cov KaOicrrrjKev. 

175 Kat XotptAos" IJL€V ovv ovrcu pLepLvqrai rjpbdjv' ore 
be ov pLovov TjTTiGravro rovg lovSacov?, aXXd Kai 
edavpLoXov ocrois avrojv evrv^oiev ov^ ol (f)avX6- 
raroL rd)v 'EAAr^ycuy, dAA' ol irrl Gocfyla pudXicrra 

176 reOavpiacrpiivoL, pdhiov yvajvat. \\Xiap)(os yap 6 

AptaroreXovs cov pLaO-qrrj? Kal rwv iK rod Trepirrd- 
rov (f)LXoG6(f)ajv ovSevog hevrepo? iv rw Trpcorcp irepl 

^ So (or coKeov) Eus. : &iK€e L. 

^ Eus. : €vi L, €irl Niese. 

^ \>v Eus. 

" Josephus adopts an older identification of Solymi and 
its supposed derivative, Hierosolyma, with the Jews and 
Jerusalem, and equates the " broad lake " with the Dead 
Sea. His inference is more ingenious than sound. The 
people referred to in the above lines are doubtless the eastern 
Ethiopians. Choerilus takes over " the Solymian hills " 
from Homer, Od. v, 283 (where they are named immediately 
after the Ethiopians) ; he has also in mind the description 
of his friend Herodotus of the E. Ethiopians in his catalogue 
of Xerxes' army (Herod, vii. 70). These differed from the 
W. Ethiopians " only in their language and their hair." 


AGAINST APION, I. 172-176 

of Persia, against Greece. After enumerating all 
the other nations, he finally includes ours in these 
lines : 

" Closely behind passed over a race of wonderful 

aspect ; 
Strangely upon their lips the tongue of Phoenicia 

sounded ; 
In the Solymian hills by a broad lake their 

habitation ; 
Shorn in a circle, unkempt was the hair on their 

heads, and above them 
Proudly they wore their hides of horse-heads, 

dried in the hearth-smoke." 

It is obvious, I imagine, to everybody that he is 
referring to us, because the Solymian hills are in our 
country and inhabited by us ; there too is the so- 
called Bituminous Lake, which is broader and more 
extensive than all the lakes in Syria. ^ Here then we 
have an allusion to us in Choerilus. 

Not only did the Greeks know the Jews, but they (v.) arir- 
admired any of their number whom they happened S author 
to meet. This statement applies not to the lowest ii^yof 
class of Greeks, but to those with the highest reputa- 
tion for wisdom, and can easily be proved. Cle- 
archus, a disciple of Aristotle, and in the very first 
rank of peripatetic philosophers, relates, in his first 

They had " straight hair," and " wore upon their heads the 
scalps of horses, with the ears and mane attached . . . the 
ears being made to stand upright " {ibid.}. They spoke 
Phoenician, because " the Phoenicians, according to their 
own account, originally dwelt by the Red Sea " {lb. vii. 89) — 
the " broad lake " of the poet. The round tonsure was 
practised by the neighbouring Arabs {ib. iii. 8), but was 
expressly forbidden to the Jews (Lev. xix. 27 ; cf. Jer. ix. 26). 



V7JVOV ^l^Xloj (fi'qcrlv ^ApicrroTeX-qv rov StSdcrKaAov 
avrov Trepi tlvos dvSpos 'louSatou ravra Icrropeiv, 
airrqj re rov Xoyov WpiaroreXei TrepirLdrjcn^' ecrrt 

177 Sc ovroj yeypa/JupLevov " aAAa rd fxev TToXXd fiaKpov 
dv €Lr] XeyeLv, dua 8' e;)(£t row eKeivov davfiacnorT^ra 
rtya /cat <j}iXouo(hiav 6[jloloj£ SieXdelv ou yelpov. 
Ga(f)ojS S' lg9l, elTTev, 'Y7T€po)(i^T], [davjiacrrdvY 
ovelpois (.'era uoi So^co Xeyetv. koI 6 'Yrrepox^^'^^ 
evAa^ou/i-evos", St' avro ydp, e(f)y], rovro kol t^-qrov- 

178 /-tey aKovuai Trdvres. ovkovv, elrrev 6 ^^pLcrroreXy]?, 
Kara ro rcov prjropLKajv TrapdyyeXfJia ro yevos 
avrov TTpcorov SieXdcofiev, Iva firj (XTret^oj/xey rots" 
rwv dirayyeXiGiv^ StSacr/caAot?. Xeye, elTrev 6 'IVe- 

179 poxL^Tj?, ovrcus et* SoAcet. /cd/cetvo? roivvv ro /xev 
yevos TjV 'lofSatos" eK r-qg KoiX-qs Hvpias. ovroi 
8' eloTLV diToyovoi rdJv ev 'IvSots" (J)lXog6(J)Ojv , KaXovv- 
rai Se, cog (f)aaiv, ol (f)LX6GO(f)OL Trapd fxev ^Ivhols 
KaAavot, TTapd he Hvpocg 'lofSatot, rovvojxa Xa- 
^ovres a770 rov rorrov npouayopeverai yap ov 
KaroLKovGi roTTOv 'louSata. ro Se r-qg 7T6Xea>s 
avrcov ovofia rrdw okoXiov ecmv' 'lepovaaXrjiJbrjv^ 

180 yap avrrjv KaXovuiv. ovros ovv 6 dvdpojTTOS em- 
^evovfievos re 7to/\Xo'ls KaK row dvoj roTTOw els rovs 
eTTiOaXarriovs VTTOKara^alvow 'YiXX-qviKos tjv ov 

181 rfj SiaXeKroj [jlovov, dAAa Kal rfj i/^vxfj- Kai rore 

^ Gutschmid : TrapaTtOeis L, avarld-qeL Eus. 
^ Om. Eus. cod. ^ Eus. : ewayyeXLiov L. 

* ovTus el Eus., Lat. : et tL croi L. 
5 lepoio-aX??^ Eus. : hierosolyma Lat. 

° Quoted also by Eus. P.E. ix. 5. 

AGAINST APION, I. 176-181 

book on Sleep, the following anecdote told of a certain 
Jew by his master. He puts the words into the 
mouth of Aristotle himself. I quote the text : ^ 

" * It would take too long to repeat the whole 
story, but there were features in that man's 
character, at once strangely marvellous and 
philosophical, which merit description. I warn 
you, Hyperochides,' he said, ' that what I am about 
to say mil seem to you as wonderful as a dream.' 
Hyperochides respectfully replied, * That is the 
very reason why we are all anxious to hear it.' 
' Well,' said Aristotle, ' in accordance with the 
precepts of rhetoric, let us begin by describing his 
race, in order to keep to the rules of our masters 
in the art of narration.' * Tell the story as you 
please,' said Hyperochides. ' Well,' he replied, 
' the man was a Jew of Coele-Syria. These people 
are descended from the Indian philosophers.^ 
The philosophers, they say, are in India called 
Calani," in Syria by the territorial name of Jews ; 
for the district which they inhabit is known as 
Judaea. Their city has a remarkably odd name : 
they call it Hierusaleme. Now this man, who was 
entertained by a large circle of friends and was on 
his way down from the interior to the coast, not 
only spoke Greek, but had the soul of a Greek. 

^ Clearchus in his work On Education traced the descent 
of the Indian gymnosophists from the Magi, and Diogenes 
Laertius (proem. 9), who is our authority, adds, " Some 
assert that the Jews also are descended from the Magi." 
Jews and Brahmans are also associated by Megasthenes 
(Clem. Strom, i. 15). I owe this note to Th. Reinach. 

" Calanus was the name of a gymnosophist who followed 
Alexander the Great, and burnt himself to death in presence 
of his army (Plut. Alex. 65, etc.). 



SiarpL^ovrajv tjijlojv rrepl rrjv 'Acrtav Trapa^aXcov els 
Tov? avrov? tottovs avOpcorros^ evrvyxo-vei iipuv re 


ainojv rrj? cro(/)tas". ojs he 7to)\Xols tojv ev TiatSeta 

182 (TvvqjKeicoro, TrapehiSov n p^aXXov cLv etxev." ravr 
etprjKev 6 WpcGroreXrjg rrapa ro) IxXedpx^ Kat 
TTpouerL TToXXrjv kol OavfidaLov Kaprepiav rod 

lovSaLOV avSpo? ev rfj SiaLrrj kol uax^poGWiqv 
Sie^LOJV. evean he rols ^ovXopievois e^ avrov ro 
irXeov yvojvai rod ^l^Xlov (f)vXdrrojjLaL yap eyoj 

[ra] TrXeLOj rcov iKavcov TrapariOeudai. 

183 \\Xeapxos p^ev ovv ev TrapeK^doeL ravr e'tpr^Kev, 
ro yap TrpoKelpLevov rjv avro) KaO erepov, ovrojs 
-qfjLOJv piVYjiiovevGai. '^Karatos he 6 X^hrjpiriqs , 
avTjp <J)lX6go(J)os a/^ta Kal rrepl rds Trpd^eis cKavo)- 
rarog, AXe^dvhpco roj ^aaiXel GwaKpLaaas Kal 
UroXep^aicp roj Xdyov Gvyyev6p.evos , ov rrapepyojg, 
aAAa rrepl avrwv ^lovhalcov Gvyyeypa(f)e ^l^Xlov, 
e^ ov ^ovXopLaL Kecj^aXatajhcog emhpapielv evca rcov 

184 ecprjpLevajv. Kat Trpwrov eTTihei^cx) rov ;!^/3ovoy 
fjLvrjfioveveL yap rrjg UroXepLaiov Trepl Td^av irpo'S 
ArjpLTjrpLov pidxTj?, avrrj he yeyovev evheKdrco pbev 
krei rrjg AXe^dvhpov reXevrrjs, errl he oXvpiTndhos 
e^hoiiTjs Kal heKdrrjs Kal eKaroGrrjS , cus" LGropel 

185 KacTTcop. TTpoaOels^ yap ravrrjv rrjv oXvpLindha 
(f)r]GLV " eirl ravrr]? UroXepLalos 6 Adyov eviKa 

^ auOpcjTTos Eus. l-ov L). 2 irpodels Cobet. 

° At Atarneus, in Mvsia, with his friend Hermias, c. 347- 
344 B.C. 

^ That Hecataeus (4th-3rd cent, b.c.) wrote on the Jews, 
whether a separate work or as part of his History of 

AGAINST APION, I. 181-185 

During my stay in Asia,'* he visited the same 
places as I did, and came to converse with me and 
some other scholars, to test our learning. But as 
one who had been intimate with many cultivated 
persons, it was rather he who imparted to us some- 
thing of his own.' 

These are the words of Aristotle as reported by 
Clearchus, and he went on to speak of the great and 
astonishing endurance and sobriety displayed by. this 
Jew in his manner of life. Further information can 
be obtained, if desired, from the book itself ; I for- 
bear to quote more than is necessary. 

This allusion of Aristotle to us is mentioned (vi.) 
parenthetically by Clearchus, who was dealing with '^'^^'^^^us. 
another subject. Of a different nature is the 
evidence of Hecataeus of Abdera,^ at once a philo- 
sopher and a highly competent man of affairs, who 
rose to fame under King Alexander, and was after- 
wards associated with Ptolemy, son of Lagus. He 
makes no mere passing allusion to us, but wrote His book on 
a book entirely about the Jews, from which I propose ^^^^ '^*^^^''^' 
briefly to touch on some passages. I will begin with 
fixing his date. He mentions the battle near Gaza 
between Ptolemy and Demetrius, which, as Castor^ 
narrates, was fought eleven years after the death of 
Alexander, in the 117th Olympiad. For under the 312 b.c. 
head of this Olympiad he says : 

** In this period Ptolemy, son of Lagus, defeated 

Egypt, appears certain. But it is no less certain that apo- 
cryphal Jewish productions were fathered upon him. Recent 
critics (T. Reinach, J. G. Miiller) regard the extracts which 
follow as genuine. All refer to the time of Alexander and 
the Diadochi and seem above suspicion. 

" Author of work on chronology, probably 2nd cent. b.c. 



Kara Tdl,av [JidxT] ^rjfjb'qrpiov rov ^ Avnyovov rov 
iTTLKXrjOdvra HoXLopK-qrrjV." W.Xe^avhpov Se re- 
Bvdvai rravres ojJioXoyovcrLv IttI rrj? eKarocrrrjs t€g- 
crapeGKaLSeKarr]? oXvfjbTTidSos . SijXov ovv on /cat 
Kar^ €Keivov Kal Kara WXe^avSpov rJKfJial^ev rjjjiojv 

186 ro edvos. Xeyei roivvv 6 'EKarato? ttoXiv rahe, on 
ixerd rrjv iv Tdirj /xa;^?^ o YlroXepLalog iyivero rojv 
Tiepl Hvplav roTTOJV iyKparrj?, Kal ttoXXol row 
dvOpcoTTOJV 7TVp6av6ijL€V0L rr]v r]7Ti6riqra Kal (j)iXav- 
OpojTiiav rod YiroXepiaiov uvvaTraipeiv els Atyvirrov 
avrqj Kal KOivojvelv row Trpaypidrojv rj^ovX'q6r]Gav. 

187 '' ow eh '^v," (ji-qGiv, " 'EJc/ctas" apx^'^pevs rcov 'lou- 
haiojv, dvOpojTTOs r-qv fjuev rjXiKiav c5? e^rjKOvra- e^ 
erojv, roj 8' d^LOjfian roj Trapd rols ojioedvois 
pieyag Kal r-qv ipvxrjv ovk dvorjros, en 8e Kal Xeyeiv 
Svvaros Kal rols Trepl row npay/Jiarow, elirep Tt? 

188 d'AAos", epLTTetpos. KairoL," (^-qatv, " ol rravres tepels 
ro)v ^Yovhaiojv ol rrjv SeKdrrjv roJv yivojxevojv Xafx- 
^dvovres Kal rd Koivd hioLKovvres Trepl ;)^tAtoys' 

189 /xdAtcrra Kal TrevraKOGiovs etcrtV." rrdXiv he rov 
77 poeLprjjjLevov pivqfxovevojv dvhpos " ovros," (f)rjGLv, 
" o dvdpojTTos rerevxoJS rrjs n/jLTJs ravrrjs Kai 
Gvvqd'qs rjpu,v yevop.evos, TrapaXa^ow nvas row pued 
eavrov r-qv [re"! hia<j)opdv dveyvw Traaav avrois' 
elx^v ydp rr]v KaroLKTjGLV avrow Kal r-qv moXireiav 

190 yeypajJLp.evrjv." elra ^YjKaralos SrjXol TraXiv rro)s 
exopLev TTpos rovs vopLovs, on Trdvra TraGX^LV vrrep 

** dpxtepei's (without article) need not mean " the high- 
priest." Ezechias is not mentioned elsewhere ; the high- 
priest at this epoch was apparently Onias {A. xi. 347). 


AGAINST APION, I. 185-190 

in a battle at Gaza Demetrius, son of Antigonus, 
surnamed Poliorcetes." 

And all agree that Alexander died in the 114<th 323B.C. 
Olympiad. It is evident, therefore, that our race 
was flourishing both under Ptolemy and under 

Hecataeus goes on to say that after the battle of Ou Jewish 
Gaza Ptolemy became master of Syria, and that to '" 
many of the inhabitants, hearing of his kindliness and Alexandria. 
humanity, desired to accompany him to Egypt and 
to associate themselves with his realm. 

" Among these (he says) was Ezechias, a chief 
priest ^ of the Jews, a man of about sixty-six years 
of age, highly esteemed by his countrymen, in- 
tellectual, and moreover an able speaker and un- 
surpassed as a man of business. Yet ^ (he adds) 
the total number of Jewish priests who receive a 
tithe of the revenue and administer public affairs 
is about fifteen hundred." 

Reverting to Ezechias, he says : 

*' This man, after obtaining this honour ^ and 
having been closely in touch with us, assembled 
some of his friends and read to them [a statement 
showing] all the advantages [of emigration] ; for 
he had in writing the conditions attaching to their 
settlement and political status." ^ 

In another passage Hecataeus mentions our regard 
for our laws, and how we deliberately choose and 

^ The exact sense of the word /catrot in § 188 and of " this 
honour " in § 189 (the high-priesthood or some special 
appointment awarded him by Ptolemy Soter ?) is not clear : 
Josephus is probably condensing his authority. 



rod [jbTj TTapajSrjvaL Tovrovg TrpoaLpovfjueda Kai koXov 

191 elvai voixiLoii€v . " roLyapovv, ' (f)r]GL, " Kac KaKOJS 
aKOVovreg vtto tojv aGTvyeirovujv Kai rcbv eiaacf)- 
LKvovfJidvcov TTOLvres^ Kai TrpoTrrjXaKLl^opLevoL TToXXaKis 
VTTO Tojv Yl^puLKchv ^auiXiojv Kol uarpaTTOJV ov 
SvvavraL jJLerarreLGdrjvaL rfj hiavoia, aAAa yeyvp.- 
vojfievojg rrepl rovrow Kai aLKiais Kai davdrois 
SeivordroLS /xaAtcrra 7Tdvra)v aTravTajGi, [jltj dpvov- 

192 fJbevoL rd Trarpoja} " 77ape;^erat Se /cat reKpL-qpta 


oXiya. (^-qal ydp, WXe^dvhpov TTork iv Ba/SuAwrt 
yevo/jJvov Kai rrpoeXojievov rd rod Bv^Aou Trerrroj- 
Kog lepdv dvaKaddpai Kai TrdorLV avrov rolg arpa- 
rLcoraLS opbolw? cf)€peLv rov )(ovv rrpoard^avros, 
piovovs rovs 'louSatous" ov Trpoorax^lv," dXXd Kai 
TToXXds vrrop^elvai rrX-qyds Kai t^-qpiias dTTorlorai 
pLeydXa?, ea>? avroZs avyyvovra rov ^acnXea Bovvat 

193 rrjv dheiav. ert* ye pirjV row el? rrjv )(ojpav, cf)r]GL, 
TTpds avrov? d<f)LKVovpL€va}v veojg Kai ^ojpiovs Kara- 
GKevaadvrwv aTravra ravra KariuKaTrrov, Kai rcov 
puev LrjpLLav rol? GarpdvraL? i^envov, Trepl rivow Se 
Kai ovyyvajpLTj? puereXdpij^avov . Kai TrpoaemriO-qGiV 
on hiKaiov irrl rovrots avrovs CGn 6avpi,dt,€LV. 

194 Xiyei he Kai rrepl rod rroXvavOpajTrorarov yeyovivai 
rjpbow rd eSvos' rroXXds l-iev ydp rjpia)Vy° (f)r]GLV, 
dvaGTrdGrovs els J^a^vXdwa YlepGau Trporepov 
[avrwv J" eTTOLTjGav pLvpudbag, ovk oXiyai Se Kai 

p,€rd rov WXe^dvSpov Odvarov els AHyvTrrov Kai 

1 -n-'ivTbiv ed. pr. ^ Trdrpia Niese. 

^ Bekker : irpoax^^v L. ^ Niese : e-n-ei (sic) L. 

° Josephus is paraphrasing : hence no need to reject 
(Niese) or to emend to avrQu (Bekkerj. 
6 Oin. Lat., Bekker. 


AGAINST APION, I. 190-194 

hold it a point of honour to endure anything rather 
than transgress them. 

" And so (he says), neither the slander of their onthe 
neighbours and of foreign visitors, to which as a \oy''^^^y ^^ 

cJ -I i n Jews to 

nation they are exposed, nor the frequent outrages their laws, 
of Persian kings and satraps can shake their deter- 
mination ; for these laws, naked and defenceless, 
they face tortures and death in its most terrible 
form, rather than repudiate the faith of their 

Of this obstinacy in defence of their laws he 
furnishes several instances. He tells how on one 
occasion Alexander, when he was at Babylon and had 
undertaken to restore the ruined temple of Bel," 
gave orders to all his soldiers, without distinction, to 
bring materials for the earthworks ; and how the 
Jews alone refused to obey, and even submitted to 
severe chastisement and heavy fines, until the king 
pardoned them and exempted them from this task. 
Again, when temples and altars were erected in the 
country by its invaders, the Jews razed them all to 
the ground, paying in some cases a fine to the satraps, 
and in others obtaining pardon. For such conduct, 
he adds, they deserve admiration. Then he goes 
on to speak of our vast population, stating that, on their 
though many myriads of our race had already been ^P^ popuia- 
deported to Babylon by the Persians,*^ yet after 
Alexander's death royriads more migrated to Egypt 

" This enterprise is attested by Arrian, Exped. Alex. vii. 
17, and Strabo, xvi. 1. 5, 738. I owe these references to 

^ A mistake of Hecataeus for the Chaklaeans ; a Jewish 
forger (as the writer here quoted is suspected of being) would 
not have been guilty of such a confusion. 

VOL. I R 241 


195 ^oLVLK'qv fJLerearrjGav 8ta rrjv ev Y^vpia (rrauiv. o 
he airros ovros o^v-qp koI to fieyedos Trjs x^^P^^ V^ 
KaroLKOvfiev Kal ro KraAAos" iaroprjKev' " rpiaKo- 
Gtas yap fivpidSag dpovpow ax^Sov rrjg apLcrrrjg /cat 
7TaiJL(I)opojrdrrj£ ;)^ojpas" vijiovraiy" (fiTjCLV " tj yap 

196 Lovdaia roaavrr] TrAarog ecmv. aAAa iitjv on 
Kal rrjV ttoXlv avrrjv rd 'lepocroAf/xa koXXlottiv re 
Kal [leyiarrjV eK TraXaiordrov KaroiKOVfiev Kal rrepl 
ttXtjOov? dvhpcov Kal Trepl rrjs rod ved) KaraGKevrj? 

197 ovTOjg avTos^ Si-qyetraf " eon yap rojv ^lovSalajv 
rd iiev rroXXd oxypojp^ara Kara rrjv x^P^^ '^^^ 
KOJiiaiy jiia 8e ttoXis ox'opd Trevr-qKovra /xaAtcrra 
(jrahiojv rTjV rrepifierpov, rjv olkovgl [lev avdpojirojv 
rrepl hojheKa /xuptaSe?, KaXovai S avr-qv lepocro- 

198 XvjJLa. evravda 8' earl Kard pLeaov pAXiora rrj? 
rroXeoJS Trepi^oXog XlOlvos, pirJKos cL? TrevrdrrXedpog, 
evpog 8e TT-qx^JV p' , excov SiTrXd? TTvXas- ev ch ^ojpios 
ian rerpdyojvos drpLrjrojv GvXXeKrojv dpywv XlOojv 
ovroj uvyKeijievos, rrXevpdv p.ev eKaarriv eLKoat 
TT'qxdji', vijjos 3e heKdTT'qx"^' ^<^^ '^^P avrdv o'LKr]p.a 
pieya, ov ^oj/xo? iori Kal Xvxvlov, dpLcjiorepa ;\;pfcrd 

199 hvo rdXavra rrjv oXK'qv. errl rovrojv (fxjjs ecmv 
dva^TTOuf^earov Kal rds vuKras Kai rag rjiiepag. 

1 Hudson : TrXr/Bos L. 
2 6 avTos (after Lat.) Bekker. 

° See § 86, note. 

^ Galilee alone had 204 cities and villages in the time of 
Josephus ( Vita, 235). 

'^ The stade was a little longer than our furlong. 50 stades 
is an exaggeration. Other estimates are 40 stades (Timo- 
chares ap. Eus. P.E. ix. 35, Aristeas, 105) ; 33 (Josephus, B. 
V. 159) ; 27 (" the land surveyor of Syria," ap. Eus. ib. 36, 


AGAINST APION, I. 195-199 

and Phoenicia in consequence of the disturbed con- 
dition of Syria. 

The same writer has referred to the extent and On the 
beauty of tlie country which we inhabit in the judaea° 
following words : 

" They occupy almost three million arourae ^ of 
the most excellent and fertile soil, productive of 
every variety of fruits. Such is the extent of 

Again, here is his description of Jerusalem itself, On 
the city which we have inhabited from remote ages, and th?"^^ 
of its great beauty and extent, its numerous popula- Temple. 
tion, and the temple buildings : 

'* The Jews have many fortresses and villages 
in different parts of the country,^ but only one 
fortified city, which has a circumference of about 
fifty stades ^ and some hundred and twenty 
thousand inhabitants ; they call it Jerusalem.'^ 
Nearly in the centre of the city stands a stone wall, 
enclosing an area about five plethra ^ long and a 
hundred ^ cubits broad, approached by a pair of 
gates. Within this enclosure is a square altar, 
built of heaped up stones, unhewn and unwrought ; 
each side is twenty cubits long and the height ten 
cubits. Beside it stands a great edifice, containing 
an altar and a lampstand, both made of gold, and 
weighing two talents ; upon these is a light which 
is never extinguished by night or day. There is 

whose figure for the 2nd cent. b.c. is probably nearest the 

^ " Hierosolyma." 

« The plethron was 100 Greek (about 98 English) feet. 

^ Another exaggeration apparently; 60 cubits was the 
breadth prescribed by Cyrus (Ezra vi. 3). 



ayaXfj^a d' ovk eariv oud' dvddrnjLa to Trapdrrav ovSe 
(f)vr€vixa rravTeXojs ovSev, olov dXcrcohes tj tl roiov- 
rov. hiarpij^ovGL b iv avTw /cat rds vuKTas kol 
ras r](jL€pag lepels ayvelag nvas d-'/vevovres kol to 

200 TTapaTTav olvov ov mvovreg iv rw lepw." eVt ye jjltjv 
on Kal WXe^dvSpcp rqj ^auiXei ovvearparevcravro^ 
/cat /xera ravra tols StaSo;^ots' avrov fjbeixaprvprjKev 
ot? S auTo? TTaparvx^^v (f)r](jLV vtt" dvSpos 'louSatou 
Kara rrjv crrpareiav yevopuevoLS, rovro^ rrapaO-qao- 

201 /jtat. Xiyei d' ovrojg- " ipbov yovv irrl rrjv 'Epu- 
Opdv ddXaaaav ^a6itovros orvvrjKoXovOei ns /xera 
row dXXow row rraparrepTTOvrow rjpidg iTTTreow 

lovbaiow^ ovopLa MocrdAi^va/xos", dvOpojTros LKavos 
Kara ipvxfjv, €vpojorros /cat ro^orrjs^ Sr) Trdvrojv 
opLoXoyovfjievojs^ Kal rojv 'EAA'/^vojj^ /cat row f^ap- 

202 ^dpojv dpiaros. ovrog ovv 6 dvdpojrros hia^abi- 
Lovrojv TToXXojv Kara rrjV oBov Kal pidvreojs nvos 
opvLdevofxevov Kal Trdvras emax^lv d^iovvros rjpco- 

203 "^i^crCy 8td rl rrpoapevovcn. hei^avros Se rod pidv- 
reojs" avro) rov opvida /cat S-quavros, €av puev avrov 
p^evrj rrpoGiieveiv GvpL(j)€p€Lv Trdcnv, idv 8' dvaorrdg 
€LS rovfJUTTpoadev Trer-qrai rrpodyeiv, idv 8' elg rov- 
ttlgOev dvaxojpelv avdis, GiojTirjuas Kal TrapeXKvuas 
TO ro^ov efSaXe Kal rov opvida irard^as dTreKreivev. 

204- ayavoKrovvrow he rov p^avreajs Kai nvajv dXXojv 
Kal Karapojjiivow avroj, " rl pLaLveade," ^4''^, 
" KaKobaipoves ; " etra rov opviSa Xa^dw €ls rag 
X^lpas, " 7Ta)s ydp," €<f)r), " ovros rrjv avrov uojrr^- 

^ Eus., Lat. : avuearparevofjiev L. 

2 L Eus. : raOra Niese. 

^ 'Ior5a?os conj. Niese. ^ -f iVo Eus. 

° Niese (after Lat.j : 6u.o\oyov/xevos L Eus. 


AGAINST APION, I. 199-204 

not a single statue or votive offering, no trace of a 
plant, in the form of a sacred grove or the like. 
Here priests pass their nights and days perform- 
ing certain rites of purification, and abstaining 
altogether from wine while in the temple." " 

The author further attests the share which the On 
Jews took in the campaigns both of King Alexander thTjewSiT' 
and of his successors. One incident on the march, archer. 
in which a Jewish soldier was concerned, he states 
that he witnessed himself. I will give the story in 
his own words : 

" When I was on the march towards the Red 
Sea, among the escort of Jewish cavalry which 
accompanied us was one named Mosollamus,^ a 
very intelligent man, robust, and, by common 
consent, the very best of bowmen, whether Greek 
or barbarian. This man, observing that a number 
of men were going to and fro on the route and 
that the whole force was being held up by a 
seer who was taking the auspices, inquired why 
they were halting. The seer pointed out to him 
the bird he was observing, and told him that if it 
stayed in that spot it was expedient for them all 
to halt ; if it stirred and flew forward, to advance ; 
if backward, then to retire. The Jew, without 
saying a word, drew his bow, shot and struck the 
bird, and killed it. The seer and some others were 
indignant, and heaped curses upon him. ' Why 
so mad, you poor wretches ? ' he retorted ; and 
then, taking the bird in his hands, continued, 
' Pray, how could any sound information about our 

" Lev. X. 9 ; Ezek. xliv. 21 : cf. yip. ii. 108. 
^ Hellenized form of Meshullam (Ezra viii. 16). 



ptav 01) TTpo'Cdow TTepl rrjg T^/xerepas" TTopeias -qfjuv 
CIV TL vyies arrrjyyeXXev ; el yap rjSvvaro rrpoyiy- 
vojGKeiv TO iiiXKov, els rov tottov tovtov ovk civ 
TjXde, cf)0^oviJLevo5 {jltj ro^evaas airrov anoKreivrj 
MocroAAa^os" o louoatos". 

205 'AAAa row [lev 'KKaralov jiapTvpiojv dXts' rot? 
yap ^ovXopievoLS rrXeico [laQeZv rco f^ij^Xicx) pcihiov 
icTTLV evTV)(^eZv. ovk okvtjgcjj o€ Kcii rov eTT ev- 
TjOelas hiacTvpiio), KadaTrep avros o'lerai, pivqp.'qv 

206 TTeTTOL-qjievov rjjJLOJV Wyadapxl^rjv ovopbdcraL. 8t- 
TiyovpLevos yap ra Trepl Y^rparovLK-qVy ov rpoTTOv rjXOev 
jiev el? YiVpiav Ik ^laKehovtas KaraXLTTovcra rov 
eavrris civhpa ^rjfjLTjrpLOV, ^eXevKov Se yap^elv avrrjv 
ov BeX-qGavroSy orrep eKeivt] TTpoGedoKrjGev, ttolov- 
fjLevov [SeY rrjv oltto Ba^vXojvos cjrpareiav avrov, 

207 ra Trepl rr-jv W-vnox^iav eveojrepiuev eW (hs 
aveurpexpev 6 ^auiXevs, aXiGKOjiev-qs rrjg 'Avrto- 
X^^^^S} ^Is ^eXevKeLav cjivyovaa, rrapov avrfj raxeoj? 
aTTOTrXelv, evvrrvioj KOjXvovri TreicrOelaa eXrj(f)drj /cat 

208 aTredavev- ravra rrpoeiTTcjjv 6 WyaOapx^Sr]? Kal 
eTTLGKOjrrrojv rff HrparovLKTj rrjv heiGihaLjioviav 
TTapaheiyiian XPV'''^^ "^^ Trepl 7]fJbOJV Xoycp Kai 

209 yeypachev ovrojs. " ol KaXovfievoL 'lovSaloL ttoXlv 
OLKovvre? 6xvpcorcir-qv TraGOJV, rjv KaXelv 'lepoGO- 
Xvp.a Gvp^patveL rov£ iyxojpiovs, apyelv eWiGpLevoi 
St' e^hofiTjg Tip^epas Kal p^rfe^ ra orrXa ^acrrd^eiv 

1 Ora. Lat. ^ Bekker: /xr]Se L. 

" Of Cnidos, 2nd cent, b.c, author of many historical and 
geographical works, in particular one on the Erythraean 
(Red) Sea. 

^ Stratonice, daughter of Antiochus I (Soter), was married 
to Demetrius II of Macedonia. When Demetrius contracted 


AGAINST APION, I. 204-209 

march be given by this creature, which could not 
provide for its own safety ? Had it been gifted 
with divination, it would not have come to this 
spot, for fear of being killed by an arrow of Mosol- 
lamus the Jew.' " 

But I have given enough evidence from Hecataeus ; (vii.) aga- 
any who care to pursue the subject can easily peruse tharcides. 
his book. There is another writer whom I shall name 
without hesitation, although he mentions us only to 
ridicule our folly, as he regards it — I mean Agath- 
arcides.^ He is telling the story of Stratonice,^ how 
she deserted her husband Demetrius and came from 
Macedonia to Syria, and how, when Seleucus dis- 
appointed her by refusing to marry her, she created 
a revolution at Antioch while he was starting on a 
campaign from Babylon ; and then how, after the 
king's return and the capture of Antioch, she fled to 
Seleucia,*' and instead of taking sail immediately, 
as she might have done, let herself be stopped by a 
dream, was captured and put to death. After telling 
this story and deriding the superstition of Stratonice, 
Agatharcides quotes in illustration a tale told about 
us. The following are his words : ^ 

" The people known as Jews, who inhabit the on Jewish 
most strongly fortified of cities, called by the observance 
natives Jerusalem,* have a custom of abstaining Sabbath. 
from work every seventh day ; on those occasions 

a second marriage, about 239 b.c, she fled for aid to her 
nephew, Seleucus II (Callinicus). A slightly different account 
in Justin, xxviii. 1. 

" Seleucia Pieria, the Syria,n port near the mouth of the 

^ Quoted in a condensed form in A. xii. 6. 

* " Hierosolyma." 



iv TOLS €lp'q[Ji€V0L9 ^(povoLS lJ^TjT€ y€Ojpyia? dTTreadai 
fji-qTe aX\r]£ eTrt/xeAetcr^at Aetroupyta? /XTySe/xtds', 
a^\' iv roL£ Upolg eKreraKores rag ■)(€lpas ev-xeaOai 

210 P'ixP^ '^V^ eGTrepas, eluiovro^ els ttjv ttoXlv HroAc- 
pLaiov rod \dyov fxerd rrjg Svvapieoj? Kat rcov 
dvd po'jrrojv dvrl rod (j}vXdrreiv rrjv ttoXlv hiarrjpoTJv- 

• row rrjV dvo tav, -q fiev rrarpl? elXrjcjiei SeaTTorrjv 
TTLKpov, 6 he vojiog i^TjXiyxOrj chavXov exojv iOiafJiov. 

211 ro he Gvp^jjav ttXtiv eKeivow rovs dXXovs Trdvras 
hehiha-xe r-qviKavra <j)vyelv els^ ivvTTVia kol r-qv 
Trepl rod vojiov rrapahehopievqv VTTovocav, iqvLKa dv 
rols dvdpojTTivois XoyiupboZs Trepl rcov hiarropov- 

212 fievojv e^acrOevrjGOJGLV." rovro pbev ^ \yadap-)(^ihrj 
KarayeXojro? d^iov hoKel, rol? he [jltj fjierd hvG- 
fjb€V€La9 e^erdLovGi ^aiverai /xeya Kal ttoXXojv 
d^LOV iyKOjfjbiOJVj el kcl uwr-qpias kol Trarpihos 
dvdpojrroi rives v6p.ow (f)vXaKrjV Kal r-qv rrpog Beov 
evae^eiav act Trpon/jbajGLV. 

^^^ (23) "Ort he ovK dyvoovvres evuoL rcov ovyypa(f)eojv 
ro eOvos -qfxujVy dXX vtto (j)d6vov nvos r^ hi dXXas 
alrias od)( vyielg rrjv p.vr^fX'qv TrapeXiTTOv , reKpu-qpcov 
olfiaL rrape^eiv . 'lepu'jvvp,os yap 6 rrjv rrepl rd)v 
hiahoxojv laropLav Gvyyeypa(j)djg Kara rov avrov 
[xev Tjv 'E/caratoj xpovov, ^tAos" 8' cov Avnyovov 

214 rod ^auiXiajs rrjv Hvpiav errerpoTrevev. dXX opLcos 
'KKaralos p.ev Kal ^ifSXiov eypaipe Trepl rjp.djv, 
'lepdjvvfjbog h ovhapiod Kara rrjV luropiav ijjbvq- 

^ ets L Lat. : om. Grotius, the sense then being "to avoid 
dreams . . . when ..." 

^ Date unknown. Appian refers to the reduction of 
Jerusalem by Ptolemy I (Syr. 50). 

* Of Cardia in the Thracian Chersonese, c. 360-265; his 


AGAINST APION, I. 209-214 

they neither bear arms nor take any agricultural 
operations in hand, nor engage in any other form 
of public service, but pray with outstretched hands 
in the temples until the evening. Consequently, 
because the inhabitants, instead of protecting 
their city, persevered in their folly, Ptolemy, son 
of Lagus, was allowed to enter with his army ; " 
the country was thus given over to a cruel master, 
and the defect of a practice enjoined by law was 
exposed. That experience has taught the whole 
w^orld, except that nation, the lesson not to resort 
to dreams and traditional fancies about the law, 
until its difficulties are such as to baffle human 

Agatharcides finds such conduct ridiculous ; dis- 
passionate critics will consider it a grand and highly 
meritorious fact that there are men who consistently 
care more for the observance of their laws and for 
their religion than for their own lives and their 
country's fate. 

(23) That the omission of some historians to Malicious'. 

. . , . J . . • 1 . silence of & 

mention our nation was due, not to ignorance, but Hieronymus 
to envy or some other disingenuous reason, I think '^t^- 
1 am in a position to prove. Hieronymus,^ who wrote 
the history of Alexander's successors, was a con- 
temporary of Hecataeus, and, owing to his friendship 
with King Antigonus,^ became governor of Syria. 
Yet, whereas Hecataeus devoted a whole book to us, 
Hieronymus, although he had lived almost within 

history of the Diadochi from the death of Alexander to that 
of Pyrrhus was a leading authority on that period. His 
Syrian appointment is not mentioned elsewhere. 

" Surnamed the One-ej^ed, c. 381-301 b.c, general of 
Alexander and after his death monarch of Asia. 



fjLov€V(j€, Kairoi crp^eSov iv rots Torrotg Starerpt^ojs'. 
roGOVTOv at TTpoaipeueis rcov avOpujTTCov hir^veyKav 
rep pL€V yap iSo^afiev koI GTTOvhaias elvat jjLvrjfJbTjs 
d^LOL, rqj Se TTpos rr]v dX-qOetav TrdvTcos tl TrdQos 

215 ovK evyvojpLov €776 a Kor-qaev. dpKovcn 8' ofjLOJS el? 
TTjv arrohei^LV ri^s dp^^aionqros at re Alyvrrrlajv 
Kau XaASatwv Acat ^olvlkojv avay/)a<^at Trpog 
€K€ivaLs T€ roGovroi rcx)v 'EAAi^yajv avyy panels. 

216 ert Se /cat rrpos rols elpripiivois Q€6(f}iXos /cat 
GeoSoros" /cat MvaCTea? /cat ^ ApLcrro^avris /cat 

EipfJLoyevTjSy ^VT^pbepo? re /cat Koi^o)!^ /cat "LojTTvpiwv 
/cat TToXXoL nves d'AAot rd-^^a, ov yap eyojye Trdoiv 
evT€TV)(rjKa Tols ^i^XioLS, ov Trapipycos rjpi,cov 

217 ijjLvr]pLov€VKaGLV . ol rroXkol Se rcuy elprjiJievcov 
dvSpcbv rrjg fiev dX'qOelag rdjv i^ o^PXl^ Trpayp^drajv 
hi-qpLaproVf on pbr] rat? lepals tj/jlcov ^i^Xois everv^ov, 
KOLVOJS fJLevroL 7T€pl rrjs dpxoLi6rr]ro£ aTravres jx€- 

218 fJiaprvprJKaGLV, virkp rjs rd vvv Xiyeiv Trpoedepbrjv. 6 
fjb€vroL ^aXrjpev? Ar)p.iJTpios /cat OlXwv 6 Trpe- 
G^vrepos /cat EiJTToAe/xos' ov ttoXv rrjg dXrjOeias 
Sur^pLapTov. ol? GvyyiyvujGKeiv d^iov ov ydp ivrjv 
avrols pierd TracrT]? a/cpt^etas" rots' rjpLerepoi? ypdpi- 
IJLaGL TTapaKoXovdelv . 

219 (24) "^Ev ert /xot K€(f)dXaLov UTroAetVerat row Kard 
rrjv dpxrjv rrporedivrcov rod Xoyov, rds Sua^oXds /cat 

° Josephus perhaps owes his knowledge of these names to 
second-hand information, whether written (Alexander 
Polyhistor or Nicolas of Damascus), or orally supplied by 
literary friends in Rome. Reinach thinks they are all 
derived from Alexander Polyhistor. This is probable in the 
case of the two first named. Theodotus (if the author of a 
hexameter poem on Sichem and the story of Dinah is meant) 



our borders, has nowhere mentioned us in his history. 
So widely different were the views of these two men. 
One thought us deserving of serious notice ; the eyes 
of the other, through an ill-natured disposition, were 
totally blind to the truth. However, our antiquity 
is sufficiently established by the Egyptian, Chaldaean, 
and Phoenician records, not to mention the numerous 
Greek historians. In addition to those already 
cited, Theophilus, Theodotus, Mnaseas, Aristophanes, 
Hermogenes, Euhemerus, Conon, Zopyrion,* and, 
may be, many more — for my reading has not been 
exhaustive — have made more than a passing allusion 
to us. The majority of these authors have mis- 
represented the facts of our primitive history, because 
they have not read our sacred books ; but all concur 
in testifying to our antiquity, and that is the point 
with which I am at present concerned. Demetrius 
Phalereus,^ the elder Philo, and Eupolemus^ are 
exceptional in their approximation to the truth, and 
[their errors] may be excused on the ground of their 
inability to follow quite accurately the meaning of 
our records. 

(24) I have still to deal with one of the topics pro- 
posed at the beginning of this work,'^ namely, to 

was probably a Samaritan. Mnaseas is mentioned again in 
Ap. ii. 112 and A. i. 94. Aristophanes may be the famous 
Alexandrian librarian. Euhemerus is celebrated for his 
rationalistic explanation of Greek mythology. 

^ c. 345-283 B.C. ; an Attic orator and afterwards librarian 
at Alexandria under Ptolemy I, credited by pseudo-Aristeas 
and Josephus {Ap. ii. 46) with having been instrumental in 
obtaining a Greek version of the Pentateuch. But he is here 
probably confused with another Demetrius, a Jewish historian. 

" Jewish writers on Biblical subjects of the second cent. 
B.C. ; " the elder Philo " an epic poet, Eupolemus a historian. 

M§ 4 f. 



ras XoiSoptag, alg Kexprjvrai, nveg Kara rod yivovs 
rjfjicov, aTTodel^aL ipevdeTs, /cat rols yeypacjioai 

220 ravras KaS" iavrojv ;Yp7Jcracr^at fxaprvGLV. on fikv 
ovv Koi iripois rovro ttoAAoZ? orvfJL^€^r]K€ Sta ttjv 
eviow SvapLeveiav, olfiai yiyvojGKeLV rovs TrXeov 
rats' iGTopiais evTvy)(avovTas . koi yap idvwp 
nve? Kal tow ivSo^ordrajv ttoAcojv pVTraiveiv ttjv 
€vyev€iav koi ra? TToXireias erre'X^eipriGav Xoihopelv, 

221 QeoTTOfJLTTOS fJi€v TTjV WdrjvaLOJV , rrjv Se \aK€dai- 
fjLOVLOJV HoXyKparTj?, 6 8e rov TpiTroXiTLKOV ypdi/jag, 
ov yap 07] QeoTTOjJbTTos ecmv ojg olovrai ruves, Kai 
TTjV Qrjj^aLOJV TToXiv TrpoGeSaKev,^ ttoXXol he Kal 
TipbaLos €v rals LGTopiaLg rrepl rcov TrpoeLprjpLevajv 

222 Kal Trepl d/\Xojv ^€^XaG(f)T]pLr]Kev . pbdXLcrra 8e rovro 
TTOiovGL rols ivSo^ordroLS TrpoGTrXeKopievoi, nves /xev 
Sta (f)96vov Kal KaKOTjOeiav, dXXoL de Std rod Kaivo- 
Xoyelv' pLvrjpLTjg d^LOj6rjG€G6aL vopLiLovre?. Trapd p.kv 
ovv rols dvorjTOLg ravr-qs ov SiapbaprdvovGL ttjs 
iXTTidog, ol d vyLaivovres rfj KpiGei ttoXXtjv avrtov 
lio)(drjpiav KarahiKdtovGi. 

223 (25) Toiy S els 'QfJid? ^XaG(f)r]pLLOjv TJp^avro pL€v Al- 
yvTTTLOL' ^ovX6pL€voL 8' €K€ivoi£ Tives y^apiteGOai 
77aparp€77€iv iTrex^^P'^fyj-v rrjV dXrjdetav, ovre rrjv 
€iV Atyvrrrov d(f)L^LV ojs eyevero row ruxeripojv 
rrpoyovow ojioXoyovvres, ovre rrjv e^ohov 0X1)- 

224 devovre?. air lag de TToAAds" eXa^ov rov pLLGelv 

^ So, •with Xaber, I conjecture, from the Lat. momordit : 
TrpoaeXa^ev L. 

^ Dind. : Kevo\oyelv L. 

" Of Chios, c. 378-300, pupil of Isocrates and an acri- 
monious historian. 


AGAINST APION, I. 219-224 
expose the fictitious nature of the accusations and (iii.)Caium- 

, 1 , • , . uies of the 

aspersions cast by certain persons upon our nation, anti- 
and to convict the authors of them out of their own Semites. 
mouths. That many others have, through the Similar 
animosity of individuals, met with the same fate, is q^ oth^^ 
a fact of which, I imagine, all habitual readers of nations. 
history are aware. Various authors have attempted 
to sully the reputation of nations and of the most 
illustrious cities, and to revile their forms of govern- 
ment. Theopompus " attacked Athens, Polycrates ^ 
Lacedaemon ; the author of the Tripoliticus ^ 
(who was certainly not, as some suppose, Theo- 
pompus) included Thebes in his strictures ; Timaeus ^ 
in his histories freely abused these and other states 
besides. These critics are most virulent in their 
attacks on persons of the highest celebrity, some out 
of envy and spite, others in the belief that the novelty 
of their language will procure them notoriety. In 
this expectation they find fools who do not disappoint 
them ; by men of sound judgement their depravity 
is severely condemned. 

(25) The libels upon us originated with the The 
Egyptians. To gratify them, certain authors under- tifg^origi^^- 
took to distort the facts ; they misrepresented the ators of 
circumstances of the entry of our ancestors into calumnies. 
Egypt, and gave an equally false account of their ^f^^jj.^""* ^*^'^ 
departure. The Egyptians had many reasons for malignity. 

^ His Laconica is mentioned t^^ Athenaeus iv. 139 d ; doubt- 
fully identified with a fourth-century Athenian sophist. 

« The " Three states book," also called the " Three- 
headed book " {TpiKcipavos), a pamphlet attacking Athens, 
Sparta, and Thebes, put out in the name of Theopompus by 
his enemy Anaximenes of Lampsacus, who so successfully 
imitated the style of Theopompus as to bring the latter into 
universal odium (Pausan. vi. 18. 3). 

<* Nicknamed 'ETTLTifxaios, " fault-finder"; cf. § 16 note. 



Kal (fiOovelv, TO fiev i^ ^PX^^ ^"^^ Kara rr]V ■)(a)pav 
avTow iSwdarevaav rjfjicov ol TrpoyovoL KaKeWev 
aTToXXayevres ^ttI rrjv oiKeiav rrdXiv evSaifiovqcrav. 
et^' rj roijrcov^ VTrevavnor-qs ttoXXtjv avrols ev- 
6TroLr]G€V €)(dpav, roGovrov rrjs rjfMerepas Sta^epou- 
crrj? evae^elas rrpos rrjv vri" eKecvcDV vevopLLGfievrjv, 

225 ocrov deov (f)VOL5 ^cpcov dXoycov SueGrrjKe. kolvov 
pLEV ydp avrols ian Trdrpiov to Tavra deovg vopiiteiv, 
Ihia he rrpos dXXriXovs eV toIs TLj^ials avrow Sta- 
(^epovrai. Kov(j)oi Se koI dvorjTOi TravTaTTacnv dv- 
dpajTTOiy KaKOJS i^ ^PXV^ eldiap^ivoi So^d^euv rrepi 
Oecov, p^ipLrjaaadaL puev ttjv aepivoTr^Ta tt^s rjpL€Tepa£ 
deoXoyias ovk ixcop'Tjcrav, opcovTes Se l,rjXovpL€vovs 

226 VTTO TToXXojv i(/)d6v7]<jav . elg togovtov ydp rjXdov 
avoias Kai pLiKpoijjvx^ias evioi tojv Trap* avTols, ojgt 
ovhk TOA.S dpxcLiciis avTOjv dvaypa(j)als ojKvqGav 
evavria XeyeLv, dXXd Kal GcjiiGiv avTols ivavTLa ypd- 

(f)OVT€S' VTTO TV(j)X6Tlf]T0£ TOV TlddoVS TjyVO'qGaV. 

227 (26) Ec^ ivo? Se TrpojTov crrT^aoj tov Xoyov, ch /cat 

pbdpTVpL pLLKpOV €pL7TpOGdeV TTjS dp)(ai6Tr]TO£ ^XPV' 

228 GapL-qv. 6 ydp ^^laveOws ovtos, d ttjv AlyvTTTLaKrjv 
LGTopiav €K TOJV lepdw ypajJipidTOJV pLedepp.'qi'eveLV 

VTr€G)(^7]l-('€V0S, TTpoeLTTOJV TOV£ rjpL€T€pOVS TTpoyOVOVS 

TToXXals p^vpidGLv irrl ttjv AtyvTZTOv iXdovTas 
KpaTrjGai tojv evoLKOvvrow, elr avTOs 6p.oXoydjv 
Xpovqj TTaXiv VGTepov eKTreGovTas ttjv vvv 'Iou- 
oaiav KaTaGX^-lv Kal KTLGavTas 'lepoGoXvpLa tov 
V€(1)V KaTaGKevdGaGdai, p^expt p^kv tovtojv tjkoXov- 

^ TovTcov L Lat. : tQv lep(bv Spanheim. 

** i.e. in the time of the patriarch Joseph. Josephus 

AGAINST APION, I. 224-228 

their hatred and envy. There was the original 
grievance of the domination of our ancestors over 
their country," and their renewed prosperity when 
they had left it and returned to their own land. 
Again, the profound contrast betw^een the two cults ^ 
created bitter animosity, since our religion is as far 
removed from that which is in vogue among them as 
is the nature of God from that of irrational beasts. 
For it is their national custom to regard animals as 
gods, and this custom is universal, although there are 
local differences in the honours paid to them.^ These 
frivolous and utterly senseless specimens of humanity, 
accustomed from the first to erroneous ideas about 
the gods, were incapable of imitating the solemnity 
of our theology, and the sight of our numerous 
admirers filled them with envy. Some of them 
carried their folly and narrow-mindedness so far that 
they did not hesitate to contradict their ancient 
chronicles, nay, in the blindness of their passion, they 
failed to perceive that in what they wrote they 
actually contradicted themselves. 

(26) The first writer, on whom I propose to dwell (i.)Cainm- 
at some length, is one whose evidence has already JJInetho 
served me a little way back ^ to prove our antiquity — 
I mean Manetho. This author, having promised to 
translate the history of Egypt from the sacred books, 
begins by stating that our ancestors entered Egypt 
in their myriads and subdued the inhabitants, and 
goes on to admit that they were afterwards driven 
out of the country, occupied what is now Judaea, 
founded Jerusalem, and built the temple. So far 

apparently identifies the Hyesos with the ancestors of the 
Jews (§ 103). 6 Or " nations." 

*' Cf. e.g. Juvenal, 8at. xv., and Af. ii. ^b below. 

** § 73. 



229 9r]G€ rats avaypacfials. eVetra 8e Sovg e^ovGiav 
avroj hia rod cfiavau ypaxpeiv ra /xu^euo/xeva /cat 
Xeyofieva Trepl row ''lovSaicDV Xoyovs aTTiddvovg 
Trapeve^aXev, ava/xt^at ^ovXopb^vos rjfJLlv ttXtjOos 
ALyvTTTLOJv Xerrpow ko.1 irrl a'AAot? appojoTrjp.aGiV , 
CO? (f)rj(n, (^vyelv eV ttjs XlyvTrrov Karayvojudlvrajv . 

230 A}jL€vaj(f)iV yap /3acrtAea rrpoadel,?, ipevSe? 6vop.a, 
Kol 8ta Tovro XP^^^^ avrov rrjs /SacrtAeta? optcrat 
jLti) roXfJL-qcra?, KacTOL ye IttI row a'AAcoy ^aGuXecov 
aKpL^ojg ra err] TrpocmdeL?, ro-urqj TTpoadrrreL 
TLvd? pLvOoXoyias, emXaBojievog g^^^ov on rrev- 
raKOGLOLS ereGL Kai deKaoKroj rrporepov iGroprjKe 
yeveGOai rrjv row rroiiievow e^ohov els 'lepoGoXvfJia. 

231 TeO/JLOJGis ydp Tjv fiaGiXevs ore e^QeGav, drro he 
roTjrov row jJLera^v^ ^aGiXeojv Kar* avrov eart 
rpiaKOGia evevrjKOvrarpia err] P^^XP^ "^^^ ^^^ 
aheX(f)ow HeOoj /cat 'Ep/xatou, ow rov p.ev HeOojv 
Atyvrrrov, rov 8e "Kppiaiov Aavaov p^erovopua- 
Gdrjvai (j)-qGiv, ov eKJ^aXdw 6 ^edojs e^aGiXevGev 
err] v9' /cat pier avrov 6 TrpeG^vrepos ro)V vlojv 

232 av70V Papupr]? ^^' . roGovrois ovv rrporepov ereGiv 
aTTeXdelv e^ AlyvTrrov rovs Trarepas r]piow co/xo- 
Xoyr]K<h9 elra rov ^ Afievoj^LV elGTTOL-qGas epL^oXtpiov 

^ TOVTOV TU}v /xera^v (after Lat.) Xiese : tovtuv fxera^v tQv L. 

" Cf. " the boil of Egypt " (perhaps elephantiasis), Deut. 
xxviii. 27. 

^ Lit. " adding." 

" Josephus's criticism is unreasonable. Manetho clearly 
distinguished between two expulsions from Egypt: (1) that 
of the Hycsos who founded Jerusalem (§ 85-90); (2) that of 
the lepers, etc., under Osarsiph ( — Moses) who, with the 
descendants of the Hycsos, returned and overran the country 


AGAINST APION, I. 229-232 

he followed the chronicles ; but at this point, under 
the pretext of recording fables and current reports 
about the Jews, he took the liberty of introducing 
some incredible tales, wishing to represent us as 
mixed up with a crowd of Egyptian lepers and others, on the 
who for various maladies ^ were condemned, as he 'Egypt. ^°™ 
asserts, to banishment from the country. Inventing ^ 
a king named Amenophis, an imaginary person, the story of 
date of whose reign he consequently did not venture ^Xth?^^^ 
to fix (although he adds the exact years of the other lepers. 
kings whom he mentions), he attaches to him certain 
legends, having presumably forgotten that he has 
already stated that the departure of the shepherds 
for Jerusalem took place 518 years previously.^ For 
it was in the reign of Tethmosis ^ that they left, and, 
according to Manetho, the succeeding reigns covered 
a period of 393 years ^ down to the two brothers, 
Sethos and Hermaeus,^ the former of whom, he says, 
took the name of Aegyptus and the latter that of 
Danaus.^ Sethos, after expelling Hermaeus, reigned 
fifty-nine years, and his eldest son Rampses, who 
succeeded him, sixty-six. Thus after admitting that 
all those years had elapsed since our forefathers left 
Egypt, he now interpolates this fictitious Amenophis. 

(§ 232-250). The identification of the Amenophis under whom 
the second expulsion took place is doubtful, but Josephus 
is not justified in calling him "an imaginary person." 
Manetho has already mentioned three kings of that name 
(§ 95-97). Josephus, notwithstanding his criticism, clearly, 
by his calculation of an interval of 518 years ( = 393 + 59 + 66, 
§ 231 f.), identified him with a later Amenophis IV. This, 
according to most commentators, was also the identification 
of Manetho. Reinach, however, gives reasons to show that 
Manetho identified him with Amenophis III (§ 97). 

** § 94 ; =Thoummosis, § 88. « Cf. § 103. 

f Called Harmais §§ 98 ff. '^ § 102. 

VOL. I s 257 


jSacrtAea (f)rjGL rovrov imdvfJLTJGaL Oeow yeveaOai 
deari^v, ojonep ^^Q.p els row rrpo avrov j^e^aaiXev- 
Korojv, aveveyKelv he rrjv eTndvfJLiav ofJLCJvvfJLCp 
fjiev avro) ^A.fJL€VOJ(f)eL, Trarpos 8e rTaaTrtos"^ ovri, 
Oelas Se SoKovvn fjLerecrx'rjKevai (f)VGeoj9 Kara re 

233 ao(f)Lav Kal rrpoyvcDcrLV row iGOfievojv. eiTrelv ovv 
avroj rovrov rov opLwvvjjLov on SvvrjaeraL 9eovs 
IhelVf el KaOapav drro re XeTrpcov Kal rcvv aXXcov 
fjLLapojv avdpojTTCov rrjV ')(^ojpav aTrauav TTOi-qoeiev . 

234 rjadevra he rov ^aortXea Trdvras rov? rd ocLfiara 
XeXcjD^-qjjLevovs Ik rrjs AlyvTrrov avvayayelv yeve- 

235 adai he ro TrXrjdog' pLvpidhas OKroj' /cat rovrovg ei9 
rag Xidorofilag rd? ev roj rrpo? dvaroXrjV /xepei 
rov XetAou ifijjaXelv avrov, drroj? epyd^oLvro Kau 
rojv dXXow A.lyv7TriciJv elev KexojpLO'jjievoL.^ elvai he 
rivas ev avrols Kal row Xoyiow lepeow Srjal XeTrpa 

236 avvexopievovg.^ rov he ^ Apievojcfyiv eKelvov, rov 
(J0(f)6v Kal jiavriKov dvhpa, VTrohelGaC rrpos avrov 
re Kal rov ^acrtAea x^Xov rdJv 9ed)v, el ^lauOevres 
o(f)di]GovraL' Kal TrpoGSefievov elireZv on avpipiaxT]- 
Govo'i nves rols jjnapols Kal rijg Alyvirrov Kpa- 
rrjoovGLv eV er-q heKarpla, pLTj roXprjaau fxev 
avrov eiTTelv ravra roj (SaGiXel, ypa(j)rjv he Kara- 
Xirrovra rrepl rrdvrojv eavrov dveXelv, ev dOvpLiO. 

237 he elvai rov ^aCTtAe'a. Karreira Kard Xe^iv ovrojs 
yeypa(j>ev' " row h ev rals Xarop^iais ojs ;^poyos" 

^ ed. pr. {of. § -243) : Udinos L. 

^ Xiese (after Lat.) : rod irX-qdovs L. 

^ elev Kex- (with Hohverda) : oi eyKex(jpt(r/j.evoi L. 

^ Dindorf : crvyKexvaevovs L. 

° Dind. : inrodelo-dai L. 

'^ Orus, ninth king of the XVIIIth Dynasty (§ 96) ; 

AGAINST APION, I. 232-237 

This king, he states, wishing to be granted, like 
Or,* one of his predecessors on the throne, a vision 
of the gods, communicated his desire to his name- 
sake, Amenophis, son of Paapis,^ whose wisdom 
and knowledge of the fiitm-e were regarded as 
marks of divinity. This namesake replied that he 
would be able to see the gods if lie purged the 
entire country of lepers and other polluted persons. 
Delighted at hearing this, the king collected all the 
maimed people in Egypt, numbering 80,000, and 
sent them to work in the stone-quarries ^ on the 
east of the Nile, segregated from the rest of the 
Egyptians. They included, he adds, some of the 
learned priests, who were afflicted with leprosy. 
Then this wise seer Amenophis was seized with a 
fear that he would draw down the wrath of the 
gods on himself and the king if the violence done 
to these men were detected ; and he added a pre- 
diction that the polluted people would find certain 
allies who would become masters of Egypt for 
thirteen years. He did not venture to tell this 
himself to the king, but left a complete statement 
in writing, and then put an end to himself. The 
king was greatly disheartened. 

Then Manetho proceeds (I quote his actual words) : 

" When the men in the stone-quarries had con- 
probably confused with the god Horus. Herodotus (ii. 42) 
tells a similar story of Heracles in Egypt desiring a vision 
of the Theban Zeus (Amun). 

^ Apparently a historical person, viz. Amenothes (or 
Amenophis), son of Hapi, minister of Amenophis HI, whose 
statue with an inscription was discovered by Mariette 
(Maspero, Hist, ancienne, 1897, ii. 299, 448 ; quoted by 

" Cf. Herod, ii. 8. 



tVavo? hirjXBev raXaLTTOjpovvrojv, d^LOjOels 6 paui- 
Xev? Lva rrpos KardXvcnv avrols /cat GKeTTTjv airo- 
jiepiarj rr]v rore row TTOifJuevaJv ipr]ficod€lGav ttoXlv 
AvapLV (7vvexojpr]G€V €(jtl 8' tj ttoXl? {Kara rrjV 

238 OeoXoylav dvojdev) Tv(f)owLO£. ol he €ls ravrrjv 
elaeXdovres koI tov rorrov rovrov €ls aTTOcrracnv 
€XovT€?, -qyefJLOva avrow Xeyofxevov Tiva rcJov 
'HXlottoXltow Leplojv 'Oaapcrt^oy iarrjuavro Kai 
rovTOJ 7Tei6ap)(ri<yovTes^ ev TraGiv ojpKcof.wr'qcjav. 

239 o 8e rrpcoTOV jiev avrols vofJLOv eOero [jL-qre rrpoa- 
Kvvelv Beoijs pL-qre rujv fidXiara iv AlyvTrro) 
dejjLLcrrevoiJ.evojv lepojv t^cocov dTrix^eudai jJLTjhevog, 
rrdvra he dveuv /cat dvaXovv, GwaTrrecrOaL he 

240 pirjdevL ttXtjv row crvvcojjiocrjjievcov . roiavra he 
vopioder-qcras Koi TrXelura d'AAa /xaAtcrra rols 
AlyvTTrioLS e^ta/xots" evavnovfjieva eKeXevaev ttoXv- 
Xetpla rd rrjs rroXecog eTTiGKevdteiv relxf] /cat vpos 
TToXefJLOV eroLjjiovs yiveaOaL rov Trpos Afjievoj(f)LV rov 

241 ^acrtAea. avrds he TrpoaXa^ofievog fieO^ iavrov 
/cat row dXXow lepeojv /cat of/x/xe/xta/x/xe^'ajv eVe/xi/fe 
Trpea^ei? Trpo? rov? vrro TeBpLOJCjeojs drreXaudevras 
TTOLfJievag els ttoXlv rrjv KaXovfiev-qv ^lepoGoXvfxa, 
/cat rd KaO" eavrdv /cat rov? aAAous- rovs gvv- 
arLfiacrdevra? hrjXojcra? tj^lov GwemGrpareveiv ojjlo- 

242 Ovp.ahov err" Xlyvirrov . errd^eiv' jiev ovv avrovg 
eTTrjyyeiXaro Trpcorov fiev et? Avapiv rrjV TrpoyovLK-qv 
avrow TTarpiha /cat rd eTTinqheia rols oxXols 
rrape^eiv d<^66vo}?, VTrepfJLaxrjcreGdai he ore heoi 
/cat pahiojg vttox^^P^ov avrols r-qv x^P^^ TTonjorciv. 

^ ed. pr. : -rjcraPTes L. ^ ewavateLv Cobet, 


AGAINST APION, I. 237-242 

tinued long in misery, the king acceded to their 
request to assign them for habitation and protec- 
tion the abandoned city of the shepherds, called 
Auaris, and according to an ancient theological 
tradition dedicated to Typhon.^^ Thither they 
went, and, having now a place to serve as a base 
for revolt, they appointed as their leader one of the 
priests of Heliopolis called Osarsiph,^ and swore 
to obey all his orders. By his first law he ordained 
that they should not worship the gods nor abstain 
from the flesh of any of the animals held in special 
reverence in Egypt, but should kill and consume 
them all, and that they should have no connexion 
with 'any save members of their own confederacy. 
After laying down these and a multitude of other 
laws, absolutely opposed to Egyptian custom, he 
ordered all Jiands to repair the city walls and make 
ready for war with King Amenophis. Then, in 
concert with other priests and polluted persons 
like himself, he sent an embassy to the shepherds, 
who had been expelled by Tethmosis, in the city 
called Jerusalem, setting out the position of him- 
self and his outraged companions, and inviting 
them to join in a united expedition against Egypt. 
He undertook to escort them first to their ancestral 
home at Auaris, to provide abundant supplies for 
their multitudes, to fight for them when the 
moment came, and without difficulty to reduce the 
country to submission. The shepherds, delighted 

« Cf. §§ 78, 86. 

^ Although Osarsiph plays the part of, and is identified 
with, Moses (§ 250), the name, as Reinach suggests, looks 
like a transformation of Joseph, the Egyptian Osiris being 
substituted for the first syllable, incorrectly regarded as 
derived from the Hebrew Jah. 



243 OL Se v7T€p)(apeis yevoixevoi rravres 7TpodiJ{JiOJS 
etV k' ixvpidhas avhpojv ovve^coppur^aav Kal /.ler' 
ov TToXv TjKov €is AvapLV . ApbevojcfyLS 8' o ra)V 
XlyvTTTiow ^acTtAeus" 0->S errvOero ra Kara ttjv 
€K6iV0w €(f)o8ov, OV pL€Tpi(jJS GVV€)(yd'q rTjS TrapoL 
Wfjievaxpeojs rod naa77tos" pLvqudels TTpohrjXwGecos ' 

244 Kal rrporepov uvvayayow ttXtjOos AlyvTrricnv Kal 
^ovXevoajievog piera row ev rovrotg rjyepLovcov ra 
re Upa Lcoa ra rrpaJra / jiaXiGra ev rols lepolg 
ripbo'jpieva ojs iavrov' pier err epufjaro Kat rols Kara 
pL€pos lepevGi Trapi'iyyeXXev wg aG<l)aXeorara rd)V 

245 Oeojv GvyKpyifsai ra ^oava. rov he vlov HeOcov, 
rov Kal 'PapLeGGTiv drro 'Paiprjov? rod rrarpos 
(jjvop.aGp.evov, rrevraer'q ovra e^eOero rrpos rov 
iavrov c^iXov. avros Se hia^ds <gvv> rols 
a.XXois XlyvTTrioLs , ovglv els rpiaKovra pLvpudSas 
dvbpojv iia'x^Lfiojrarojv , /cat rols rroXepiioLS drr- 

246 avrrjGas^' ov GVve^aXev, dXXd pbeXXetv^ deojia-x^elv 
vopiLGas TTaXivhpopLTjGas TjKev els M€/X(^ty, dvaXa^cov 
re rov re 'Attlv Kal ra dXXa rd eKelGe pLerarrepL- 
cf)9evra lepd ^cpa evdvs els AldiorrLav gvv aTravrt ro) 
GroXoj Kal TTXrjOei rd)v Alyvrrriajv dvrj)(9-q' -)(^dpiri 
ydp Tjv avro) vnox^lpLos 6 rcov AWlottwv ^aGiXevs- 

247 os'' VTTohe^dpievos Kal rovs o^Xovs irdvras VTToXa^Bojv 
ols eGX^v rj X^P^ '^^^ 'rrpds dvdpwTTLvrjv rpo(f)rjv 
eTTirTjheiojv, Kal rroXeis Kal Kojpias rrpos rrjv row 
TTerrpajpLevajv rpiOKaibeKa erow arro rrjs apx^js 
avrov^ eKTTrojGiv avrdpKeis, ovx rjrrov 8e Kal 

^ Ora. Lat. - Xiese: cjs ye avrbv L. 

^ Xiese (after Lat.): a-rravT-qaaaiv \^. 

* fiT] be2v (of. % 263) Herwerden. 

° Xiese (after Lat.) : odev L. 

^ -r eis Tr]v L ; a verb such as Trapecrx^f is desiderated. 


AGAINST APION, I. 243-247 

with the idea, all eagerly set off in a body number- 
ing 200,000 men, and soon reached Auaris. 

" The news of their invasion sorely perturbed 
Amenophis, king of Egypt, who recalled the pre- 
diction of Amenophis, son of Paapis. He began 
by assembling the Egyptians, and, after delibera- 
tion with their chiefs, sent for the sacred animals 
which were held in most reverence in the temples, 
and instructed the priests in each district to conceal 
the images of the gods as securely as possible. 
His five-year-old son Sethos, also called Ramesses 
after his grandfather Ra(m)pses," he entrusted to 
the care of a ^ friend. He then crossed [the Nile, 
with] 300,000 of the most efficient warriors of 
Egypt and met the enemy. Instead, however, of 
engaging them, he, under the belief that he was 
about to fight against the gods, turned back and 
repaired to Memphis. There he picked up Apis 
and the other sacred animals which he had ordered 
to be brought thither, and at once, with all his 
army and the Egyptian population, started up 
country for Ethiopia, whose king was under obliga- 
tion to him and at his service. The latter made 
him welcome and maintained the whole multitude 
with all the products of the country suitable for 
human consumption, assigned them cities and 
villages sufficient for the destined period of thirteen 
years' banishment from the realm, and moreover <' 

" The genealogy here given supports R,einach's opinion 
that the King Amenophis of this story (according to 
Josephus an imaginarv person, § 230) = Amenophis III 
(c/. § 97). 

^ Literally, " his " ; (?) the king of Ethiopia named later. 

<> Or " above all." 



crrparoTTeSov AWlottlkov Trpos (jivXaKTjV eTrira^e 
Tols 77ap' WfJL€voj(f)€OJS rov j^aaiXeojs €7tl rujv 

248 oplojv rrj? AlyvTrrov. koI ra fjiev Kara ttjv AWlo- 
rriav Toiavra' ol he ZoAu/ztrat KareXOovreg avv 
Tols fjLLapols tG)V AiyviTTiojv ovTOJS avoGLOjg^ rolg 
avOpojTTOis TTpocrrjvexOrjGav, c5crr€ tt^v rcvv Trpoeiprj- 
jjLevojv KpdrrjGLV ;!^pucrov ^atVecr^at rots' rore ra 

249 Tovrujv dcre^T^/xara OeajpidvoL?' /cat yap ov p.ovov 
TToXeis Kal Kcjpias ivdirprjaav, ouSe UpoavXovvre? 
ovhe XvfJLaLvojjbevoL ^oava deojv rjpKovvro, aAAa /cat 
rot? aSvroLS^ orrravLOis rcov ue^aarevop^evcov Upojv 
^cpcov )(pcjL)iJL€V0L hieriXovv , Kal dvras Kal cri^ayct? 
roTJTOJV Upels Kal 7Tpo(f)rjras rjvdyKa^ov yiveadat 

250 Kal yvjjivovg i^e^aXXov. Aeyerat be on <6> ttjv 
TToXirelav Kal rovg v6p.ovs avrols Kara^aXopievos 
lepevs TO yevog 'HXiOTToXir-q? ovopua 'Ocrapo"t^ 
CLTTO rod iv 'HAtouTToAet deov Ocrtpecos", cv? pi€r- 
e^-q €ts" rovro ro yivos, puerered-q rovvopia /cat 
Trpocrqyopevdrj ^^Iwvcri]?." 

251 (27) "^A /xev ovv AlyvTrrLOL (jiipovuL Trepl rwv 'lou- 
Saiojv raur' iorrl Kal erepa TrXelova, a 7Tapi.7]pLL 
Gvvroplag eVc/ca. Xiyei he 6 ^laveOojs ttolXlv on 
pLerd ravra eTrrjXOev 6 'A/xeVa>(/)ts' d-iro AWiOTTLas 
pberd pLeydXrjS hvvdpLecos Kal 6 vlog avrov 'Pdpujjrjg, 
/cat avros €)(OJV h'uvapLLv, Kal crup^^aXovres ol 3uo 
rots' Trot/xeVt /cat rots' paapol? eviK-qaav avrovs Kal 
TToXXovs aTTOKreivavres ehioj^av avrovs dxpi tcov 

252 opiojv rrjs Hvplas. ravra p.ev Kal ra roiavra 
Slaved ojs uvveypaipev' on he Xiqpel Kal ipevher ai 

^ + Kal L. 2 Bekker : avroh L. 


AGAINST APION, I. 247-252 

stationed an Ethiopian army on the Egyptian 
frontier to protect King Amenophis and his 

" Such was the condition of affairs in Ethiopia. 
Meanwhile the Solymites ^ came down ^ with the 
polluted Egyptians, and treated the inhabitants in 
so sacrilegious a manner that the regime of the 
shepherds seemed like a golden age ^ to those who 
now beheld the impieties of their present enemies. 
Not only did they set cities and villages on fire, 
not only did they pillage the temples and mutilate 
the images of the gods, but, not content with that, 
they habitually used the very sanctuaries as 
kitchens for roasting the venerated sacred animals, 
and forced the priests and prophets to slaughter 
them and cut their throats, and then turned them 
out naked. It is said that the priest who gave 
them a constitution and code of laws was a native 
of Heliopolis, named Osarsiph ^ after the Helio- 
politan god Osiris, and that when he went over to 
this people he changed his name and was called 

(27) Such and much more, which, for brevity's 
sake, I omit, is Egyptian gossip about the Jews. 
Manetho adds that Amenophis subsequently 
advanced from Ethiopia with a large army, his son 
Rampses at the head of another, and that the two 
attacked and defeated the shepherds and their 
polluted allies, killing many of them and pursuing 
the remainder to the frontiers of Syria. That, w4th 
more of a similar kind, is Manetho's account. Before 

" i.e. the inhabitants of Hierosolyma (§ 241) ; cf. §§ 173 f. 
with note. 

^ Or " back." c Literally, " gold." ^ Cf. § 238. 



7T€pi(f)ava)s imSeL^cxj, TrpohiacneiXdixevos eKelvo rcov 
varepov rrpos dXXovs^ Xe)(6rjGoixiv(ji>v ev€Ka. SeSojKe 
yap ovros 'qpLlv kol chjJboXoyrjKev i^ ^PX^^ '^^^ P'V 
elvai ro yivos A.lyv7TTiovs , dAA' avrovs e^coOev 
eTTeXdovrag Kparrjuai rrjg AlyvTrrov Kal TrdXiv i^ 

253 avrfjg aTreXdelv. on §' ovk dvejjLLxOrjGav rjiJbiV 
VGTepov TOW AlyvTTTLOjp OL TO, CTOj^ara XeXoj^rj- 
{jbdvoL, Kal on e/c tovtcxjv ovk tjv }s[a>varJ£ 6 rov 
Xaov dyaycoVy dXXd noXXal? iyeyovei yevealg 
TTporepoVy ravra TTeipduojiai hid tojv vtt avrov 
XeyojJievajv iX€y)(^€LV. 

254 (28) Upcor-qv Sr^ Tv)y alriav rod TrXdafiaros vtto- 
nOerai KarayeXaurov . 6 ^acnXevg ydp, cf)rjaLV, 
^ A.pL€VOj<j>is eTTedvpLTjcre rov? Oeovs Ihelv. ttoIovs ; 
€L /jL€v rovg Trap* avrols vevojjLoderrjjjbevovg , rov 
^ovv Kal rpdyov Kal KpoKoheiXov? Kal KvvoK€(f)d- 

255 Aous", iojpa. rovs ovpaviovs Se ttco? iSvvaro ; Kal 
Sta Tt ravrrjv €cr;(e rrjv eTTiOvjJiiav ; on vrj Ata 
/cat TTporepos avrov ^auiXevs dXXog eojpaKet. 
Trap €K€Lvov roLvvv i7T€7TV(jro TTorarroi nveg etcrt 
Kai Ttva rpoTTov avrovs elhev, ojcxre KaLvrjg avrco 

256 'T'e^VT]? OVK e8et. dAAa goSos 7)v 6 jjidvng 8t' ov 
rovro KaropOojoeiv 6 ^aGiXevs VTreXdii^ave . Kai 
rrojs ov Trpoeyvoj ro dhvvarov avrov rrj? iTnOvfJua? ; 
ov yap dTTe^T). riva he Kal Xoyov el-)(e hid rovs 
rjKpojrr]pia(jpi€vov£ tj Xerrpowra? a<f)av€l? elvau 
rovs Oeovs ; opyitovr ai ydp IttI rols doe^r^piaGiv y 

257 OVK €7TL rolg eXarrdjjxaai rcov Gojparojv . OKroj 

^ Xiese : a.\\r]\ovs L. - Xiese : re L. 

" Literally, " (ves,) by Zeus." This common Greek phrase, 


AGAINST APION, I. 252-257 

proceeding to show tlie manifest absurdity and un- 
truthfulness of his statements, I will make one pre- 
hminary observation, which bears on the replies to 
be made later on to other authors. Manetho has 
granted us one fact. He has admitted that our race 
was not of Egyptian origin, but came into Egypt 
from elsewhere, conquered it, and afterwards left it. 
The further facts that we w^ere not, in the sequel, 
mixed up with Egyptian cripples, and that Moses, the 
leader of our people, so far from being one of them, 
lived many generations earlier, I shall now endeavour 
to prove from Manetho 's own statements. 

(28) At the outset, the very hypothesis of his Criticism 
fictitious story is ridiculous. King Amenophis, he Manetho's 
says, desired to see the ffods. What ffods ? If those ■'^twy. its 
established by their law are intended — bull, goat, absurditiei 
crocodiles, and dog-faced baboons — he saw them 
already. Or the celestial gods — how could he have 
seen them ? And why had he this passionate desire ? 
Because, forsooth," another king ^ before him had 
seen them. He had ^ therefore learnt from his pre- 
decessor what they were like and how he saw them ; 
consequrcntly no new method of procedure was re- 
quired. Again, the seer, by whose help the king 
hoped to achieve his end, was a sage. How was it 
then that he failed to foresee the impossibility of 
attaining it ? For it was not realized. And what 
ground w^as there for attributing the invisibility of 
the gods to the presence of mutilated persons or 
lepers ? Impiety excites their wrath, not physical 
deformities. Then, how could 80,000 lepers and 

which sounds strange in a Jewish work, recurs (according 
to the restored text) in A]}, ii. 263. ^ Or (§ 232). 

" Possibly we should insert &v, " would therefore have 



d€ ixvptdhas rojv Xerrpojv kol KaKoJs SiaKret^cVcov 
TTcDs" olov re /xta G)(€h6v rjfjbepa ovXXeyrjvai ; ttujs 
Se TTaprjKovcrev rod /xavreojs" o j^aoiXevs ; 6 pikv 
yap avrov eKeXevoev i^oplaaL rrjs XlyvTrrov rovs 
XeXoj^Tjpievovs y 6 8 avroijs els tcls XiOoro/jLias 
ive^aXev, ojuirep tow epyauop^ivajv heofxevos, dAA' 

258 o-u)(l KaOdpai ttjv )(Ojpav TrpoatpovpLevo? . (jirjcrl 
8e rov fjL€V fxavTiv avrov aveXelv rrjv opy-qv rujv 
deojv TTpoopcofjievov /cat ra Gvp.^rjo6pi€va Trepl rrjV 
K'iyvTTrov, roj Se f^acnXel yeypapLpLevqv rrjV rrpop- 

259 pr]oiv^ KaraXiTTeZv . elra ttojs ovk i^ ^PXV^ ^ 
pLavrLS rov avrov ddvarov rrporjTTLGraro ; ttojs Se 
OVK evdvs avreiTTev roj ^aoriXeX ^ovXopbevo) revs 
Oeovs Ihelv ; ttojs S' evXoyos 6 (f)6^os rojv p,rj Trap* 
avrov avpLJ^rjGopi€vojv KaKOJV ; tj ri ^elpov eSet 
rraOelv ov Spdv^ iavrov euTrevSev; 

260 To 8c 87^ TTavrojv evrjdeararov 'ISojpev. ttvOo- 
jxevos yap ravra Kal Trepl tojv pieXXovrojv ^o^-qdels 
rovs X€Xoj(3rjp.evovs eKeivovs, ojv avroj Kadapevoai 
TTpoeipr^ro rrjV K'iyvTTrov y ovhe rore rrjs pj^copa? 
i^TjXaGev y aXXd oerjOeiGiv avroZs eSojKe TToXiVy a)s 
^iqGLy r'-qv 77aAat /xey OLKTjOelGav vtto tojv TTOipievajv, 

261 AvapLv 8e KaXovp.€vrjv . €LS t^v dOpoiGdevras avrovs 
TjyepLOva (f)rjGLv e^eAea^at rojv i^ ' tiXiovTToXeoJS 
TrdXai yeyovorojv Upeojv, Kal rovrov avrols €lg- 
TjyrjGaGdai p.'Tjre deovs TTpoGKVvelv pLTjre rojv iv^ 
AlyvTTrcp dpr]GK€VopL€vojv tyOJOjv dTTe)(€G9aiy Trdvra 
he Oveiv Kal KareoOieiVy GwdTrreGdac 8e pLrjSevl 
ttXtjv rojv GvvojpLOGpLevojv y opKOLs re ro ttXtjOos 
evhiqGdpievov , tj pLrjv rovrois ep^pievelv rols vojjlols, 

^ ed. pr. : Trpoaprjcnu L. 
2 ov bpav Herwerden : ou5' av L. ^ Niese : iir' L. 


AGAINST APION, I. 257-261 

invalids be collected in practically a single day " ? 
And why did the king neglect the seer's advice ? 
The latter had bidden him banish the cripples from 
Egypt, whereas the king put them into the quarries, 
like one in need of labourers, rather than one who was 
determined to purge his country. Manetho further 
states that the seer killed himself, because he fore- 
saw the anger of the gods and the fate in store for 
Egypt, leaving to the king his prediction in writing. 
Then how was it that the seer did not divine his own 
death from the first ? Why did he not at once oppose 
the king's desire to see the gods ? Was it reasonable 
to fear misfortunes that were not to happen in his 
lifetime ? Or what worse fate could have befallen 
him than the suicide he was in such a hurry to 
commit ? 

But let us consider the most ludicrous item in the 
whole story. Notwithstanding the warning he had 
received and his dread of the future, the king even 
then did not expel from the country the cripples, of 
whose presence he had been already told to purge 
Egypt, but instead gave them at their request a city 
called Auaris, once (according to Manetho) the 
residence of the shepherds. Here, he continues, 
they assembled, and chose for their leader one w^ho 
had formerly been a priest of Heliopolis ; and by 
him were instructed not to worship the gods nor to 
abstain from the flesh of the animals reverenced in 
Egypt, but to kill and devour them all, and to have 
no connexion with any save members of their own 
confederacy. Then, after binding his followers by 
oath faithfully to abide by these laws, he fortified 

** This is not mentioned in § 334., 



Kal reiXLCFOLVTa rrjv AvapLV rrpog rov /3acrtAea 

262 TToXefJbov e^eveyKelv. kol TTpouTLdrjGLv on eTrefJupev 
el? 'lepoaoXv/JLa rrapaKaXajv eKeivovs avrols ovfjb- 
/xa;)(etv Kal hojoeiv aurot? t7]v Avaptv vmu'xyov- 
fxevos, elvai yap avrrjv rotg Ik row 'lepoCToAu/xojv 
ac^i^opLevois TrpoyovLK'qv, d(f) t)? oppbiopbevovs avTOVS 

263 TTauav ttjv AtyvTrrov Kade^eiv. elra tovs /X£V 
irreXOelv €ikogi crrparov fivpiaGi Xeyei, rov ^auiXea 
he row Alyvrrriow Wjievoj(f)Lv ovk ol6p.evov helv 
deopLax^iv eh ri-jv AlOLOTriav evdvs OLTTohpdvaL, rov 
he 'Attiv KaL rtva rojv dXXcxJV lepow Lqjojv Trapa- 
redeiKevai rolg lepevGi hiacJivXarreadaL /ceAeucravra. 

204 etra rov? ^lepoGoXvpuiras erreXOovrag rds re TToXeug 
aviuravai Kai ra lepa KaraKaieiv Kai rov? lepeas^ 
d7rou<^drreLV, oXojs re pL'qheixidg aTrex^eudai Tvapa- 

26ovopLLag p.-qhe co/ior-qrog. 6 he rrjV TToXtreiav Kai 
rovs vopiovs avrols Kara^aXopievos^ lepevg, (fyrjaiv, 
rjv ro yevos ' tiXiOTToXirr]? , ovopia 8' 'Ocrapcri<^ 
(1770 rov ev 'HAtouTToAet 6eov 'Oalpeajg, pieraOefxevo? 

266 he ^lojva7]v avrov rrpoariyopevGe. rpiuKaiheKaroj 
he (h-quiv erei rov Afxevojcjav , roGOvrov yap avro) 
Xpovov elvat rijg eKTrrojGeoJS TreTrpcupievov, e^ 
AWiOTTLas erreXdovra pLerd rroXXrjg Grpands Kai 
GViJLJ3aX6vra rolg rroipieGi Kal rolg piapolg viKrjGai 
re rfj p-d-XTI '^^^^ Kr elvat rroXXovg emhioj^avra 
pt^xpt rd)v rrjg Hvpuag opojv. 

267 (~9) 'Ev rovroig TrdXiv ov gvvltjglv dTTiddvcog ipev- 
hopLevog. ol ydp Xerrpol Kal ro puer^ avrow TrXrjOog, 
el Kal rrporepov ojpyit^ovro roj ^aGiXel Kai rolg 
ra rrepL avrovg rreTTOirjKOGi Kara re ^ rrjV rov 
pidvrecog irpoayopevGiv, dXX ore rcov XiSoropacnv 

^ Bekker : iwrreas L Lat, 

AGAINST APION, I. 261-267 

Auaris and declared war on the king. He also, adds 
Manetho, sent an invitation to the inhabitants of 
Jerusalem to make an alliance with him, promising 
them the city of Auaris, as the ancestral home of any 
recruits from Jerusalem, and as a base from which 
to become masters of the whole of Egypt. There- 
upon, he proceeds, they brought up an army of 
200,000 men, and Amenophis, king of Egypt, think- 
ing it wrong to fight against the gods, fled forthwith 
to Ethiopia, after entrusting Apis and some of the 
other sacred animals to the custody of the priests. 
The Jerusalemites then overran the country, 
destroyed the cities, burnt down the temples, 
massacred the priests, and in short indulged in every 
kind of crime and brutality. The priest who gave 
them a constitution and a code was, according to 
Manetho, a native of Heliopolis, named Osarsiph 
after the Heliopolitan god Osiris, but changed his 
name to Moses. Thirteen years later — that being 
the destined period of his exile — Amenophis, says 
our author, advanced from Ethiopia with a large 
army, attacked and defeated the shepherds and 
their polluted allies, and pursued them, with great 
slaughter, to the Syrian frontier. 

(29) Here again the author is unconscious of the 
improbability of his fictitious tale. However in- 
dignant the lepers and their horde may formerly have 
been with the king and the others who had, under 
the seer's directions, so ill-treated them, yet surely 
on emerging from the stone-quarries and being pre- 

^ ed. pr. : KaTa^aWbixevo^ L. ^ Om. Lat. 



i^TjXdov Koi ttoXlv Trap avrov Kal ^(wpav eXa^ov, 
rrdvrco?^ dv yeyoveiaav rrpaorepoi rrpos avrov. 

268 €t Se hrf KOLKelvov ipLLGOVV, Ibla jikv dv avrch^ 
irre^ovXevov, ovk dv he rrpog drravra? rjpavro 
TToXe/JLOv, SrjXov on TrXelcrra? exovres ovyyeveias 

269 roaovTOL ye to ttXtjOos ovres. o/jlcds Se Kal rot? 
dvBpojTTOis TToXefJislv SieyvajKoreg ovk dv et? rous" 
avrojv deovs TToXejietv iroXix-qaav ovh" vrrevav- 
TLcnrdrovs edevro v6p.ov£ rols Trarpiois avrojv Kal 

270 of? iv€rpd(f)rj(jav. Set 8e rjfJbds ro) ^^laveOco^ X^P^^ 
e)(€Lv, on ravrrjg rrjg Trapavopiiag ovxl tovs i^ 
'lepoGoXvfiojv iXOovra? apx'Qyo^s yeveaOai (j)-qGiVy 
dXX avTovg eKCLVOvg ovras AtyvTrnovs /cat rovrojv 
fjidXiorra rovs Upeag eTTLVoijaai re ravra Kal 
opKCDjJLorrjaaL to rrXrjOos. 

271 'E/cetvo fMevTOL rrojs ovk dXoyov, tcov pbev olk€lcov 
avTOL? Kal Tojv (j)iX(jjv GvvaTTOorrjvaL" ovheva /XT^Se 
Tov TToXefjLov Tov Kivhvvov (jwdpaudai, rrefjupac 8e 
Tov? ixiapovs els 'lepoaoXvfJLa Kal ttjv Trap' eKeivojv 

272 eTTayeadaL cru/x/xa;^iay ; rroias avrols ^tAtW tj 
TLVOS avTols OLKeLOTTjTos TrpovTn]pyfJLev'qs ; rov- 
vavTLOV yap r)oav TToXepLLOL Kal Tolg edeui^ TrXelcrTov 
hie^epov. 6 he (j^rjaiv evOvg vrraKovaaL rolg vrr- 


avTOJV ov G(f)6hpa rrjg x^P^^ ifMrrelpoj? ixdvrojVy 

273 rj? ^LacrdevTes eKTreTTTajKaaiv . el jxev ovv drropajs 
rj KaKOJS eTrpaTTOv, taojs dv Kal Trape^dXXovTO , 
ttoXlv he KaTOLKovvTes evhaifiova Kal x^P"^^ 

^ ed. pr. : wavTes L Lat. ^ ei 5' €tl Lat. (apparently). 

ap avTii} 

bT(2 ed. pr. : avw L. * ^lavedC^vi L. 

^ Bekker : awairocrTridai. L. 
^ Hudson (Lat. morVnis) : i^decn L. 


AGAINST APION, I. 267-273 

sented by him with a city and land, their feelings 
towards him would have been mollified. Even sup- 
posing their hatred of him still persisted, they would 
have conspired against him alone, and not have 
declared war on the whole nation, which must 
obviously have included very many relations of their 
numerous body. Granted that they decided on war 
with the Egyptians, they Avould never have ventured 
to make v/ar on their gods, nor would they have 
framed laws directly opposed to the national code 
under which they had been brought up. However, 
we must be grateful to Manetho for stating that this 
violation of the laAvs originated, not with the immi- 
grants from Jerusalem, but with the Egyptians 
themselves, and that it was their priests in particular 
who conceived the idea and administered the oath 
to the people. 

Again, how absurd to suppose that, while none of 
their own relations and friends joined in the revolt 
and shared the perils of war, these pariahs sent to 
Jerusalem and obtained recruits from that quarter ! 
What alliance, what connexion existed previously 
between them ? On the contrary, these people w ere 
enemies, and their customs utterly opposed to their 
own. Yet, says Manetho, they lent a ready ear to 
the promise that they should occupy Egypt, as if 
they were not intimately acquainted with the country 
from which they had been forcibly expelled ! Had 
they been in straitened circumstances or unfortunate, 
they might, conceivably, have undertaken the risk ; 
but inhabiting, as they did, an opulent city and 
enjoying the fruits of an extensive country, superior 

VOL. T T 273 


TToXXrjv Kpe'trroj ttjs AlyvTrrov KapTTOV/JLevoi, Sia 
TL 77or' av ixOpoL? fjuev TToXai to. 8e aojjiara Ae- 

X(J0^r][JL€VOL9, OVS fJLTjSe row 01K€L0JV OVOeig V7T€[1€V€, 

TOVTOL9 'ifxeXXov 7TapaKLvSvv€V(T€LV ^orjdovvres ; ov 
yap Srj ye rov yevrjGop.evov Trpofjheuav hpaajxov 

274 rod ^acriAecos" rovvavriov yap avros etp-qKev ojs 
6 TTal? rod *A/i,eyoj(/)tos" rpiaKovra fivpidhag exow 
elg ro Yir^XoTJOiov VTrrjvriatev . /cat rovro fiev 
fjBeLcrav Trdvrojg ol TTapayivofievoi, rrjv Be pLerd- 
voiav avrov kol r-qv cf)vyrjv TToOev eiKaC^eiv epieXXov ; 

275 erretra^ KparrjGavrdg (f)'qGi rrjg AlyvTrrov ttoXXcl 
Kal heLvd Spdv rovs eK row 'lepoGoXvpLow Ittl- 
arparevaavrag, Kal Trepl rovrcov 6vethiL,eL KaOanep 
ov 7ToXep.iOvg avrolg irrayaydw tj Seov rol? e^ojdev 
eTTiKXrjOelaLv eyKaXelv, oTTore ravra TTpo rrjg 
eKeivow d(j)L^eojs eTToarrov Kal rrpd^euv co^oj/xd- 

276 Keaav ol ro yevos Xlydirrioi. dXXd Kai ;Ypoyots" 
vurepov Wpievoj(j)Lg erreXOow eviK-que p^dxf) Kal 
Kreivow rovs rroXepiiovs p^^XP^ '^V^ Hvpias rjXa- 
oev. ovroj yap rravrdTrauiv eorrcv tj Atyvrrros rols 

211 OTToOevhrj'TTorovv emovGiv evdXojros. Kai<roi>'^ ol 
rore rroXep^oj Kparovvres avrrjv, Irjv TTVvdavopievoL 
rov ^AfxevojcfiLV, ovre rd? eK rrj? AlOiOTTias e/x^oAa? 
ojXvpojoav, TToXXrjV el? rovro rrapaaKevr^v exovres, 
ovre rrjv dXXrjv rjrolpLauav Bvvapbiv. 6 Se Kal P'^XP^ 
rrjs ^vpias dvacpdw, (f)r]aLV, avrov? rjKoXovOr^ae 
hid rrj? ipdpipLov rrjs dvvSpov, hrjXov on ov pdoiov 
ovhe dpiax^.1 GrparorreSoj SieXOelv. 

^ eTTCLTa (after Lat.) Hudson : to. airla L. 
^ Ka'tTOL conj. : Kal L. 


AGAINST APION, I. 273-277 

to Egypt, what inducement could there be to hazard 
their hves in support of their former foes, those 
maimed cripples, whom not one even of their own 
people would tolerate ? For of course they did not 
foresee that the king would take flight. On the 
contrary, the author himself has told us that the son 
of Amenophis " marched to Pelusium to meet them 
at the head of 300,000 men. Of his approach the 
advancing enemy would undoubtedly be aware ; 
how could they possibly conjecture that he would 
change his mind and flee ? After conquering 
Egypt, our author proceeds, the Jerusalem invaders 
committed many horrible crimes ; and for these he 
reproaches them, as though he had not brought them 
on to the scene as enemies, or as if actions when per- 
formed by imported foreigners deserved reprobation, 
which before their arrival M'ere being performed by 
the native Egyptians, who had sworn to continue the 
practice. In the sequel, however, Amenophis re- 
turned to the charge, won a battle, and drove the 
enemy back, with slaughter, to Syria. So easy a 
prey, it appears, is Egypt to invaders from whatever 
quarter ! And yet its former conquerors, though 
aware that Amenophis was alive, neither fortified 
the passes between it and Ethiopia, notwithstanding 
their ample resources for the purpose, nor had the 
rest of their army in readiness ! Amenophis, says 
our author, pursued them to Syria, killing them 
all the way, across the sandy desert. But the 
difficulty of marching an army across the desert, 
even without a battle, is notorious. 

"■ Rather, Amenophis himself, the son being only five 
years old (§ -24-5) ; probably written per incuriam. Reinach 
reads " he," regarding " of Amenophis " as a misplaced 
gloss on " the king " in the previous line. 



278 (SO) Kara jiev ovv rov }slave9ojv ovre ek rrj? At- 
yvTTTOv ro yevog 'qfxojv iarcv ovre row eKeWev 
TLveg dveiiLxOrjaav row yap Xerrpojv Kal voaovvrojv 
TToAAous" IJ^€V eLKog iv ralg XiOorojiiai? aTTodaveiv 
TToXvv 'x^povov eKel yevo/Jievovg Kal KaKOTraOovvra? , 
rroXXovg 8' iv rals /xera ravra jj.d^^ais, TrXeiarovs 
§' ev rf\ reAeurata Kal rfj chvyfj. 

279 (Sl) \ol7t6v fJLOL TTpog avTOV elrrelu irepl Majfcrecos". 
rovrov be rov dvdpa daviiacrrov fxev AlyvTrnoL 
Kai delov vofjbiL,ovGL, f^ovXovraL be TrpoGTroieZv 
avrols fierd ^Xaachrjiiias dmddvov, Xeyovre^ 'HAto- 
TToXirrjV elvai row eKelOev lepeow eva Sta rrjv 

280 XeTTpav cruve^eXrjXaGiievov . heiKvvrai h iv rat? 
a,vaypa(j)als oKrojKaiheKa crvv rots' TrevraKocnoLS 
rrporepov erecri yeyovojg Kai rov? rjixerepov? 
i^ayaydw eK rrjs XiyuTrrov Trarepas ets rrjv 

281 X^V^^ '^'H^ ^^^ OLKovpb€V7]v ixf}^ Tjfxow. ori 8' ou5e 
(TVfJb<f)opa rivL roLavrrj rrepi ro GOjpLa Ke)(^prip.evos 
TjV, iK rojv Xeyofxevow vtt' avrov SrjXog iari. roZs 
yap XerrpojGLV aTreLprjKe pL-qre fiiveiv iv TToXei iJirjr 
iv Kojjirj KaroiKelv , aAAa jiovov? Trepirrarelv Kar- 
eGXLGjxevovs ra LfjArco., Kal rov aipa/ievov avrojv 

282 r) o/xct)po</)tov yevoiievov ov KaBapov -qyelr at. Kai 
pLTjV KOLV OepaTTevOfj rd voG-qpLa Kai rrjv avrov 
(jiVGLv drroXd^ri, rrpoeiprjKev rivas dyveias,^ KaOap- 
fjLOVs rr-qyaiojv vBdrow Xovrpolg Kal ^vprjGeis 
TTaGrjs r-pjs rpi^ds, rroXXds Te KeXevet Kal rrav- 
roias imreXeGavra OvGLag rore TrapeXOelv els rrjv 

283 lepdv ttoXlv. KairoL^ rovvavriov eLK0£ rjv rrpovoia 

1 + K-ac^Lat. ^ ed. pr. : Kal L. 


AGAINST APION, I. 278-283 

(30) We have therefore Manetho's authority for Manetuo's 
saying both that our race was not of Egyptian origin," ^"^^ ^'^^^'o^^s 
and tliat there was no mixture of the races. For, 
presumably, many of the lepers and other sick folk 

died during that long period of hardship in the 
quarries, many more in the subsequent battles, and 
most of all in the final engagement and the rout.^ 

(31) It remains for me to say a word to Manetho Manetho 
about Moses. The Egyptians, who regard that man °" '^^^^' 
as remarkable, indeed divine, wish to claim him as 

one of themselves, while making the incredible and 
calumnious assertion that he was one of the priests 
expelled from Heliopolis for leprosy. The chronicles, 
however, prove that he lived 518 years earlier*^ and 
conducted our forefathers out of Egypt into the 
country which we inhabit to-day. And that he His laws or 
suffered from no physical affliction of this nature is couM^not 
clear from his own statements. In fact, he forbids ^lave been 
lepers either to stay in a town or to reside in a village ; leper. 
they must be solitary vagrants, with their clothes 
rent ; anyone who touches or lives under the same 
roof with them he considers unclean. Moreover, 
even if the malady is cured and the victim returns 
to his normal condition, Moses prescribes certain 
rites of purification — to cleanse himself in a bath of 
spring-water and to cut off all his hair — and requires 
him to offer a numerous variety of sacrifices before 
entering the holy city.^ Yet one would have 

« Cf. §§ 75, 104, 252. 

^ Reinach supposes that there is a lacuna in this para- 
graph ; as the text stands the argument is not very clear. 

* Cf. § 230. Manetho never mentions Moses in con- 
nexion with the expulsion of the Hycsos. 

^ For the laws on leprosy, here summarized, see Lev. xiii. 
(especially 45 f.) and xiv. 



TLVL Kai (f)LXav6poj7TLa )(piquaG9ai rov ev rfj cru/x- 
(f)opa ravT'fj yeyovora Trpog rovg ofiOLajg^ avro) 

284 8ucrru;!^ryCTavTas-. ou jjiovov he Trepl row XeTrpaJv 
ovTCos ivopLoOer-qGev, aAA' ovhe rols koI to ^paxv- 
rarov n rov Gojfiaros rjKptoTrjpiaGiievoLS LepdadaL 
<jvyK€XO->py]Kev , aAA et /cat /xera^u rts" Upojpievos 
roLavTT] ;i^p7ycratro Gvp.<f)opa, rrjv rtpbT^v a-urov 

285 a^€t Aero, ttoj? ovv etVo? €K€.Zvov~ ravra vojjlo- 
derelv avorjTcos <r^ tovs >^ arro tolovtojv Gvpb- 
(hopow GweiXey/jLevovs TrpoGeGdac^ Ka9^ iavrojv els 
oVetSd? re kol ^Xd^i]v vopbovs GvvTidep.evov£ ; 

286 dAAd iiTjV KOL rovvofJLa Atav amddvojs pLeraredeiKev 
^OGapGLcf)° ydp, (^r^GLV, eKaXelro. rovro piev ovv 
eh Trjv pLerddeGLV ovk ivappLo^et, to S' dXr]9e£ 
ovopLa SrjXoL tov eK rov vhaTog Gcudevra [MctXTTyv]*^ 
TO yap vSojp OL XlyvrrTioi /xdjii KaXovGiv. 

287 '\Kavojs ovv yeyovevau vopLLL^CD KaTdSrjXov' otl 
^laveOojs, eojs p^ev rjKoXovOei rats' dp^aiaLs dva- 
ypa(f)ai?, ov ttoXv ttjs dXrjOetag hi-qp^dpravev, eTrl 
he Tovs dheGTTOTovs p^vdovg rpaTTopLevo? rj gvv- 
edijKev avTovs amOdvoj? rj tlgl tcov Trpos d7Te)(6eLav 
eLprjKOTOJV emGrevGev. 

288 (32) Merd tovtov e^crdcrat ^ovXojiai \aLp-qpLova. 
Kal yap ovtos AlyvTTTcaKrjv (fidGKwv LGTopiav Gvy- 
ypd(f)eLV Kal TrpoGdels rauro 6Vo/xa tov ^acriAecos' 
orrep 6 ^laveOojs, WpLevaj(f)iv, Kal tov vlov avrov 

289 'PapLeGGTjV, (f)r]Glv otl Kara tovs vttvovs rj ^Igl? 

^ ed. pr. : bfj-olovs L Lat. ^ 'q ^elvov Xiese. 

^ ins. Xiese. * Niese : rrpoeadat L. 

^ 'Oap<jT](p L. ^ Probably a gloss. 

' KardoriXou Bekker : tcai di]\oi' 5' L. 

" Lev. xxi. 17-23. 


AGAINST APION, I. 283-289 

expected, on the contrary, a victim of this calamity 
to have shown some consideration and fellow-feehng 
for others equally unfortunate. His legislation on 
these lines was not confined to lepers. The very 
slightest mutilation of the person was a disqualifica- 
tion for the priesthood, and a priest who in the course 
of his ministry met with such an accident was deprived 
of his office.^ Is it likely that he was so foolish as to 
make, or persons brought together by such mis- 
fortunes to approve, laws enacted against themselves, 
to their own disgrace and injury ? One more remark. 
Manetho's transformation of the name is extremely 
unconvincing. He was called, he says, Osarsiph. 
This name bears no relation to that which it replaces. 
The true name signifies " one saved out of the 
water " ; for water is called by the Egyptians 

mou. " 

The conclusion, I think, is sufficiently obvious. So 
long as Manetho followed the ancient records, he did 
not go far wrong ; but when he had recourse to un- 
authenticated legends, he either concocted from 
them a most improbable story, or else trusted the 
statements of prejudiced opponents. 

(32) The next witness I shall cross-examine is(ii.)CHAE- 
Chaeremon.^ This writer likewise professes to write version^ 
the history of Egypt, and agrees with Manetho in of the story 
giving the names of Amenophis and Ramesses to the 
king and his son. He then proceeds to state that 

^ This etymology, which recurs in A. ii. 228 (with the 
addition that «s<?s = " persons saved ") and in Philo, De vit, 
Mos. i. 4. § 17, is now generally abandoned. In Ex. ii. 10 
the name is derived from Hebr. mashah, " draw out." 

" 1st cent. A.D. ; Stoic philosopher, librarian of Alexandria, 
and afterwards tutor of Nero ; besides his chief work, the 
History of Egypt, wrote on hieroglyphics, etc. 



€(f)dvrj TO) ^AiJL€va)<f)€L, iJb€iJL<^oiJi€vrj avTOV on ro 
lepov airrrjs iv Ta> TroAe/xoj /careV/caTrrat. Optro- 
^avT-qv^ 8e tepoypa/x^area (jidvaiy idv rcov rov^ 
jjuoXva/Jbovs ixovroiv dvSpwv Kaddprj rrjv AtyvTrrov, 

290 TTavaeaOai' rrjg Trroas"^ a-urov. eTriXi^avra he 
Tojv €7tlglv6jv fivpidSas cLKoaLTrevre eK^aXeZv. 
rjyelcxdaL S' avrcov ypa/x/xarea? }>l<jovGrjv re Kat 

IcocTTjTTOv , KOI TOVTov UpoypajJipLarea, AtyvTrrLa 
S avTols ovopiara elvac ro) piev ^lajvael Ttcri^eV, 

291 rqj 3e "IwarjTTCo HeTeaT^^. rovrovs 8' et? H'qXov- 
OLov iXOelv Koi imrvx^Zv puvpidaL rpiaKovraoKTOj 
KaraXcXeipLpuevaL? vtto rod WpL€va}(f)Los , as ov 
OeXeLV els rrjv AtyvTrrov hiaKoiiiteiV ols^ (jaXiav 

292 (JVpdepLevovs errl rrjV Alyvrrrov ur par evGai. rov 
he ApLevco(f)Lv ovx VTTopLelvavra rrjv e(f)oSov avrwv 
eus AidLOTTLav (l)vyelv KaraXmovra rrjV yvvalKa 
eyKvov, T^v KpvfSojjLevrjv ev rcdL uTrrjXaioLS reKeZv 
rralha ovojia 'PapLecrarjV, ov dvhpcodevra eVStcu^at 
rovs lovhaiovs els r-qv Hvplav, ovras Trepl eiKoai 
pLvptdSas, Kal rov irarepa ^ Ap^evaxjiiv Ik rrjs 
Aid LOTTLas Karahe^auOai. 

293 (33) Kat ravra piev 6 Xatpr^^ajv. olpiaL Se avroOev 
cf)avepdv elvai eK row elprjpbevojv r-qv dpL(f)OLV ipevho- 
Xoyuav. dXrjdeias piev ydp nvos V7TOKeLp,evrjS 
dSvvarov rjv SLa(f)OJvelv errl roaovrov, ol he rd 
ipevhrj (jyvridevres ov^ erepots GVpL(f)OJva ypd- 
(fiovGLV, aAA' avrols rd ho^avra TrXdrrovatv. 

294 eKelvos piev ovv eTTiOvpaav rov ^aaiXecos tva rovs 
deovs ihf] (jirjGiv dpxrjv yeveadai rrjs rcov paapcov 

^ After Lat. : <^pi.TL^avTrjv L : '^pLTLcpavr-qv (here and in 
§ 296) ed. pr. - Xiese : irava-aadac L. 

^ TTToias ed. pr. * ed. pr. : els L. 


AGAINST APION, I. 289-294 

Isis appeared to Amenophis in his sleep, and re- 
proached him for the destruction of her temple in 
war-time. The sacred scribe Phritobautes told him 
that, if he purged Egypt of its contaminated popula- 
tion, he might cease to be alarmed. The king, there- 
upon, collected 250,000 afflicted persons and banished 
them from the country. Their leaders were scribes, 
Moses and another sacred scribe — Joseph ! " Their 
Egyptian names were Tisithen (for Moses) and Pete- 
seph (Joseph). The exiles on reaching Pelusium fell 
in with a body of 380,000 persons, left there by 
Amenophis, who had refused them permission to 
cross the Egyptian frontier. With these the exiles 
concluded an alliance and marched upon Egypt. 
Amenophis, without waiting for their attack, fled 
to Ethiopia, leaving his wife pregnant. Concealing 
herself in some caverns she gave birth to a son 
named Ramesses, who, on reaching manhood, drove 
the Jews, to the number of about 200,000, into 
Syria, and brought home his father Amenophis from 

(33) Such is Chaeremon's account. From these Discrepau- 
statements the mendacity of both writers is, I think, Manetho 
self-evident. Had they any foundation in fact, such chaeremon 
wide discrepancy would be impossible. But con- 
sistency with others is not the concern of authors of 
fiction ; they invent according to their fancy. Thus, 
according to Manetho, the expulsion of the con- 
taminated people originated in the king's desire to 

** Or perhaps " and Joseph, the latter also a sacred scribe." 
But it is doubtful whether any antithesis between " scribe " 
and " sacred itribe " is intended. 




eK^oXrjg, 6 8e XatpTi/Ltcov lSlov ojs^ Trjg "latSo? 

295 ivvTTVLOV GwreOeiKe. KaKeXvo? jj^ev Xixevaxjiiv elvai 
Aeyct rov TrpoeiTTOvra toj ^acrtAet rov KaOapfiov, 
ovros he ^pLTo^aijrr]v. 6 8e br] rov ttXtJOovs 
dpidfio? Kal G<h66pa avveyyvs, oktoj piev pLvpidhas 
€Keivov Xeyovros, rovrov Se rrevre rrpos rals 

296 eiKOGLV. en tolvvv o pLev ^laveOoj? rrporepov ets" 
ras" XidoTopLcas rov? paapovs eK^aXajv, elra avrdls 
rrjv Avapuv hovs eyKaroLKelv /cat ra Trpos rovs 
dXXovs AlyvTTTLOvg e/CTToAc/xtoaa?," rore (jy-qGLV 
eTTLKaXedaadai rrjV Trapd rojv 'lepocroXvpLiTa)^ av- 

291 rov£ iiTLKovpiav. 6 §€ ^aip-fjpiojv aTraXXarro- 
pLEvovg Ik rrjs AlyvTrrov vrepl Yl-qXovGLOv evpelv 
OKTOJ Kal TpiaKOvra pivpidhas avdpcoTrojv Kara- 
XeXeipLpieva? vtto tov A/xevoSc^to? /cat ^cr e/cetvcov 
rrdXiV €tV rr)v Atyvrrrov epb^aXelv, (jivyelv^ Se rov 

298 ^ Apb€vaj(f)LV ei£ rrjv AldioTTiav. ro he hrj yevvaio- 
rarov, ovhe rives rj TTodev -qaav at roaavrai rod 
orparov pLvpcdheg etprjKev, e'lre ALyvrrnoL ro 
yevos €tr e^ojuev rjKOvre?, aAA ovoe rrjV airiav 
hLead(j)riae, St' tjv avrovg 6 ^acriXev? els rrjv Alyvrr- 
rov dvdyeiv^ ovk rjdeXrjaev, 6 Trepl rdjv XeTrpchv 

299 ro r-fjs "IcrtSos* evvrrvLOV avpLrrXdaas. ro) he ^lajvael 
/cat rov ^lci)(jr]7T0V 6 \aiprjpbOJV ojs ev ravro) xpovoj 
(jvve$eXr]Xa(jpbevov TrpoureOeLKev, rov Trpo ^lojvaeojg 
TTpea^vrepov reacrapcrt yeveals rereXevrr^Kora, Sv 

300 ecrrtv errj G-)(eh6v e^hop.rjKOvra Kal eKarov. dXXd 

^ quasi proprium Lat. : ijdiojv, 6s Xiese. 

^ ed. pr. : eKiroXefirjaai L. 

^ ed. pr. : (pevyeiv L. ^ dyaye'Lu ed. pr. 


AGAINST APION, I. 294^-300 

see the gods : Chaerenion invents his own story of 
the appearance of Isis in a dream. Manetho says 
that this mode of purification was suggested to the 
king by Amenophis : Chaeremon mentions Phrito- 
bautes. Observe too how nearly their figures 
coincide in their estimate of the crowd ; one speaks 
of 80,000, the other of 250,000 ! Again, Manetho 
begins by throwing the polhited wretches into the 
quarries, then makes them a present of Auaris for 
their abode and incites them to war against the rest 
of the Egyptians, and not until then does he represent 
them as appealing for aid to Jerusalem. According 
to Chaeremon's account, they found, on their 
departure from Egypt, in the neighbourhood of 
Pelusium, 380,000 persons left there by Amenophis, 
with whom they retraced their steps and made a raid 
upon Egypt, resulting in the flight of Amenophis to 
Ethiopia. But the gem of his narrative is his omission 
to state who these myriads of soldiers were or whence 
they came, whether they were native Egyptians or 
foreign immigrants. He does not even explain why 
the king would not admit them into Egypt, though 
his Isis dream about the lepers showed no lack of 
imagination. With Moses, Chaeremon has associ- 
ated, as a contemporary and companion in exile, 
Joseph, who died four generations, that is to say 
about 170 years, before Moses." Again, according 

" The four generations come from Ex. vi. 16-20, some 
forty-two years being reckoned to a generation. " P [the 
Priestly editor of the Pentateuch] consistently represents 
Moses or his contemporaries as being in the fourth genera- 
tion (c/. Gen. XV. 16) from one or other of Jacob's sons " 
(Driver) ; and yet inconsistently makes the duration of the 
sojourn in Egypt 430 years (Ex. xii. 40 ; cf. Jos. A. ii. 204, 
" 400 years "). 



jjbTjv 6 'Pa/xecrcTT]? o rod 'A/xevco^tos" vlos Kara 
fieu TOP }>lav€9ojv veavlas GV^TToX^ixel rco Trarpi 


he 7T€7T0L-qK€v avTov [lera rrjv rod narpos reXevrrjv 
iv (j7Tr]XaLOJ rivl yeyevjjixivov Kai /xcra ravra 
vLKcovra fJ^axj} koI rovs "lovSaiovs els ^vpiav 
i^eXavvovra, rov dpiOpiov ovrag Trepl {jLvpidhag k' . 

301 to TrjS ei);!^€petas' • ovre yap Trporepov olrive? rjaav 
at rpLaKOvra /cat oKrco pLvpidSes elTzev, oirre ttcos 
at TeuGapaKovra^ /cat rpels StecfyOdprjGav, rrorepov 
iv rfj P'dx'l] KareTTeaov tj Trpos tov Pafjbeaarjv 

302 /xerejSaAoyro . to 8e hrj davfiaGLcorarov, ovhe 
rivas KaXel tovs ^lovhaiovs hwarov ian Trap 
avTov jj^aOelv rj rrorepoLS avrcov^ tlO erai Tavr7]v 
TTjV TTpouriyopiaVy rat? Ke' pivpidoL rcov Xeirpcov 

303 r) rats' i)' Kal X' rats Trepl ro IlrjXovo-Lov . dXXd 
yap ewqdes lows dv etrj §ta TrXeLovojv eXeyx^eiv 
rovs v(f)' iavTcJv eXrjXeyp.evovs' rd yap vtt oXXojv 
rjv jjierpicorepov. 

304 (34) 'ETreto-afoj 8e tovtols AvGLpiaxov, elXrjcjiOTa 
fjiev TTjV avrriv rots' Trpoeiprjixivois VTrodeauv rod ipev- 
(jfiaros 7T€p\ rojv XeTrpwv /cat XeXaj^T^pievajv, VTrep- 
7T€77at/cora Se r'rjv eKeivcov aTTiOavorrira rols 
TrXdap^acTL, hrjXos ovvredeLKajs Kara ttoXXtjv arr- 

305 ep^^eta^'. Aeyet yap €7tI Bo/c;)(;op€aJS' tov AlyvTrrlcuv 
^auiXicos rov Xaov rcov 'lovSatcov, Xeirpovs ovras 

^ ed. pr. : etKocn L. ^ ed. pr. : avToh L. 

"^ A careless contradiction of Chaeremon's statement 
(§ 293). 

^ The figure given in ed. pr. must be right. 250,000 lepers 
+ 380,000 Pelusians=^a total of 630,000. Of these only 
200,000 are accounted for (§ 292). Josephus inquires what 
became of the remainder. 


AGAINST APION, I. 300-305 

to Manetho, Ramesses, son of Amenophis, fought as 
a young man in his father's army, and shared his 
flight and banishment to Ethiopia : according to 
Chaeremon's version, he was born in a cave after his 
father's death," and subsequently defeated the Jews 
and drove them out, to the number of about 200,000, 
into Syria. What reckless levity ! First he omitted 
to state who the 380,000 were ; then he tells us 
nothing of the fate of the 430,000,^ whether they 
fell in battle or went over to Ramesses. But — most 
astounding fact of all — it is impossible to discover 
from him whom he means by the Jews or to which 
of the two groups he applies this designation, the 
250,000 lepers or the 380,000 at Pelusium. Ho^vever, 
it would, I think, be foolish to spend more time in 
refuting authors who refute each other. To have left 
refutation to others would have shown more decency. 

(3i) I will next introduce Lysimachus.^ He brings (iii.)Tiie 
up the same theme as the wTiters just mentioned, L^Y°nucHus 
the mendacious story of the lepers and cripples, but ftiii more 
surpasses both in the incredibility of his fictions, ^"^^^'^ 
obviously composed with bitter animus. His account 
is this : 

In the reign of Bocchoris,^ king of Egypt, the 

Jewish people, who were afflicted with leprosy, 

'^ Alexandrian writer of uncertain date, but later than 
Mnaseas (2nd cent, b.c.) whom he quotes. We hear more 
of him in Ap. ii., once (§ 28) as siding with Apion. 

<* A Bocchoris of the XXIVth Dynasty (c. 8th cent.) is 
mentioned by Manetho. That is the date assigned by Apion 
to the Exodus (Ap. ii. 17), and may be that intended by 
Lysimachus. Josephus, however {ih. 16), assigns to Boc- 
choris a far earlier date ; Diodorus also (i. 65) mentions an 
older Bocchoris. Like Lysimachus, with whose account 
he shows other parallels, Tacitus, Hist. v. 3, places the 
exodus in the reign of Bocchoris. 



Kai ijjojpoug Kal a'AAa voarniard riva k-)(ovras^ 
€LS ra lepa Karacfye'vyovTas /xeratretv Tpo(f)rjV, 
TrafJLTToXXojv Se avOpojTTOJV vourjXeia TrepLTreaovTCov 

306 aKapmav eV ttj AlyvTrroj yeveadai. BoKXopcv 8e 
rov rcJov AlyvTTTLCov ^aaiXea els " ApLfzojva^ Trep^ifjat 
rrepi rrjg aKaprrias rov? fiavrevGopLevov? , rov Oeov 
S dvatpelv^ rd Upd KaOdpai a7r' dvOpojTrojv dvdyvojv 
Kai SvGcre^ojv, eK^aXovra avrovs eV rojv lepojv 
eig T07T0VS iprj}J.ovs, rovs 8e ijjojpovs Kal XeTrpov? 
pvdiGaL, ojs rod tjXlov dyavaKrovvrog irrl rfj rov- 
rojv Lcoj], Kal rd Upd dyvluai, Kal ovrco rrjv yrjv 

307 Kap'7TO(j)op-fjG€iv . rov oe Bo/<-;Yopty rovs XP^^l^^^^ 
Xaj^ovra rovs re Upels Kal eTrt/Sco/xtras" Trpoa- 
KaXeadpievov KeXevaai irriXoyrjV TTOLT^aapLevovs rcov 
aKadaprcov rols arparccoraLS rovrovs Trapahovvai 
Kard^eiv avrovs els rrjv ep-qpLOV, rovs Se XeTrpovs 
€LS p^oXi^hivovs ;YapTas' evh-qoavras ,'^ tva Kaddjaiv 

308 ^ts" ro TTeXayos. ^vdiadivrajv he ra)V Xerrpcov Kai 
ipojpcov rovs dXXovs GvvaOpoiadevras els roTTOVs 
eprjpLovs eKredrjvai err" dTTOjXeia, crvvaxdevras Se 
^ovXevoaoOai rrepl avrojv, vvKros Se eTTLyevopievrjs 
TTvp Kai Xv^vovs Kavcravras (f)vXdrreiv eavrovs, 
rrjv r emovoav vvKra vrjcrrevaavras IXauKeGOaL 

309 rovs deovs rrepl rov crcocrat avrovs. rfj S' emovGYj 
r]pLepa ^lojvo-ijv riva uvp^BovXevoai avrols rrapa- 
^aXXopevovs"" filav oSov repivetv dxpiS dv \drov'\^ 
eXOojGLv els roTTovs olKovpuevovs, TrapaKeXevGaudai 
re avrols p^'r}re dvdpojrrojv nvl evvoelv' p^'^Te 

^ ed. pr. (Lat. ?): exovr^jv L. 

2 L Lat. : 'Xy-fMo^vos Bekker {cf. § 312). 

^ Conj. {cf. Lat. respondisse) : ipelv L, eiwelv ed. pr., dveXelp 

* ? read evdrjaai. 


scurvy, and other maladies, took refuge in the 
temples and lived a mendicant existence. The 
victims of disease being very numerous, a dearth 
ensued throughout Egypt. King Bocchoris there- 
upon sent to consult the oracle of Ammon " about 
the failure of the crops. The god told him to 
purge the temples of impure and impious persons, 
to drive them out of these sanctuaries into the 
wilderness, to drown those afflicted with leprosy 
and scurvy, as the sun was indignant that such 
persons should live, and to purify the temples ; 
then the land would yield her increase. On 
receiving these oracular instructions, Bocchoris 
summoned the priests and servitors at the altars, 
and ordered them to draw up a list of the unclean 
persons and to deliver them into military charge 
to be conducted into the wilderness, and to pack 
the lepers into sheets of lead and sink them in the 
ocean. The lepers and victims of scurvy having 
been drowned, the others were collected and 
exposed in the desert to perish. There they 
assembled and deliberated on their situation. At 
nightfall they lit up a bonfire and torches, and 
mounted guard, and on the following night kept a 
fast and implored the gods to save them. On the 
next day a certain Moses advised them to take 
their courage in their hands and make a straight 
track until they reached inhabited country, in- 
structing them to show goodwill to no man,^ to 

« So Tac. Hist. v. 3, " adito Hammonis oraculo." The 
famous oracle of Amun in an oasis in the Libyan desert. 

* Cf. Ap. ii. 121 ; Tac. Hist. v. 5, "aduersus omnes alios 
hostile odium." 

^ ed. iw. : -fxevois L. 
^ om. ed. pr. ^ Niese : evuorjcreLP L. 



rapicrra crviJL^ovXeveLV^ dXXa ra ;)^etpoya, Oewv re 
vaovg Kat fScofJiov?, olg av jrepLrvxoJcnv, avarpeTretv. 

310 GVvaLvecjdvrcDV Se row aAAojF rd SoxOevra ttolovv- 
rag Slol rrjs iprjfjiov TTopevecrOaL, LKavwg 8e OX'^^" 
Oevrag iXdelv el? rrjv olKovfJLevqv "x^ajpav, kcxI roiJS 
re dvOpcoTTovs v^pllovrag Kal rd lepd avXdwra? 
Kal ijjLTTpijcravras iXOeXv ets" rrjV vvv lofSatW 
rrpocrayopevoiJLevrjv , Krtcravrag he ttoXlv evravda 

311 KaroiKeZv . ro Se darv rovro 'lepoavXa^ 0.770 rrjg 
eKeivojv hiaOeaeoJS chvopAaOaL. varepov 8' avrovs 
eTTLKparrjcravrag ■)(p6vcp SuaXXd^at rrjV ovofiaaiav 
TTpos ro <fjbrj>^ oveihiteGdai, Kat ttjv re ttoXlv 
'lepoaoXvfJia Kal avrovs 'lepocroXvfjLLrag rrpoa- 

312 (So) Ouros"* ovSe rov avrov eKeivois evpev elrrelv ^a- 
crtAea, Kaivorepov S ovopLa avvreOeiKev, Kat Trapels 
evuTTViov Kal Trpo(f)rjrrjv AcyvTrnov etV "A^/xcuvos" 
dTTeXrjXvdev rrepl rwv xpcopcov Kal Xerrpcov ypiqapiov 

313 oluojv. (^Tjcrl ydp el? rd lepd GyXXeyeuBaL ttXtjOos 
'louSatojy. dpd ye rovro rolg XerrpoZs oVo/xa 
OepLevog Tj fjLovojv rcov 'louSatcov rots- voa-qpiaGL 
irepiTreGovrcov ; Xeyei ydp '' o Aaos" rcov 'lou- 

314 Satojv." o TTolog ;° errrjXvg 7) ro yevog eyx^ojpios ; 
hid ri ro'ivvv XlyvTrriovg avrovs ovras ^\ovhaiovs 
KaXelg ; el he ^evoi, hid ri rrodev ov Xeyeis ; ttojs 
he rod ^acriXecng TToXXovg puev avrcJov ^vOiuavros 
elg rrjV OdXacraav, rov£ he Xoinovg els eprjpiovs 
roTTovg eK^aXovros , roGovroi ro rrXijOog vtt- 

315 eXeicfiOrjGav ; tj riva rpoirov hte^ijXdov pbev rrjv 

^ Niese : apia-ra avix^ovXevcreLV L. 

^ ed. pr.: 'lepotroXi'/ua L. ^ ins. Hudson. 

* + ovv Lat. (apparently) ° 6 ttoIos ; Herwerden : ovo'los L. 


AGAINST APION, I. 309-315 

offer not the best but the worst advice, and to 
overthrow any temples and altars of the gods 
which they found. The rest assenting, they pro- 
ceeded to put these decisions into practice. They 
traversed the desert, and after great hardships 
reached inhabited country : there they maltreated 
the population, and plundered and set fire to the 
temples, until they came to the country now called 
Judaea, where they built a city in which they 
settled. This town was called Hierosyla " because The alleged 
of their sacrilegious propensities. At a later date, l^jtie^of 
when they had risen to power, they altered the Jerusalem, 
name, to avoid the disgraceful imputation, and 
called the city Hierosolyma and themselves 

(35) Lysimachus actually differs from the previous Criticism of 
writers in mentioning a king discovered by himself ; ^^ ^ '^^^' 
he has invented a fresh name, and, neglecting the 
dream and the Egyptian prophet, has gone to 
Ammon for an oracle concerning the victims of scurvy 
and leprosy. When he speaks of a multitude of Jews 
congregating in the temples, does he under this name 
refer to the lepers, or were the Jews the only persons 
afflicted with these diseases ? He says, " the people 
of the Jews." What sort of people ? Foreigners or 
natives ? If they were Egyptians, why call them 
Jews ? If foreigners, why do you not say where 
they came from ? After the king had drowned many 
of them in the sea and banished the rest into the 
wilderness, how came so large a number to survive ? 
How did they traverse the desert, conquer the 

"■ «.e. " (town) of temple-robbers." 
VOL. I u 289 


€pr]fjLov, eKpdr'qaav Se Trjg -x^ajpas tjs vvv Kar- 
OLKovpLev, EKnaav Se /cat ttoXlv kol veow cvKoho- 

316 /jbi^cravTO ttolgl TrepL^orjrov ; ixPW ^^ ^^^ Trepl 
rod vofjLoderov {jlyj /jlovov ecTTelv rouVo/xa, SriXojcraL 
be Kal TO yivo? ogtls rjv kol tlvojv. Slol tl he 
TOLOVTOVS O.V avrols eTrex^ip-que riOevai vofxovs 
Trepl Oeow Kal rrjg rrpo? avOpojTTOVS o-hiKias Kara 

317 rr]v rropeiav ; e'lre yap AlyvTmoL ro yevos rjaav, 
ovK av Ik tow rraTpiojv idcov ovtoj paSlcos /xer- 
e^dXovTo, etV dXXa-xpdev rjaav, Travrajs TLves vrr- 
rjpxov avTols vofiOL 8 to. jiaKpag avvrjOeLas 7Te<f)vXay- 

318 p-^voi. el fJLev ovv rrepl tow e^eXauavTow avTovs 
ojfioGav firjSerroT€ evvoTjueiv , Xoyov elxev elKOTa, 
rraGL be TToXepLov avdpcoTroLS aKijpvKTov dpaadai tov- 
Tov?, etirep eTrpaTTov ojs avros Xeyei KaKOJS, Trapd 
TTavTow ^oTjQeias Seofievovs, dvoiav ovk eKeivojv dXXd 
Tov ipevSop^evov rrdw ttoXXtjv TTapicn-quLV , 6? ye Kal 
Tovvojxa deadaL ttj rroXeL drro Trjs' lepouvXias avrovs 
iroXpLTjorev eLTrelv, tovto be p^eTci TavTa TrapaTpeipai. 

319 SijXov yap otl tol£ p.ev varepov yevopievois aLG)(yvriv 
TovvopLa Kal pAuog e<j)epev, avrol 8' ol KTit^ovTes 
T7]v ttoXlv KOGfiTjaeLV avTOVs vrreXdji^avov ovtojs 
ovopidcravTeg . 6 Se yevvalos vtto rroXXrjs <Trjg >^ tov 
XoiSopelv aKpauias ov crvvrJKev otl lepocruXelv ov 
Kara ttjv avTTjV ^ajyj^v lovbaloL toIs "YjXXtjgiv 

320 ovopLd^opLev. tl <dv> ovv irrl^ TrXeloj ns Xeyoi Ttpos 
TOV ipevSopLevov ovtoj? dvaiGX^^TO)? ; 

'AAA' irTeiSTj avpLpieTpov rjS-q to ^l^Xlov e'iXiq^e 
pLeyeOo?, erepav Troirjadpievos dpx^v Ta XoLird tojv 
ets" TO TrpoKetpLevov rreLpdoropLai rrpoGarrohovvai. 
^ ins. Xiese. ^ en ed. pr. (but cf. ii. 262). 


AGAINST APION, I. 315-320 

country which we inhabit to-day, found a city, and 
build a temple of world-wide renown ? He should 
not have been content with mentioning the law- 
giver's name ; he should have told us of his descent 
and parentage. And what could have induced him to 
draw up such laws for them about the gods and about 
the injuries they were to inflict on mankind during 
their march ? If they were Egyptians, they would 
not so hghtly have abandoned their national customs 
for others ; if they came from elsewhere, they 
certainly had some laws, cherished by the habits of 
a lifetime. For an oath of eternal enmity against 
those who had expelled them there was reasonable 
ground ; but that men who, in the straits in which 
he represents them to have been, needed assistance 
from every quarter, should declare implacable war 
on all mankind, indicates extraordinary folly, not on 
their part, but on the part of the lying historian. He 
has, further, ventured to assert that they gave their 
city a name derived from their temple robberies and 
afterwards modified it. Obviously the name brought 
their descendants into disgrace and odium, but the 
actual founders of the city thought to do themselves 
honour by so naming it ! The worthy man, in his 
intemperate abuse, has not observed that we Jews 
do not use the same word as the Greeks to express 
robbery of temples. What more need be said to so 
impudent a liar } 

This book, however, having already run to a suit- 
able length, I propose at this point to begin a second, 
in which I shall endeavour to supply the remaining 
portion of my subject. 



1 (l) Ata fjiev ovv rod rrporipov f^L^Xcov, rLiJLLCjorare 
jjLOi 'E77a(^/)oStT€, TTepi T€ rrjs apxoLiorrjTog rjiJLa)v 
irrehei^a, rdls ^olvlkcov Kal XaASatcov Kal Alyvn- 
TLOJV ypa/x/xaat 7Ti(jroj(jd[JL€vos rrjv dXrjOeLav /cat 
TToAAous" Tcov 'YjXX'/jvwv Gvyypa(f)€i£ 77apacr)(6pL€vos 
[idpTvpas, rrjV re avrlpprjaiv iTTOLijadpLi^v npos 
yiavedcova Kal ^atprjiJLova Kai rivag irepovs. 

2 dp^ofjiaL Se vvv tov9 vrroXeirroixivovs rdJv yeypa- 
(jiOTcov TL Ka9^ Tjpbojv eXiy)(eLV . Kairoi Trepi^ rrjs 
Trpos ^ATTLOJva TOP ypafipiarLKov dvTipprjoeoJS^ 

3 eTTrjXOe fiOL hiarropeZv, el XP"^ GTTOvSdaaf rd pikv 
ydp eGTL Tojv vrr" avrov yeypapLpLevwv roTs vtt 
dXXcov elprjpbevoLs ojiOLa, ra he Xtav ipv)(pco? TrpoG- 
redeiKev, rd rrXelcrra he ^co/jioXoxiCLV ey^ei Kai 
TToXXrjV, el hel rdXrjdes elrrecv, drraihevGLav , wg 
dv VTT^ dv6pd)7Tov GvyKelfJieva Kal <^avXov rdv 
rpoTTOV Kal rrapd Trdvra rov ^lov oxXaywyov yeyo- 

4voros". eVei S' ol rroXXol rd)V avOpwrrcov hid rrjv 
avrow dvoiav vrro row roiovrojv dXiGKovrai Xoyayv 

•"■ KairoL irepl ed. pi'. : Kal vols L. 
2 So ed. pr. : + TeToX/nrj/xevoLS L : Niese suspects a lacuna. 

" Apion was born in upper Egypt (Ap. ii. 29), studied at 
Alexandria, and tau_srht rhetoric in Rome under Tiberius, 
Caligula and Claudius. Under Caligula he headed the anti- 



(1) In the first volume of this work, my most esteemed Refutation 
Epaphroditus, I demonstrated the antiquity of our Semite 
race, corroborating my statements by the writings calumnies 
of Phoenicians, Chaldaeans, and Egyptians, besides (,>.) apion. 
citing as witnesses numerous Greek historians ; I 
also challenged the statements of Manetho, Chaere- 
mon, and some others. I shall now proceed to refute 
the rest of the authors w^ho have attacked us. I am 
doubtful, indeed, whether the remarks of Apion " the 
grammarian deserve serious refutation. Some of 
these resemble the allegations made by others, some 
are very indifferent ^ additions of his own ; most of 
them are pure buffoonery, and, to tell the truth, 
display the gross ignorance of their author, a man of 
low character and a charlatan to the end of his days. 
Yet, since most people are so foolish as to find greater 
attraction in such compositions than in works of a 

Jewish deputation sent from Alexandria to the Emperor, 
when he was opposed to Philo, the spokesman of the 
Alexandrian Jews {A. xviii. 257 ff.). An erudite, but 
ostentatious, writer, he was best known as an interpreter of 
Homer {Ap. ii. 14). He also wrote a History of Egypt in 
five books, which included references to the Jews {ib. 10): 
whether he wrote a separate work on the Jews is doubtful. 
His researches earned for him the nickname of /xoxdos 
(labor), his ostentatious parade that of cymbalum mundi, 
given him by the Emperor Tiberius. 
" Or " frigid." 


JOSEPHUS ^^x^'f'^^^ 

fidXXov r) rcov fierd nvog Grrovhrjs yey pafjifiev ojv , 
Kol ^alpovGL iJL€v TOis AotSoptats", dydovTai 8e 
Tots" eTrati'ots", avayKalov rjyrjadiJi'qv elvai ixrjhe 
rovrov dve^eracrrov KO^raXirrelv , Kar'qyopiav rjficov 

5 dvTLKpvs cos iv biKYj y€ypa(f)6ra. koI yap av 

KdK€LVO Tols TroAAotS" dvdptOTTOLS Opdj TTapaKoXoV- 

dovVy TO Xlav i(f)rjd€crda.L drav tls dp^dfievos ^Xa- 
G(j)rjp.elv krepov avro? e\iy)(^qrai Trepu row avroj 

6 TTpooovrojv KciKcov. kuTL fJLev ovv 01) pdbiov avTov 
dieXdelv TOP Xoyov ouSe cra<^cos" yvcbvai ri Xiyeiv 
^ovXeraL, ax^bov b\ ojg iv ttoAAt^ rapay^-^ kol 
ifjevGiJidrow GV'/)(yGei, ra pikv et? r'qv ofJLOLav iheav 
77L77r€L Tols TTpoe^rjraGfJLEVOLS rrepl rfjs i^ AlyvTrrov 

7 Tojv rjpL€Tep(jjv Trpoyovojv p^eravaGrdGews , ra S 
ecrrt Kar-qyopla row iv 'AAe^av8peta KaroLKOTJvrcov 

lovhaiow. rpLTOv b im roiJTOig fiep^iKrai rrepi 
TTj^ ayLGTeias ttj? Kara ro lepov Tjfidjv Kai tCjv 
dXXojv vop.Lp.ojv Karriyopia} 

g (2) "Ort /xev ovv ovre AlyvTmoi ro yivos rjGav 
rjpLOJv OL rrarepe? ovre bid XvpLrjV Gwp'drojy 7) TOiavras 
dXXas GVjic^opdg ra'a? eKeWev i^riXdGdrjGav, ov 
perpiojs pLOvov, dXXd Kai rrepa rov Gvp^puerpov 

9 rrpoaTrohehel-xOo.i' vopLLLoj. Trepl ojv he rrpoGTiOrjGLV 
10 o Wttlojv e7TLp.vrjGdriGopLaL Gvvropicj?. (jyqGi yap 
iv rfj rpirrj rojv AlyvrmaKajv rdSe. '' }>lojGrJ£, 
CO? TjKOVGa rrapd tojv TrpeG^vrepcov rwv AtyvTrrlajv, 
TjV ^ WXiorroXiTTjS , OS TrarpioLS edeGi Kariqyyvrjpievos 
aWpiovs 'TrpoGevxds dvrjyev els otovs ^l^^v rj ttoXls^ 

^ Bekker: KaTriyopLas L Lat. 

- 77 TToXts ed. pr. : -^\to? L : perhaps 'HXt'ou ttoXis should be 



serious nature, to be charmed by abuse and impatient 
of praise, I think it incumbent upon me not to pass 
over without examination even this author, M'ho has 
written an indictment of us formal enough for a court of 
law. For I observe, on the other hand, that people in 
general also have a habit of being intensely delighted 
when one who has been the first to malign another 
has his own vices brought home to him. His argu- 
ment is difficult to summarize and his ineaning to 
grasp. But, so far as the extreme disorder and con- 
fusion of his lying statements admit of analysis, one 
may say that some fall into the same category as 
those already investigated, relating to the departure 
of our ancestors from Egypt ; others form an in- 

tdictment of the Jewish residents in Alexandria ; 
while a third class, mixed up with the rest, consists 
of accusations against our temple rites and our 
J ordinances in general. , , , , . 

(2) That our ancestors neither were Egyptians by (a) On the 
race nor were expelled from that country in conse- E^jlpt! ^"^"^ 
quence of contagious diseases or any similar affliction, 
I think I have already given not merely sufficient, 
but even superabundant, proof. I propose, however, 
briefly to mention the details added by Apion. In 
the third book of his History of Egypt he makes the 
following statement : 

Moses, as I have heard from old people" in on the 
Egypt, was a native of Heliopolis,^ who, being sJjnti^^is^'^^ 
pledged to the customs of his country, erected erected hy 

1, X xi, • • 4-1 • Moses of 

prayer-houses, open to the air, m the various Heiiopoiis. 

"■ So Josephus interprets below; possibly Apion meant 
" the elders " (in official sense). 

" So Manetho, of Osarsiph, Ap. i. 238. 


TTepL^oXovs, TTpos a(j)iq\i(jjTrjv he Trdoas d7T€Grp€(f)€V' 

11 chSe yap koL 'HAtou Kelrai ttoXls. dvrl he o^eXojv 
eoTTjGe KLOvas, vcf)" ols rjv eKrvTroji-La GKd<f)rj, gklcl 
5' dphpuavTos^ €77 avrrjv hiaKeLpLevr], chs ov^ ev 
aWepL Tovrov del tov hpofjLov rjXioj crufiTTepLTToXel." 

12 roLa-UTTj jjiev ng tj OavpiaGrrj rod ypap.piarLKOv 
(f)pdGLS, ro he ijjevGiia Xoyojv ov heofievov, aAA' e/c 
ToJv epycDV 7Tepi<j>aves . ovre yap avros Mcoctt^s", 
ore TTjV TrpcJoTiqv gk-qvtjv toj deep KareGKevaGev, 
ovdev eKTV7rcop.a tolovtov ets avrrjv eveOrjKev, ovre 
TTOieZv ToZs eTTeira TrpoGera^tiV, 6 re pterd ravra 
KaraGKevdGas rov vaov rov ev 'lepoGoXvpiOLs 
^oXopLOJV TrdGT]? dneG^ero roiavr-qg TTeptepylas 

13 otav GvpLTreTrXeKev Attlcqv. dKovGai he (j)rjGi rcov 
TTpeG^vrepojv on ^lojGrj^ tjv^ HAtoTroAtTT]?, hrjXov 
on vecorepo? p-ev d)v avros, eKeivois he mGrevGas 
rols hid rrjv rjXLKiav e7TiGrap.evois avrdv Kal Gvy- 

14 yevopievoLS. Kal Trepl puev 'Op,rjpov rod rroL-qrov 
ypap,pLanKO£ ow avros ovk dv exoi, ns avrov 
TTarpis eGn, hia^e^aLWGapLevog eiTrelVy ovhe Trepl 
Uvdayopov pLovov ovk ey(des Kal Trpcprjv yeyovoros , 
Trepl he Majceajs" roGovroj TrXrjOeL Trpodyovros 
eKeivovs erow ovrojs aTTO(j)olverai pahiajs, TTLGrevwv 
dKofj TrpeG^vrepcuv, d)S hrjXos eGn KaraijjevGa- 

^ Conjecture of translator : avbpbs L. 
^ Huet : oTi L. ^ fuit Lat. : 6 L. 

" Or " on the various walls." 

* For the obelisks of Heliopolis cf. Herod, ii. 111. 

'^ Or " basin " (Gr. o-/cd0r?, the technical term for the con- 
cave base of a sun-dial). 

^ Emended text ; i.e. a human figure surmounting the 
pillar. The ms. has " the shadow of a man." 


precincts ^ of the city, all facing eastwards ; such 
being the orientation also of Heliopolis. In place 
of obelisks^ he set up pillars, beneath which was 
a model of a boat ^ ; and the shadow cast on this 
basin by the statue ^ described'a circle correspond- 
ing to the course of the sun in the heavens." 

Such is the grammarian's amazing statement. Its 
mendacious character needs no comment ; it is 
exposed by the facts. When Moses built the first 
tabernacle for God, he neither placed in it himself, 
nor instructed his successors to make, any graven 
imagery of this kind. When Solomon, later on, 
built the temple at Jerusalem, he too refrained from 
any curiosities of art such as Apion has conceived. 
He tells us that he heard from " old people " that 
Moses was a Heliopolitan. Obviously, as a junior, 
he believed what he was told by men old enough to 
have known and associated with him ! ^ Literary 
critic as he was, he could not positively have stated 
what was the birthplace of the poet Homer ,^ or even 
of Pythagoras,^ who lived, one may say, but the 
other day. But when asked about Moses, who pre- 
ceded them by such a vast number of years, he, on 
the strength of the old men's report, answers with 
an assurance which proclaims him a liar. 

« Reinach aptly compares Athen. i. § 29 (p. 161) : " Apion 
the Alexandrian says that he heard from Cteson of Ithaca 
the nature of the game of draughts played by the suitors 
(of Penelope)." 

^ Cf. the old distich : " Smyrna, Rhodos, Colophon, 
Salamis, Chios, Argos, Athenae, | Orbis de patria certat, 
Homere, tua." 

» Variously described as a Samian, Tyrrhenian, Syrian 
(? native of Syros), or Tyrian (Clem. Alex. Strom, i. 14, 
§ 62, quoted by Reinach). 



15 Td 3e Si] row ^(povojv iv ot? (hrjGi rov yiojorrjv 
i^ayayeZv rovg XerrpoJvTa? koI rv^Xov? Kal rag 
^aueis 7T€TrrjpojiJL€VQvg, acfioSpa St) rot? rrpo avrov 
(jvfJLTT€(j)owr]K€v , oj? olpiai, 6 ypaiJLjjiariKO? 6 aKpc^-qg. 

16 ^lavedoj? p,€v yap Kara rrjv Tedp^ojcrLos ^aaiXeiav 
aTTaXXayrjvai cbrjO'LV i^ Alyvrrrov rovg 'lovSalovs, 
Trpo ircov rpiaKOuiow ivevqKOvrarpLwv rrj? elg 

Apyog \avaov (j^vyi]?, \vGLpLa)(og Se Kara Boac- 
X^piv rov ^auiXea, rovrean Trpo erow ^^tAu'ojv 
€7TraKO(JLOJV, MoAojy 5e Kal dXXoL nves OJS av- 

17 rot? eho^ev. 6 Se ye rrdvrwv TTLororarog ^Attlcdv 
djpiuaro rrjV e^oSov aKpi^cbs Kara rrjv ij^SojJLTjv 
oXvfXTTLaba Kai ravr-qg erog elvai rrpojrov, iv a>, 
(f)r]GL, l\ap)(rjd6va ^olvLKeg eKriaav. rovro Se 
Trdvrojg TrpoGeOrjKe ro IS^apx'i^^ova reKp.-qpiov olo- 
IJL€vog avrqj yeveudai rijg aXrjOeLag evapyeararov , 
ov GVvrJKe Se Kad^ lavrov rov eXeyxov i7nu7TOjp,€vog . 

18 ei yap^ TTLureveiv hel ralg ^oLVLKOiv dvaypacfyalg, 
€v eK€Lvaig Ylpojfjiog 6 ^auiXevg yiyparrrai TTpe- 
G^vrepog rrjg Kap^^i^Sovos" Kriaeajg erccrt TrXeiooi 
TTpog rolg Trevri^KOvra Kal eKarov, rrepl ov rds" 
7TiGr€ig dvojrepoj rrapia^ov €K rojv ^olvlkojv 

19 avaypacfxMV, on HoXop^own rco rov vaov OLKoSofJurj- 
cra/xevoj rov iv ' le pooroXv/jLO eg <j)iXog rjv Etpoj/xo? 
Kal TToXXd avve^dXXero rrpog rrjv rov vaov Kara- 
GKevTjV. avrog Se o HoXopLow ajKohopn'iue rov 
vaov jjLerd ro i^eXdeiv i^ AlyvTrrov rovg ^lovSalovg 
ScuSe/ca Kal e^aKOGioig ereoLv varepov. 

^ -f- irepl TYJs dvLaTias L Lat. : —irepl ttjs dwoiKias ed. 2?r., 
" on the subject of the colony " (which should perhaps stand). 

« Ap. i. 103. ^ 76. 305. 

*^ Apollonius Molo, born in Caria, taught rhetoric in Rhodes 



On the question of the date which he assigns to On the date 
the exodus of the lepers, the blind and the lame under exodus. 
Moses' leadership, we shall find, I imagine, this 
accurate grammarian in perfect agreement with 
previous writers. Well, Manetho states that the 
departure of the Jews from Egypt occurred in the 
reign of Tethmosis, 393 years before the flight of 
Danaus to x\rgos * ; Lysimachus says, under King 
Bocchoris,^ that is to say, 1700 years ago ; Molon^ 
and others fix a date to suit themselves. Apion, 
however, the surest authority of all, precisely dates 
the exodus in the seventh Olympiad, and in the first 752-749 b.c. 
year of that Olympiad, the year in which, according 
to him, the Phoenicians founded Carthage.^ This 
mention of Carthage he has doubtless inserted under 
the belief that it would afford a striking proof of his 
veracity ; he has failed to see that he has thereby 
brought upon himself his own refutation. For, if 
the Phoenician chronicles may be trusted, it is there 
recorded that King Hirom lived more than 150 years 
before the foundation of Carthage.^ Evidence from 
those chronicles to this effect has been given earlier 
in this work, where I showed that Hirom was a friend 
of Solomon, who built the Temple at Jerusalem, and 
that he contributed largely towards its construction.-'' 
But Solomon himself built the Temple 612 years 
after the departure of the Jews from Egypt. ^ 

and at Rome ; Cicero and Julius Caesar were among his 
pupils. His diatribes on the Jews are frequently mentioned 
in this book. 

'^ Also the date of the foundation of Rome. 

« Ap. i. 126. f lb. 109 f. 

^ So Josephus in A. xx. 230 ; elsewhere {A. viii. 61) he 
gives the period as 592 vears ; the Biblical figure (1 Kings 
vi. 1) is 480. 



20 Tov §€ dpcd/jLov Tojv iXaaOevTOjv rov avrov 
l\vGi^d)(Oj ox^hidaas , eVSe/<:a ydp avrovs elvai 
(f)r](jL iivpidhas, davfiaari]v nva kol TTiOavrjv 
drrohihojcrLV alriav, dcf)^ rj? (f)r](n to ud^^arov 

21 (jjvofxdaOaL. " oSei^crayres", " ydp (f)r]GLV, " e^ '^H'^' 
paw ohov ^ovjiwvas ea-^ov kol Sta ravrrjv rrjv 
alriav rij e^hojir] rjpiepa dveTravGavro Gcodivres 
eiS T-qv )(ojpav rrjv vvv 'lofSatay Xeyopievrjv, xrat 
CKdXeaav rrjV 'qpuipav ad^^arov aojl^ovres rrjv 
AlyvTrrlcov yXtorrav to ydp ^ov^owo? dXyo? 

22 KaXovortv AlyvTTTLOL CTa^/3aS/" ou/c ay ovv tls tj 
KaTayeXdaete ttjs <j)Xvapias i) TovvavTLov puGiqueLe 
TTjV ev TO) TOLavTa ypd(f)€LV dvaiSeiav ; hrjXov ydp 
OTL rrdvTeg i^ovfSajVLaaav evSeKa jivpidhes dvdpoj- 

23 TTCOV. dAA' €1 fJ.€V TjUaV £K€.lvOL TV(f)Xoi Kol ■)(^OjXol 

Kai TTavTa Tporrov vogovvt€£, ottolov? avTovg elvai 
^rjGiv Wttlcjov, ouS' ay fJLLas rffjuepag TrpoeXOelv oSoy 
TjSvvqdrjaav' el S' olot ^aSllecv 3td TToXXrjg ip-qixias 

KOL 7Tp0(T€TL VLKOLV TOVg aVTols avdlGTapbivOVS 

pLaxd/Jievoi TrdvTe?, ovk dv ddpoot pieTa ttjv €KTr]v 

24 -qpiipav l^ov^ojviaGav. ovt€ ydp <f)VG€i ttojs yi- 
yerat <Td >~ tolovtov rots' ^ahit,ovuLv i^ avdyKrj?, 
aXXd TToXXal pLvpidSe? OTpaTorreScov errl rroXXds 
vjjbipas TO GVfjLpLeTpov del ^aSllovGLV, ovt€ Kara 
TavTop.aTov euKog ovtojs Gvp.f^rjvai' TravTOJv yap 

25 dAoyctjraroy. 6 hk OavpLaoro? Wttlcov 8td pbev e^ 
rjpiepojv avTovs eXdelv etV ttjv 'louSatay 7Tpo€Lpr]K€, 
TrdXiv Se TOV ^IcuvGrjv etV to pLETa^v ttj? AlyvTTTOV 
KOL TTJs Apa^ta? dpos, o KaXelTau StVatoy, aya- 

^ Reinach with the Lat. : craifSdrwcrts L. Cf. §§ -26 f. 
^ ins. Bekker. 



After stating that the fugitives numbered 110,000, On the 
in which imaginary figure he agrees with Lysimachus," the" word 
he gives an astonishing and plausible explanation "sabbath. 
of the etymology of the word " sabbath " ! 

" After a six days' march," he says, " they 
developed tumours in the groin, and that was why, 
after safely reaching the country now called 
Judaea, they rested on the seventh day, and called 
that day sahhaton, preserving the Egyptian termin- 
ology ; for disease of the groin in Egypt is called 

One knows not whether to laugh at the nonsense, 
or rather to be indignant at the impudence, of such 
language. Clearly all these 110,000 persons were 
attacked by tumours. But if they were blind and 
lame and suffering from all kinds of disease, as repre- 
sented by Apion, they could not have accomplished 
a single day's march. If, on the contrary, they were 
capable not only of traversing a vast desert, but of 
defeating their adversaries in battles in which they 
all took part, they would not have succumbed in a 
body to the tumours after six days. For persons on 
a forced march are not naturally subject to a malady 
of this kind ; myriads of men in armies maintain a 
regular pace for many days in succession. Nor can 
one attribute such an accident to chance ; that 
would be the height of absurdity. This astonishing 
Apion, after stating that they reached Judaea in six 
days,^ tells us elsewhere that Moses went up into 
the mountain called Sinai, which lies between Egypt 

" No figure is given in the extract from Lysimachus above 
{Ap. i. chap. 34). 

^ Apion does not say this in the extract above (§21), 
though his words lend themselves to such an interpretation. 



^dvTa (f)r)(jLv rjfiepag TeauapaKovra Kpvf^rjvaL, 
KOLKeWev Kara[3dvra dovvai rots' 'louSatot? rovs 


reaorapaKOvra /xevetv rjfjiepag iv iprjp.a) kol dvvSpo) 
roTTOj Kal TTjv [jL€Ta$v Trdaav iv rjpiepaLS If 8t- 

26 eXdelv; tj §e Trepl ttjv ovofiaaLav rod aaj^lSdrov 
ypafJLjJLariK-rj iierdOecn? dvaiSeiav €X€l ttoXKtjv t] 

27 SeLVTjV djiaOiav. to yap aaf^^oj Kal ad^^arov 
rrXeloTov dXX-qXow Sta(/)eper to fjuev yap ad^fSaTov 
KaTa TJ-jV ''lovdalojv htdXeKTOv dvdrravGL? euTiv 
drro rravTos epyov, to 5e aa^^oj, KadaTrep eKelvos 
(f)rj<jL, Sr]Xol Trap' AlyvTrTLOLS to ^ov^wvo? dXyos. 

28 (o) ToiavTa puev Tiva. Trepl Mcocrecos" Kal ttjs i^ 
AlyvTTTov yevofilvrjS Tolg 'loL'Satoi? aTraXXayrj^ o 
AlyvTrTLos Wttlojv eKaivoTToirioev Trapd tov? dXXovs 
eTTLVorjua?. Kal tl ye Set BavjxateLV ei Trepi tojv 
-qfjieTepow ipevdeTaL Trpoyovojv, Xeyojv avTovs elvat 

29 TO yevos AlyvTTTLOvg ; avTos yap jrept avTov 
TOVvavTLOv iipevSeTO Kal yeyevripuevos^ ev Odaet 
TTJs AlyvTTTOV, TrdvTOJV AiyvTTTLOJV TrpojTos ojv, a>g 
dv e'lTTOi Tig, ttjv jxev dXridrj TrarptSa KaL to yevos 
efcDjLtocraro, WXe^avdpevg he elvai KaTaipevhofievog 

30 ofjLoXoyel ttjv fioxOrjpiav tov yevovs. eLKOTOjg ovv 
ov? pLLoel Kal jjovXeTaL Xoihopelv tovtovs Al- 
yvTTTiovs KaXel. el fi'q yap SavXoTdTovs elvau 
evojiLLev AlyvTTTiovs, ovK dv to yevos' avTOS 
ecjivyev, ojs ol ye ijLeyaXo<f)povovvTes eiri rats' 
eavTOJv TTaTpiGL uejivuvovTaL puev arro tovtojv 
avTol xp^l^'^'^^^ovTes, tovs dSiKcos^ S' avTwv dvTi- 

31 TTOLOvfievovs iXeyxovGL. Trpos rjp^ds Se Svolv OaTe- 

^ ed. pr. : yeyewqiiivos L. 
^ Lat. genus : rod -^^evovs L. ^ ed. pr. : abiKov% L. 



and Arabia, remained in concealment there for forty 
days, and then descended and gave the Jews their 
laws. However could the same body of men stay 
forty days in a desert and waterless region, and yet 
cover the whole distance to their destination in six 
days ? The grammarian's distortion of the word 
" sabbath " betrays either gross impudence or shock- 
ing ignorance ; there is a wide difference between 
sahho and sahhaton. Sahhaton in the Jews' language 
denotes cessation from all work, while sahbo among 
\ the Egyptians signifies, as he states, disease of the 

(3) Such are some of the novel features which the on the 
Egyptian Apion, improving upon other authors, has o^^^^f^'^fV, 
introduced into the story of Moses and the departure Jewish race, 
of the Jews from Egypt. That he should lie about 
our ancestors and assert that they were Egyptians 
by race is by no means surprising. He told a lie 
which was the reverse of this one about himself. 
Born in the Egyptian oasis,^ more Egyptian than 
them all, as one might say, he disowned his true 
country and falsely claimed to be an Alexandrian, 
thereby admitting the ignominy of his race. It is 
therefore natural that he should call persons whom 
he detests and wishes to abuse Egyptians. Had he 
not had the meanest opinion of natives of Egypt, he 
would never have turned his back on his own nation. 
Patriots are proud to bear their country's name, and 
denounce those who lay unjust claim to the title of 
citizens. In their relation to us, Egyptians are 

" The Great Oasis, in upper Egypt {cf. §41), west of 



pov XlyuTTTioL TTeTTOvOacnv rj yap ojs eiriGepivvvo- 
fievoL TTpoGTroiovvrai rrjv crvyyeveLav, tj kolvojvovs 

32 rjfjid? eTTiGTTOJVTai rrjs avrojv KaKoSo^ta?. 6 8e 
yevvalos 'ATrtcov hoKel jjlev ttjv ^XaGcbr] {jl iav ttjv 
KaO^ rjpLoyv coorrep tlvcl (jllgOov iOeXijaaL Trapaax^lv 
'AAc^avSpeucrt rrj? SoOetcnp avroj TToXiTetag, Kal 
TTjv a7Tey(9eiav avTOJV i7TL(jrdi.L€vos rrfv irpo? rovs 
crvvoLKovvra? avrois i^rl rrj? 'AAe^avSpetas" 'lou- 
Saiovg TTpoTeOeirai pbkv eKeivoi? AotSopetc^at, CTf/x- 
TTepiXaji^dvei} 8e koI rovs aXXov? drravras, €V 
d[icf)or€poL£ dvoAGXVvrojs ipevhoixevos . 

33 (4) TtVa ro'ivvv earl ra heivd Kal crx^TXta row 
iv 'AXe^avSpeia KaroiKovvrow lov^aiojv, d Kar- 
TjyoprjKev avrcoVy Locofiev. eAuovres, (pT](7LV, ajro 
Suptas" cpK'qGav npos dXijievov OdXaaaav yeirvid- 

34 aavres rat? 'I'ojv Kvybdrcov eK^oXal?." ovkovv 
r OTTOS €L XoiSopiav €X€L, T-qv ov rrarpiSa jjuev Xeyo- 
fjL€vr]v Se avrov AotSopec tt)v AXe^dvSpecav' eKeivrjs 
yap Kal to rrapdXiov ean piipos, ojs Trdvre? 6[jlg- 

35 XoyOVGiVy €19 KaTOLKTjGlV TO KoXXlCTTOV . 'lofSatOi 

8' el fiev ^LacjajievoL KaTecr)(pv , cLg pbrjh voTepov 
eK7T€uelvy avhpeias TeKpL^ptov euTiv avTols' els 
KaTOLKTjcnv 8e avTots eSojKev <t6v > tottov 'AAe^ay- 
Spos Kal LO-qs rrapd rols Maa:e8oCTt TijJLrjs eTTeTV^ov. 

36 [pvK OLoa 0€ TL 7T0T av eAeyev A^ttlcov, et Trpos ttj 

^ ed. i^r. : avixirepCKafi^aveiv L, 
^ el ed. 2>r. : orn. L. 

" The Jewish quarter was on the X.E. of Alexandria, 
separated from the Great Harbour by the promontory of 
Lochias, on which stood the royal palace (Strabo, xvii. 9. 
794 : of. § 36 below). The necropolis (§ 36) was at the other 
end, the extreme west, of the city. 



swayed by one of two feelings : either they feign 
to be our kinsmen in order to gain prestige, or else 
they drag us into their ranks to share their bad 
reputation. The noble Apion's calumny upon us is 
apparently designed as a sort of return to the Alex- 
,- andrians for the rights of citizenship which they 
bestowed upon him. Knowing their hatred of their 
Jewish neighbours in Alexandria, he has made it his 
aim to vilify the latter, and has included all the rest of 
the Jews in his condemnation. In both these attacks 
he shows himself an impudent liar. 

/ (i) Let us investigate the grave and shocking (5) Apion's 
/charges which he has brought against the Jewish J^^l^^gJ^^j"^ 
^residents in Alexandria. " They came," he says," from 'ews of 
Syria and settled by a sea without a harbour, close 
beside the spot where the waves break on the beach." 
Well, if fault is to be found with the locality, he is 
stigmatizing, I do not say his native place, but what 
he professes to be his native place, Alexandria. 
For the sea-board forms part of the city, and is, by 
universal consent, its finest residential quarter." If 
the Jews owed their occupation and subsequent un- 
disturbed tenure of this quarter to force of arms, 
that is a proof of their valour. In fact, however, it 
was presented to them as their residence by Alex- 
ander, and they obtained privileges on a par with 
those of the Macedonians.^ (I do not know what 
Apion would have said if the Jews had been quartered 

^ From other passages in Josephus it would appear that 
the Alexandrian Jews owed their separate quarters and their 
privilege of laoTroXiTeia to Ptolemy Soter, rather than to 
Alexander. Cf. B. ii. 487 f. (a " place of their own " is 
given by the Diadoclii), A. xii. 8 {iaowoXiTela by Ptolemy 

VOL. I X 305 


veKpoTToXei KarcpKovv /cat [jlt] Trpog rol? ^aGiXiKols 
Tjuav ihpvfievoi.) /cat fJi^xpi- vvv avrwv rj (fivXr] rrjv 

37 TTpoGTjyopiav €l}(^ev Ma/ceSoves". €l [lev ovv aya- 
yvovs ra? eTncrroXas WXe^dvSpov rod ^acrtAeoj? /cat 
ras YlroXefJuaLOV rod \ayov, /cat row fier eKelvov 
rrjs AlyvTTTOv ^acnXeojv evrv)(ojv rot? ypa/x/xaat, 
/cat TT^v GTTjX'qv TTjV ioTcoGav €V AXe^avhpeia /cat 
TO, St/cataj/xara TTepcexovaav, a Kataap o fieyas 
rots 'louSatots" eSojKev, et aev' ouv ravra, cl)rjiJLL, 
yiyvojGKow ravavria ypd(f)€tv iroXfJia, rrovqpo^ rjv, 
et Se /jLT^hev rjTTLararo rovrajv, aTratSefros". 

38 To Se St^ davfJbdl^eLV ttojs TouSatot ovres 'AAe^av- 
hpeZs eKXijOrjGav, rrjs o/xotas" aTTaiSevGLag . rrdvreg 
yap OL €LS aTTOLKiav rivd KaraKXrjdevres , Kav 
TrXelGTOv d/\XTJXajv rols yiveGi SiacfiepojGLv, drro 

39 Ta)v OLKLGTOJV TTjV 7TpoG7]yopiav Xajji^dvovGLV . /cat 
TL Set 77ept rcov dXXojv Xdyetv; avrcoiv yap rjpiojv 
OL rrjv AvTi6y(^eLav KaroiKovvre? Avtlox€1? 6vop.d- 
l,ovTaL' rrjv yap TToXireiav avrols ehcoKev 6 KTiGrrj? 
HeXevKO?. opiOLOJS ol iv 'E^eaco Kal^ Kara rrjv 
dXXiqv ^lojviav rols avOiyeveGL TToXirais o/xcovu- 
fjLovGiv, rovro TrapaG^ovrcov airrols rcov 8taSo;)(a>v. 

40 T] 8e 'PcxjpiaLOJV (f)LXav9poj7rLa rraGiv ov fiLKpov heiv 
rrjg avrcov TrpoG-qyopias /xeraoeooj/cev, ov fiovov 
avSpdoiv dXXd /cat fx^ydXois edveGiv oXols ; ''l^iqpes 

^ /cat : ora. L Lat. 

° This sentence is perhaps a later, and misplaced, insertion 
of the author. Niese and Reinach transpose it to the end of 



in the neighbourhood not of the palace, but of the 
necropohs !) " Down to the present time their local 
tribe bore the name of " Macedonians." If Apion 
had read the letters ^ of King Alexander and of 
Ptolemy, son of Lagus, if he had set eyes on the 
papers of their successors on the throne of Egypt, or 
the slab ^ which stands in Alexandria, recording the 
rights bestowed upon the Jews by Caesar the Great ; 
if, I say, he knew these documents and yet had the 
face to contradict them in what he wrote, he was a 
knave ; if he had no knowledge of them, an ignorant 

His astonishment at the idea of Jews being called '^l^^^^ 
Alexandrians betrays similar stupidity. All persons Alexandrian 
invited to join a colony, however diiferent their f^'tizensinp. 
nationality, take the name of the founders. It is 
needless to go outside our race for instances. Our 
Jewish residents in Antioch are called Antiochenes, 
having been granted rights of citizenship by its 
founder, Seleucus.^ Similarly, those at Ephesus and 
throughout the rest of Ionia bear the same name as 
the indigenous citizens, a right which they received 
from Alexander's successors.^ Have not the Romans, 
in their generosity, imparted their name to well- 
nigh all mankind, not to individuals only, but to 
great nations as a whole ? Thus those who were 

^ Or possibly " orders." 

'' Greek stele ; cf. A. xiv. 188. 

^ Seleucus I Nicator, founder of the Seleiicid dynast)^ 
Cf. A. xii. 119 ; the rights of the Antiochene Jews were, 
when Titus visited the citv, inscribed on bronze tables 
(B. vii. 110). 

« More precisely, as stated in A. xii. 125, from 
Antiochus II Tlieos (362-246 b.c.) ; see Schiirer, G.J.V. 
(ed. 3), iii. 81 note. 



yovv OL TToXai kol Tvpprjvol Kal Haj^voi 'Pco/xatot 

41 KaXovvrai. el oe rovrov ac^aipetrat rov Tporrov 
rrjg TroAtreta? Arrlojv, TTavrrdaOoj Xcycov avrov 
'AXe^avdpea' yewrjdels yo.p, oj? TrpoetTTOV, ev roj 
^advrdrcp rrj^ AlyvTrrov ttojs dv ^ AXe^avhpevs €Lrj, 
rrjg Kara. SSglv TroAtretas", d)9 auros" i(b^ tjjjlcov 
Tj^LojKev, avaipoviievqs ; Kairoi fxavoig AlyvTTTiois 
ol Kvpioi vvv Poj/xatot T'ns OLKovfjievqg fiera- 

42 Xap.i8dv€LV rjGTLVOGOvv TToXireias aTreip-qKaGLV. 6 8* 
Qvrojs i(7TL yewalos, d)S fJL€re)(€LV d^iow avro? aw 
TV)(€lv iKojXvero GVKocj)avTelv eVe^etp'/^crc rous" 
huKaiaJS Xa^ovras. 

Ov yap drropia ye row oIkTjOovtojv ttjv fiera 
GTrovhrjS VTT avrov ttoXlv KrLtojievqv ^AXe^avhpo? 
rctjv TjpLerepojv nvds eKel GVvrjBpoiGev, aXXd rrdvras 
hoKLp,dt,ojv eTTipLeXojs dperrjg Kal TTLGrecjs rovro 

43 rot? rjiierepoLg ro yepas eSojKev. irlpba yap -hiiajv 
ro eOvos, cog Kal (f)r)GLV 'Y.Karalo£ rrepl rjfxojv, ori 
oca rrjV eTTieiKeiav Kai TTiGnv, TjV avrqj TrapeG^ov 
^lovhaloi, rrjv HapLapelnv y(^ujpav rrpoGeOrjKev e^eiv 

44 avroZs dcj^opoXoyrirov . ofxoia Se 'AAe^arSpoj Kat 
YlroXep.alos 6 Adyov Trepl row iv AXe^avSpeia 
KaroLKOVvrow e^povTjGev /cat yap ra Kara rr]v 

" This statement, so far as the Iberians are concerned, is, 
as Pteinach points out, an exaggeration. Fifty Spanish com- 
munities enjoyed full Roman citizenship under Augustus ; 
^'espasian bestowed the ius Latii (an inferior privilege) on the 
whole peninsula : Mommsen, Provinces of Horn. Emp. i. 68 f. 


* An exaggerated statement, repeated in § 72 below. 
Native Eg%-ptians were treated, alike by the Ptolemies and 
by the Roman emperors, as on a lower level than the Greeks. 
But they could obtain rights of Roman citizenship on the 
following conditions : (I) that they had previously obtained 



once Iberians,* Tyrrhenians, Sabines are now called 
Romans. If Apion disallows this class of citizenship, 
let him cease to call himself an Alexandrian. Born, 
as I have already mentioned,^ in the depths of 
Eg3^pt, how can he be an Alexandrian, if, as he 
claims in our case, honorary rights of citizenship are 
to be ruled out ? Indeed, Egyptians are the only 
people to whom the Romans, now lords of the 
universe, have refused admission to any citizen 
rights whatever.^ Yet Apion displays such noble 
generosity as to claim for himself privileges from 
which he was debarred, while he undertakes to 
calumniate those who have fairly obtained them. 

For it was not lack of inhabitants to people the Privileges 
city, whose foundation he had so much at heart, that on^them^y 
led Alexander to asseixible in it a colony of our nation. Alexander 
This privilege he conferred on our people, after successive 
careful and thorough scrutiny, as a reward of valour Ptolemies. 
and fidelity. The honour in which he held our nation 
may be illustrated by the statement of Hecataeus 
that, in recognition of the consideration and loyalty 
shown to him by the Jews, he added to their territory 
the district of Samaria free of tribute.'^ Alexander's 
opinion of the Jews of Alexandria was shared by 
Ptolemy, son of Lagus. He entrusted the fortresses 

the citizenship of Alexandria, a privilege rarely accorded 
(Pliny to Trajan, Ep. vi., with Trajan's reply, Ep. vii.) ; 
{2} that they were ineligible for admission to the Senate. 
Reinach, in loc. ; cf. Mommsen, Provinces, ii. 241 f. 

'^ This statement (? of pseudo-Hecataeus) is certainly 
exaggerated, and perhaps an anachronism. Three small 
districts of Samaria (not the whole country) were ceded 
to the Jews, free of tribute, by Demetrius II c. 145 b.c. 
(1 Mace. xi. 34 ; cf. x. 30, 38) ; but the language of 1 Mace. 
suggests that Demetrius may have been confirming some 
concession of earlier date. 



AtyuTTTOv avrols ivex^^pi^cr^ <f)povpLa, ttlgto)? dfia 
Koi y^vvaiojs cf)vXd^€LV VTVoXa/JblSdvajv , Kal Kupr^y?]? 
iyKpa-TOJS dpx^LV ^ovX6p,evos Kai row dXXcov raJv 
Iv rfj Al^vtj TToXeojVt elg airrds p^epog ^lovSaicxJV 

45 €7T€fnp€ KaroLKTJcrov. 6 8e /xer' avrov YlroXejJLalog , 
6 OtAaScA^os" emKXrideLS, ov fiovov el rive's ^qoav 
alxi^d-XcDroL nap avro) rcbv ijpLerepcov rravras 
aTTeScoKev, dXXd koI -x^prjiiara rroXXaKLg eSajprjaaro 
Kai, ro jJbeyLurov, e7n6viJ.r]rr]g eyevero rod yvchvai 
rovg -qfierepovs vopbovs Kal rals rd)V lepcov ypa(f)djv 

46 ^i^XoLS ivrvx^lv. errepiipe yovv d^iojv dvhpas 
aTToo-raXrjvai rovs eppnqvevoovrag avroj rov vofiov, 
Kal rod ypacjyrjvai ravra KaXojg rrjv eTTifieXeiav 
eTTera^ev ou rot? rvxovaLV, dXXd Arjfji-qrpLov rov 
^aXrjpea Kal Wvhpeav Kal Apicrrea, rov piev 
rraiheia rd)v Ka9^ eavrov Sta^epovra^ \irjiJbrjrpiov, 

47 rovs he rrjV rod coS/xaros" avrov (f)vXaKrjv iy- 
Kex^ipLO/JLevovs , errl rrjs eTTi/xeAeta? ravrrjs era^ev, 
OVK dv StJttov rovg vofiovg Kal rrjv rrdrpiov rjjjbdjv 
(^iXouo(f)iav €77 iOvpLrjorag eKpLadelv, el row ;)^^'poj/xeVcov 
avrols dvSpojv Kare(f)p6vei Kal pLrj Xuav edavpiat,ev. 

48 (5) W^TTiajvahe GX^hov ec^e^TjS TTavres eXaOov olrdjv 
TTpoyovwv avrov ^laKeS6va)v^ ^aaiXels oiKeiorara 
Trpos Tjp^ds hiareOevreg. Kai yap rpcros UroXe- 
p^alos, Xey6p.evo? Kvepyer-qg, Karauxdiv dXiqv 

^ eel. pr. : dLacpepovTcov L. 
^ Ironical : needlessly omitted by Naber and Reinach. 

" Josephus is dependent, here and in A. xii. 8, on Aristeas 
1 3 ; but several Jewish garrisons are known to have existed in 
Egypt (Schiirer, G.J. V., ed. 3, -2-2). One of these, the " Jewish 
camp "' in the Delta, is mentioned in B. i. 191 ( = A. xiv. 133). 



of Egypt to their keeping," confident of their loyalty 
and bravery as guards ; and, when lie was anxious to 
strengthen his hold upon Cyrene and the other cities 
of Libya, he sent out a party of Jew^s to settle there.^ 

/His successor, Ptolemy surnanied Philadelphus, not 
only surrendered all prisoners of our race within his 
realm, but was liberal in his presents of money. The 
highest compliment, however, which he paid us lay 
s^ in his keen desire to know our laws and to read the 
\ books of our sacred scriptures. It is, at any rate, 
^ the fact that he sent and requisitioned the services 
of Jewish deputies to interpret the law to him ; and, 
to ensure accuracy in transcription, entrusted the 
task to no ordinary persons. Demetrius of Phalerum,^ 
with Andreas and Aristeas, the first the most learned 
man of his time, the others his own bodyguards, were 
his appointed commissioners.^ Surely he would not 
have shown such keen interest in our laws and the 
creed ^ of our ancestors, had he despised, instead of 
holding in the highest admiration, those to whom 
they are the rule of their lives. 

(5) Apion has further ignored the extreme kind- 
ness shown to us successively by nearly all the kings 
of his Macedonian-'' ancestors. Thus, Ptolemy III 
surnamed Euergetes,^ after his conquest of the 247-222 


^ The Jews of Cyrene in the time of Sulla formed one of 
the four classes of the inhabitants (Strabo ap. Jos. A. 
xiv. llo). 

" Ap. i. 218. 

** These statements are derived from the so-called Letter of 
Aristeas, paraphrased by Josephus in A. xii. 12 if. 

" Greek " philosophy." ^ See note 2 opposite. 

<> Of his achievements in the Syrian War at the beginning- 
of his reign he left a record at Adule on the coast of the Red 
Sea (Mahaffy, Kmp. of Ptolemies, 199) ; for his sacrifices at 
Jerusalem Josephus is the sole authority. 



^vplav Kara Kpdros ov rols iv AlyuTrrco deois 
XCipLcrr-qpLa rrjs vlk'qs eOvaev, dAAd rro.payevoiievos 
et.9 'lepocrdATJ/xa 7To)\Xds, cos rjl^lv vojup.ov €Otlv, 
€77€reAec7e Ovoias ro) deep kol dveOrjKev dvaOrjpiara 

49 rrjs vlkyjs d^iOJS- 6 8e ^LXop.rjrojp YlroXefMalo? 
Kal T) yvvTj avTOV KAeoTrdrpa rrjv ^aoiXeiav oXijV 
TTjv iavrojv ^lovhaiois imGTevcjav, Kau GTpariqyoi 
Trdarjs rrjs hvvdpbeojs rjcrav ^Oviag kol Aoo-t^eos" 
^lovhaloi, chv 'ATTtojy oKOjTTTei rd ovopLara, heov 
rd epya davpid^eiv Kal pLTj XotSopelv, dXXd ^^piv 
avrotg ^x^^v, on Steccocrav rr^v WXe^dvSpeiav , '^s 

50 COS" TToXlrrjs dvrLTTOielrau. TToXepLOiJvrcov yap avrcJov 
rfj j^aGiXiGG-Q KAeoTrdrpct Kal klvSvv6v6vtojv an- 
oXeudai KaKvos, ovtol GV/jL^aaecs eTToi'QGav /cat rojv 
epi.<j)vXia)v KaKcbv aTT'qXXa^av . dXXd " p.€rd. ravTa, 
(hrjGiv, " ^Ovias eVt rrjv ttoXlv jjyaye Grparov 
<ovK>^ oXtyov, ovros e/cet QeppLov rod Trapa 

51 'PcjpLaiajv rrpeG^evrov Kal Trapovrog." opdtos he 
7TOLOJV, (f)aLrjv dv, Kal pudXa hiKaiojs. 6 ydp ^vgkcdv 
iTTLKXrjdelg rTroAe/xatos', dTToOavovros avroj rod 
dSeA</>OLi YlroXepuaLOV rov ^LXopLTjropos, dvro IS^vprj- 
V7]s i^rjXOe KXeondrpav eK^aXelv ^ovX.6p,€vo? rrjs ^ol- 

52 GiXeias' et filios regis, ut ipse regnum iniuste sibimet 
applicaret ; propter haec ergo Onias aduersus eum 
bellum pro Cleopatra suscepit et fidem. quam habuit 

1 ins. Hohverda. 
^ Lacuna in L toj§ Hi (see Introduction p. xviii). 

" By some identified as Onias IV, the founder of the 
Temple at Leontopolis (c. 154 b.c.) : but the name was not 
uncommon. Of Dositheus nothing is known. 

* Doubtless deriving Onias from Greek ovos. 

'^ On the death of Philometor in 146 b.c, his \\idow 


AGAINST APION, 11. 48-52 

whole of Syria, instead of sacrificing to the gods of 
Egypt in thanksgiving for his success, came to 
Jerusalem, and there, after our manner, offered 
/numerous sacrifices to God, and dedicated votive 
gifts appropriate to such a victory. Again, Ptolemy i82-i46 
Philometor and his consort Cleopatra entrusted the ^'^' 
whole of their realm to Jews, and placed their entire 
army under the command of Jewish generals, Onias ^ The Jews 
and Dositheus. Apion ridicules their names,^ when uositheus 
he ought rather to admire their achievements, and, "^ande^rs^ri- 
instead of abusing them, to thank them for saving chief. 
Alexandria, of which he claims to be a citizen. For, 
when the Alexandrians were at war with Queen 
Cleopatra and in imminent danger of annihila- 
tion, it was they who negotiated terms and rid 
them of the horrors of civil war.^ " But," says 
Apion, " Onias subsequently advanced at the head 
of a large army against the city, when Thermus,^^ 
the Roman ambassador, was actually on the spot." 
He was right and perfectly justified in so acting, I 
venture to say. For, on the death of his brother 
Ptolemy Philometor, Ptolemy surnamed Physcon 
left Cyrene with the intention of dethroning Cleo- 
patra and the deceased king's sons, and iniquitously 
usurping the crown himself. That was why, on 
Cleopatra's behalf, Onias took up arms against him, 
refusing to abandon at a crisis his allegiance to the 

Cleopatra proclaimed king their young son Ptolemy VIII 
(Philopator Neos). The brother of the dead king, however, 
Ptolemy IX (Euergetes II, Phj'scon), was recalled from 
Cyrene by the Alexandrians, slew his youthful rival, seized 
the throne, and married the widowed queen, his sister 
(Justin, epitome by Trogus Pompeius, xxxviii. 8. 2-4). 

'^ Doubtless the Lucius Thermus who acted on behalf of 
Physcon on a previous occasion (Polyb. frag, xxxiii. 5). 



53 circa reges.nequaquam in necessitate deseruit. Testis 
autem deus iustitiae eius manifestus appariiit ; nam 
Fyscon Ptolomaeus cum aduersum exercitum quidem 
Oniae pugnare <non>^ praesumeret, omnes uero 
ludaeos in ciuitate positos cum filiis et uxoribus 
capiens nudos atque uinctos elephantis subiecisset, 
ut ab eis conculcati deficerent. et ad hoc etiam bestias 
ipsas inebriasset,^ in contrarium quae praeparauerat 

54 euenerunt. Elephanti enim relinquentes sibi ap- 
positos ludaeos impetu facto super amicos eius 
multos ex ipsis interemerunt. Et post haec Ptolo- 
maeus quidem aspectum terribilem contemplatus est 

55 prohibentem se, ut illis noceret hominibus ; concu- 
bina uero sua carissima, quam alii quidem Ithacam, 
alii uero Hirenen denominant, supplicante ne tantam 
impietatem perageret, ei concessit et ex his quae iam 
egerat uel acturus erat paenitentiam egit. Unde 
recte hanc diem ludaei Alexandria constituti, eo 
quod aperte a deo salutem promeruerunt, celebrare 

56 noscuntur. Apion autem omnium calumniator etiam 
propter bellum aduersus Fysconem gestum ludaeos 
accusare praesumpsit, cum eos laudare debuerit. 

Is autem etiam ultimae Cleopatrae Alexandri- 
norum reginae meminit, ueluti nobis improperans 
quoniam circa nos fuit ingrata, et non potius illam 

57 redarguere studuit ; cui nihil omnino iniustitiae et 
malorum operum defuit uel circa generis necessarios 
uel circa maritos suos, qui etiam dilexerunt eam, uel 
in communi contra Romanos omnes et benefactores 

1 ins. Reinach. - debriasset mss. 

" The incident of the elephants is attributed in 3 Mace, 
v-vi to Ptolemy l\\ Philopator (-2-2-2-205 b.c). The 
common origin of both stories is doubtless traceable to a 
festival of the Alexandrian Jews, analogous to that of Purlm 



throne. Moreover, the justice of his action was 
signally attested by God. For Ptolemy Physcon, Persecution 
though [not] daring to face the army of Onias, had p^toienw^^ 
arrested all the Jews in the city with their wives and Physcon 
children, and exposed them, naked and in chains, to sequel! 
be trampled to death by elephants, the beasts being 
actually made drunk for the purpose. However, the 
outcome was the reverse of his intentions. The 
elephants, without touching the Jews at their feet, 
rushed at Physcon 's friends, and killed a large 
number of them. Afterwards Ptolemy saw a terrible 
apparition, which forbade him to injure these people. 
His favourite concubine (some call her Ithaca, others 
Irene) adding her entreaty to him not to perpetrate 
such an enormity, he gave way and repented of his 
past actions and further designs. That is the origin 
of the well-known feast which the Jews of Alexandria 
keep, with good reason, on this day, because of 
the deliverance so manifestly vouchsafed to them 
by God." Apion, however, whose calumny nothing 
escapes, ventures to find another charge against the 
Jews in their war on Physcon, for which they deserve 
his commendation. 

^ He further alludes to Cleopatra, the last queen of Persecution 
' Alexandria,^ apparently reproaching us for her un- infamous 
gracious treatment of us. He ought, instead, to Cleopatra. 
have set himself to rebuke that woman, who com- 
mitted every kind of iniquity and crime against her 
relatives, her devoted husbands,^ the Romans in 

{cf. 3 Mace. vi. 36). The independent account of Josephus 
is the less improbable of the two. 

^ 51-30 B.C. For a similar catalogue of her crimes cf. A. 
XV. 89 flF. 

" Perhaps " her husbands and even her lovers " ; the 
Latin translator having misunderstood the original (lleinach). 



suos imperatores ; quae etiam sororem Arsinoen 

58 occidit in templo nihil sibi nocentem, peremit autem 
et fratrem insidiis paternosque deos et sepulcra 
progenitorum depopulata est ; percipiensque regnum 
a primo Caesare eius filio et successori rebellare 
praesumpsit, Antoniumque corrunipens amatoriis 
rebus et patriae ininiicum fecit et infidelem circa 
suos aniicos instituit, alios quideni genere regali 
spolians, alios autem demens^ et ad mala gerenda 

59 compellens. Sed quid oportet amplius dici, cum 
ilium ipsum in nauali certamine relinquens, id est 
maritum et parentem communium filiorum. tradere 
eum exercitum et principatum et se sequi coegit ? 

60 Nouissime uero Alexandria a Caesare capta ad hoc 
usque perducta est, ut salutem hinc sperare se 
iudicaret, si posset ipsa manu sua ludaeos^ perimere, 
eo quod circa omnes crudelis et infidelis extaret. 
Putasne gloriandum nobis non esse, si quemadmodum 
dicit Apion famis tempore ludaeis triticum non est 
mensa ? 

01 Sed ilia quidem poenam subiit competentem, nos 
autem maximo Caesare utimur teste solacii atque 
fidei, quam circa eum contra Aegyptios gessimus, 
necnon et senatu eiusque dogmatibus et epistuhs 
Caesaris Augusti-, quibus nostra merita comprobantur. 

62 Has litteras Apionem oportebat inspicere et secundum 

^ v.l. deiciens. 

^ The Lat. is manifestly absurd. Probably, as Reinach 
suggests, the Greek had something like el dvvarai ai/rrju 
avToxetp ipoveveLv : avrrjv was corrupted to ai'Tovs and thence 
to 'loi'Sat'oi's. 

^ Slain by Antony, under Cleopatra's orders, in the temple 
of Artemis at Ephesus (Jos. A. xv. 89) or at Miletus (App. 
Bell. Civ. V. 9). 

'' Ptolemy XV, the younger of her two brothers, her 



general, and their emperors, her benefactors ; who 
slew her innocent sister Arsinoe in the temple,^ 
treacherously assassinated her brother,^ plundered 
her country's gods and her ancestors' sepulchres ^ ; 
who, owing her throne to the first Caesar, dared to 
revolt against his son and successor, and, corrupting 
Antony by sensual passion, made him an enemy to 
his country and faithless to his friends, robbing some 
of their royal rank, discharging^ others, and driving 
them into crime. But what more need be said, when 
she deserted even him — her husband and the father 
of their children — in the naval battle,^ and compelled 
him to surrender his army and imperial title to follow 
her ? In the end, when Alexandria was captured by 
Caesar,-^ she was reduced to such extremities as to 
see no hope for herself but in suicide, after the 
cruelty and treachery which she had practised 
towards all. If, as Apion asserts, this woman in time 
of famine refused to give the Jews any rations of 
corn, is not that, pray, a fact of which we should be 
proud ? 

She, however, met with the punishment which she Privileges 
deserved. We, on our side, have the great Caesar Roman^*^ ^ 
to witness to the loyal support which we rendered f-mperors 
him against the Egyptians ; ^ we have also the senate Alexandria. 
and its decrees and the letters of Caesar Augustus 
which attest our services. Apion ought to have 
consulted these letters and examined, under their 

husband and co-regent, believed to have been poisoned by 
her at Rome c. 44 b.c. ; cf. A. xv. 89. 

" Cf. A. XV. 90. ^ Text and meaning doubtful. 

* Of Actium, 81 b.c. ^ Octavius, 30 b.c. 

^ The Jewish contingent under Antipater served with 
Juhus Caesar in his war with Alexandria after the death of 
Pompey, 47 b.c. ; jB. i. 187 if. ; A. xiv. 127 ff. 



genera exaniinare testimonia sub Alexandre facta et 
omnibus Ptolomaeis, et quae a senatu constituta 
sunt, necnon et a maximis Romanis imperatoribus. 

63 Si uero Germanicus frumenta cunctis in Alexandria 
commorantibus nietiri non potuit, hoc indicium est 
sterilitatis ac necessitatis frumentorum, non accusatio 
ludaeorum. Quid enim sapiant omnes imperatores 
de ludaeis in Alexandria commorantibus. palam est. 

64 Nam amministratio tritici nihilo minus ab eis quam 
ab aliis Alexandrinis translata est ; maximam uero 
eis fidem olim a re0bus datam conseruauerunt, id 
est fluminis custodiam totiusque fcustodiaef.^nequa- 
quam his rebus indignos esse iudicantes. 

65 (6) Sed super haec, " quomodo ergo," inquit, " si 
sunt ciues, eosdem deos quos Alexandrini non colunt ? " 
Cui respondeo, quomodo etiam, cum uos sitis Aegyptii, 
inter alterutros proelio magno et sine foedere de 

66 religione contenditis ? An certe propterea non uos 
omnes dicimus Aegvptios et neque communiter 
homines, quoniam bestias aduersantes naturae 
nostrae cohtis multa diligentia nutrientes ? Cum 
genus utique nostrorum unum atque^ idem esse 

67 uideatur. Si autem in nobis Aegvptiis tantae diffe- 
rentiae opinionum sunt, quid miraris super his, qui 
aliunde in Alexandriam aduenerunt, si in legibus a 
principio constitutis circa talia permanserunt ? 

^ Perhaps read prouinciae ( Boysen). 
2 nostrorum unum atque] r.l. nostrum uestrumque. 

" Or " generals." 

* Germanicus, nephew of Tiberius, visited Egypt in 
A.D. 19, and ingratiated himself by opening the granaries 
and reducing the price of corn (Tac. Ann. ii. 59). 

^ Cf. B. i. 175 (a Jewish guard in charge of the Pelusiac 
mouth of the Nile). 

** Cf. for these local religious feuds Juv. Sat. xv. 33 fF., 
and Ap. i. 225 above. 



respective heads, the testimonials given under 
Alexander and under all the Ptolemies, with those 
emanating from the senate and the most distin- 
guished Roman emperors." If Germanicus was 
unable to distribute corn to all the inhabitants of 
Alexandria,^ that merely proves a barren year and 
a dearth of corn, and cannot be made an accusation 
against the Jews. For the opinion which all the 
emperors have held of the Jewish residents in Alex- 
andria is notorious. The administration of the corn 
supplies has, indeed, been withdrawn from them, as 
from the rest of the Alexandrians ; but the most 
signal mark of the confidence reposed in them by 
the former kings, I mean the charge of the river '^ and 
of the entire province (?), has been preserved to them 
by the emperors, who regarded them as not unworthy 
of such a trust. 

(6) '• But," Apion persists, " why, then, if they are Jewish 
citizens, do they not worship the same gods as the ^vOTshiV^ 
Alexandrians ? " To which I reply : " Why do you, Egyptian 
on your side, though Egyptians, wage with one ^ 
another bitter and implacable war on the subject of 
religion ? " ^ Indeed, is not the reason why we 
refuse to call you all Egyptians, or even collectively 
men, because you worship and breed with so much 
care animals that are hostile to humanity ? We, on 
the other hand, obviously form a single and united 
race.^ Wide, however, as may be these differences 
of opinion among your natives of Egypt, why should 
you be surprised at the allegiance to their original 
religious laws of a people who came to Alexandria 
from another country ? 

« The text and meaning of this section are doubtful. 



68 Is autem etiam seditionis causas nobis apponit, 
qui si cum ueritate ob hoc accusat ludaeos in Alex- 
andria constitutes, cur onines nos culpat ubique 
positos eo quod noscamur habere concordiam ? 

69 Porro etiara seditionis auctores quiUbet inueniet 
Apioni similes Alexandrinorum fmsse ciues. Donee 
enim Graeci fuerunt et Macedones hanc ciuilitatem 
habentes, nullam seditionem aduersus nos gesserunt. 
sed antiquis cessere sollemnitatibus. Cum uero 
multitude Aegyptiorum creuisset inter eos propter 
confusiones temporum. etiam hoc opus semper est 
additum. Nostrum uero genus permansit purum. 

70 Ipsi igitur molestiae huius fuere principium, nequa- 
quam populo Macedonicam habente constantiam 
neque prudentiam Graecam. sed cunctis scilicet 
utentibus malis moribus Aegyptiorum et antiquas 
inimicitias aduersum nos exercentibus. 

71 E diuerso namque factum est quod nobis impro- 
perare praesumunt. Nam cum plurimi eorum non 
opportune ius eius ciuilitatis optineant, peregrines 
uocant eos. qui hoc priuilegium a dominis impetrasse-*- 

72 noscuntur. Nam Aegyptiis neque regum quisquam 
uidetur ius ciuilitatis fuisse largitus, neque nunc 
quilibet imperatorum. Nos autem Alexander quidem 
intreduxit, reges autem auxerunt. Romani uero 
semper custodire dignati sunt. 

73 Itaque derogare nobis Apion conatus est. quia 

^ Boysen : ad omnes imperasse mss. 


He further accuses us of fomenting sedition. Jews 
But, if it be granted that he is justified in of cSng 
bringing this accusation against the Jews of sedition. 
Alexandria, why then does he make a grievance 
against the Jews at large of the notorious concord 
of our race ? Moreover, the real promoters of 
sedition, as anyone can discover, have been citizens 
of Alexandria of the type of Apion. The Greeks 
and Macedonians, so long as the citizenship was con- 
fined to them, never rose against us, but left us free 
to enjoy our ancient worship. But when, owing to 
the prevailing disorders, their numbers were swelled 
by a host of Egyptians, sedition became chronic. 
Our race, on the contrary, remained unadulterated. 
It is they, then, w^ho originated these disturbances, 
because the populace, possessing neither the Mace- 
donian's strength of character nor the Greek's 
sagacity, universally adopted the evil habits of the 
Egyptians and indulged their long-standing hatred 
of us. 

The reproach which they dare to cast at us is 
applicable, on the contrary, to them. The majority 
of them hold their position as citizens of Alexandria 
under no regular title ; yet they call those who 
notoriously obtained this privilege from the proper 
authorities " aliens " ! Not a single king, it appears, 
not a single emperor in our times, ever conferred 
citizen rights upon Egyptians." We, on the contrary, 
owe our position in the city to Alexander, our 
privileges were extended by the kings, and those 
privileges the Romans have been pleased to safeguard 
for all time. 

Apion has consequently attempted to denounce 

« Cf. § 41 with note. 
VOL. I Y 321 


imperatorum non statuamus imagines, tamqiiam illis 
hoc ignorantibus aut defensione Apioiiis indigentibus ; 
cum potius debuerit ammirari magnanimitatem 
mediocritatemque Romanorum, quoniam subiectos 
non cogmit patria iura transcendere, sed suscipiunt 
honores sicut dare offerentes pium atque legitimum 
est. Non enim honoribus^ gratiam habent qui ex 

74 necessitate et uiolentia conferuntur. Graecis itaque 
et aliis quibusdam bonum esse creditur imagines 
instituere ; denique et patrum et uxorum filiorumque 
figuras depingentes exultant, quidam uero etiam 
nihil sibi competentium sumunt imagines, aUi uero 
et seruos diligentes hoc faciunt. Quid ergo mirum 
est si etiam principibus ac dominis hunc honorem 

75 praebere uideantur r Porro noster legislator, non 
quasi prophetans Romanorum potentiam non hono- 
randam, sed tamquam causam neque deo neque 
hominibus utilem despiciens, et quoniam totius 
animati, multo magis dei inanimati, ut^ probatur 

76 inferius, interdixit imagines fabricari. Aliis autem 
honoribus post deum colendos non prohibuit uiros 
bonos, quibus nos et imperatores et populum Roma- 

77 norum dignitatibus ampliamus. Facimus autem pro 
eis continua sacriiicia et non solum cotidianis diebus 
ex impensa communi omnium ludaeorum talia 
celebramus, uerum cum nullas alias hostias ex com- 

^ honoris >iss. : honores Boysen. 
^ inanimati ut] inaniraatu 3iss. 

° Josephus probably has in mind Cahgula's order to erect 
his statue in the Temple at Jerusalem (A. xviii. 261 ff.j and 
the part played by Apion in the deputation to the emperor 
at that time. 

^ Cf. §§ 167, 190 f. below. 



^ us on the ground that we do not erect statues of the We do not 

emperors. As if they were ignorant of the fact or statues 
\ needed Apion to defend them ! "' He should rather of the 
I have admired the magnanimity and moderation of but'pay^' 
the Romans in not requiring; their subjects to violate them 


their national laws, and being content to accept such honours. 
honours as the religious and legal obligations of the 
donors permit them to pay. They are not grateful 
for honours conferred under compulsion and con- 
straint. The Greeks, with some other nations, think 
it right to make statues : they delight in depicting 
the portraits of parents, wives, and children ; some 
even obtain likenesses of persons totally unconnected 
with them, others do the same for favourite slaves. 
What wonder, then, to find them rendering this 
honour to their emperors and masters as well ? On 
the other hand, our legislator, not in order to put, as 
it were, a prophetic veto upon honours paid to the 
Roman authority, but out of contempt for a practice 
profitable to neither God nor man, forbade the 
making of images, alike of any living creature, and 
much niore of God, who, as is shown later on,^ is not 
/a creature. He did not, however, forbid the pay- 
/ ment of homage of another sort, secondary to that 
I paid to God, to worthy men ; such honours we do 
[ confer upon the emperors and the people of Rome. 
'" For them we offer perpetual sacrifices ; and not only 
do we perform these ceremonies daily,'' at the ex- 
pense of the whole Jewish community,^ but, while we 
offer no other victims in our corporate capacity, even 

" Twice daily, according to B. ii. 197. 

'^ From Philo, Leg. ad Caium, § 157, it appears that these 
sacrifices were originallv instituted by the emperor at his own 
expense. Cf. Schurer, G.J. V., ed. 3, ii. 303 (E.T. div. ii. vol. 
i. 303). 



muni neque pro filiis peragamus, solis imperatoribus 

hunc honoreni praecipuum pariter exhibemus, quem 

78 hominum nulli persoluimus. Haec itaque communiter 
satisfactio posita sit aduersus Apionem pro his quae 

de Alexandria dicta sunt. 

79 (T) Amniiror auteni etiam eos qui ei huiusmodi 
fomitem praebuerunt. id est Posidonium et Apol- 
lonium Molonis, quoniam accusant quidem nos, quare 
nos eosdem deos cum aliis non colimus.. mentientes 
autem pariter et de nostro templo bla<^phemias 
componentes incongruas non se putant impie agere ; 
dum sit ualde turpissimum liberis qualibet ratione 
mentiri. multo ma^i^ de templo apud cunctos homines 
nominate tanta sanctitate pollente. 

80 In hoc enim sacrario Apion praesumpsit edicere 
asini caput collocasse ludaeos et eum^ colere ac 
dignum facere tanta religione, et hoc affirmat fuisse 
depalatum, dum Antiochus Epiphanes expoliasset 
templum et illud caput inuentum ex auro com- 

81 positum multis pecuniis dignum. Ad haec igitur 
prius equidem dico. quoniam Aegvptius. uel si aliquid 
tale apud nos fuisset, nequaquam debuerat increpare. 
cum non sit deterior asinus furonibus et hircis et aliis, 

^ id Xaber. 

" Such seems to be the meaning of neque pro filiis ; cf. 
Ezra vi. 10 (" prav for the life of the king and of his sons ") ; 
Bar. i. 11. 

** Posidonius of Apameia, c. 13.5-51 b.c, famous Stoic 
philosopher and historian, a friend of Pompey and Cicero. 

" As he is called elsewhere; cf. § 16 above. The text has 
Molonis, i.e. " (son) of Molon." 

^ Liberis, apparently = eXevdepiois. 

* This widespread calumny of uncertain origin appears in 
various forms. Tacitus, Hist. v. 3 f., narrates that Moses, 
by following a herd of wild asses, discovered water in the 



for the [imperial] family," we jointly accord to the 
emperors alone this signal honour which we pay to 
no other individual. I have now given, I think, a com- 
prehensive and sufficient reply to Apion's remarks 
on the subject of Alexandria. 

(7) I am no less amazed at the proceedings of the (^) Caium- 

^1^ - Til. .1-1.^ -IT ^^'^^ about 

authors who supplied hmi with his materials, 1 mean the temple 
Posidonius^ and Apollonius Molon.^ On the one '^^^^^^^ 
hand they charge us with not worshipping the same 
gods as other people ; on the other, they tell lies and 
invent absurd calumnies about our temple, without 
showing any consciousness of impiety. Yet to high- 
minded men ^' nothing is more disgraceful than a lie, 
of any description, but above all on the subject of a 
temple of world-wide fame and commanding sanctity. 

Within this sanctuary Apion has the effrontery to Ridiculous 
assert that the Jews kept an ass's head,^ worshipping worsiiipor 
that animal and deeming it worthy of the deepest an ass's 
reverence ; the fact was disclosed, he maintains, on 
the occasion of the spoliation of the temple by 
Antiochus Epiphanes,-^ when the head, made of gold c. i70 b.c, 
and worth a high price, was discovered. On this I 
will first remark that, even if we did possess any 
such object, an Egyptian should be the last person 
to reproach us ; for an ass is no worse than the 
cats ^ (?), he-goats, and other creatures which in his 

wilderness, whence the Jews effigiem animalis quo mon- 
strante erroreni sitimque depulerant penetraU sacravere. Dio- 
dorus (xxxiv. frag.) states that Ant. Epiphanes found in the 
temple a statue of a bearded man ( = Moses) seated on an 
ass. The charge of ass-worship was afterwards transferred 
to the Christians (Tertull. Apol. 16). 

^ Cf. A. xii. V. 4 (where no mention is made of the ass's 

furonibus (word elsewhere unknown). 



82 quae sunt apud eos dii. Deinde quomodo non in- 
tellexit operibus increpatus de incredibili suo men- 
dacio ? Legibus namque semper utimur hisdem, in 
quibus sine fine consistimus, et cum uarii casus 
nojtram ciuitatem sicut etiam aliorum uexauerint, 
et Pius^ ac Pompeius Magnus et Licinius Crassus 
et ad nouissimum Titus Caesar bello uincentes op- 
tinuerint templum, nihil huiusmodi illic inuenerunt, 
sed purissimam pietatem, de qua nihil nobis est apud 

83 alios effabile. Quia uero Antiochus neque iustam 
fecit templi depraedationem, sed egestate pecunia- 
rum ad hoc accessit, cum non esset hostis, et super 
nos auxiliatores suos et amicos adgressus est, nee 

84 aliquid dignum derisione illic inuenit, multi et digni 
conscriptores super hoc quoque testantur, Polybius 
Megalopohta, Strabon Cappadox, Nicolaus Dama- 
scenus, Timagenis et Castor temporum conscriptor 
et Apollodorus ; omnes dicunt pecuniis indigentem 
Antiochum transgressum foedera ludaeorum ex- 

85 poliasse^ templum auro argentoque plenum. Haec 
igitur Apion debuit respicere, nisi cor asini ipse 
potius habuisset et impudentiam canis, qui apud 
ipsos assolet coli ; neque enim extrinsecus aliqua 

86 ratiocinatione mentitus est. Nos itaque asinis neque 
honorem neque potestatem aliquam damus, sicut 

1 Dius 3ISS. : Pius Xiese, i.e. Antiochus VII surnaraed 
Eusebes, from his piety at the siege of Jerusalem, r. 13.5 b.c, 
A. xiii. :?44. Josephus perhaps wrote deos ( = Diuus) through 
confusion with Antiochus VI surnamed Theos, ^. xiii. 218. 

2 Niese : et spoUasse >iss. 

" Governor of Syria 54-53 b.c. ; A. xiv. 105 ff. 

* As the emphasis in this context is on the absence of 
mysteries in Jewish worship, Reinach is probably right in 
emending effabile to ineffabile, which occurs in §§ 94, 107. In 


country rank as gods. Next, how did it escape him 
that the facts convict him of telHng an incredible 
lie ? Throughout our history we have kept the 
same laws, to which we are eternally faithful. Yet, 
notwithstanding the various calamities which our 
city, like others, has undergone, when the temple 
was occupied by successive conquerors, [Antiochus] 
the Pious, Pompey the Great, Licinius Crassus,^ and ''■■ 135 b.c. 
most recently Titus Caesar, they found there nothing 54-3 b'.c. 
of the kind, but the purest type of religion, the ^•^- '^^• 
secrets of which we may not reveal to aliens.^ That 
the raid of Antiochus [Epiphanes] on the temple was 
iniquitous, that it was impecuniosity which drove 
him to invade it, when he was not an open enemy, 
that he attacked us, his alUes and friends, and that 
he found there nothing to deserve ridicule ; these 
facts are attested by many sober historians. Polybius 
of Megalopolis, Strabo the Cappadocian, Nicolas of 
Damascus, Timagenes,^ Castor the chronicler,^ and 
Apollodorus ^ all assert that it was impecuniosity 
which induced Antiochus, in violation of his treaties 
with the Jews, to plunder the temple with its stores 
of gold and silver. There is the evidence which 
Apion should have considered, had he not himself 
been gifted with the mind of an ass and the impudence 
of the dog, which his countrymen are wont to worship. 
An outsider can make no sense of his lies.^ We Jews 
attribute no honour or virtue to asses, such as is 

that case translate: " of which we have no secrets to conceal 
from aliens." 

" Historian of 1st cent. b.c. ; Josephus knew his work at 
second hand through Strabo. 

^ Ap. i. 184. 

* 2nd cent. b.c. ; author of Chronica and of the best ancient 
work on Greek mythology. 

^ Meaning doubtful ; I take extrinsecus as = <rw> ^^wOeu. 



Aegvptii crocodillis et aspidibus. quando eos qui ab 
istis mordentur et a crocodillis rapiuntur felices et 

87 deo dignos arbitrantur. Sed sunt apud nos asini 
quod apud alios sapientes uiros onera sibimet ini- 
posita sustinentes. et licet ad areas accedentes come- 
dant aut uiam propositam non adimpleant, multas 
ualde plagas accipiunt. quippe operibus et ad agri- 

88 culturam rebus necessariis niinistrantes. Sed aut 
omnium gurdissimus fuit Apion ad componendum 
uerba fallacia aut certe ex rebus initia sumens haec 
implere non ualuit. quando nulla potest contra nos 
blasphemia prouenire. 

89 (8) Alteram uero fabulam derogatione nostra plenam 
de Graecis apposuit, de quo hoc dicere sat erit, 
quoniam qui de pietate loqui praesumunt oportet 
eos non ignorare minus esse inmundum per templa 
transire quam sacerdotibus scelesta uerba confingere. 

90 Isti uero magis studuerunt defendere sacrilegum 
regem quam iusta et ueracia de nostris et de templo 
conscribere. Uolentes enim Antiocho praestare el 
infidelitatem ac sacrilegium eius tegere. quo circa 
^entem nostram est usus propter egestatem pecunia- 
rum, detrahentes nobis etiam quae in futuro sunt^ 

91 dicenda mentiti sunt. Propheta uero aliorum factus 
est Apion et dixit Antiochum in templo inuenisse 
lectum et hominem in eo iacentem et propositam ei 
mensam maritimis terrenisque et uolatilium dapibus 

92 plenam J et^ obstipuisset lii< homo. Ilium uero mox 
adorasse regis ingressum tamquam maximum ei 
solacium praebiturum ac procidentem ad eius genua 

1 Xiese : essent mss. - -f quod Xaber. 

^ Meaning doubtful. ^■' Or, perhaps, " about Greeks." 
« homo = 6 avd/JcoTTos (elsewhere used with such tiuance). 

If Antiochus were meant, as Niese supposes, we should 

expect uir { — b av-qp). 



ascribed to crocodiles and asps by Egyptians, who 
regard persons bitten by a viper or mauled by a 
crocodile as blessed souls found worthy of God. With 
us, as with other sensible people, asses are beasts 
that carry loads on their backs, and if they invade 
our threshing-floors and eat the corn, or stop short 
on the road, they are soundly beaten, as humble 
ministers for labour and agriculture. Either Apion 
was the greatest blockhead as a writer of fiction, or, 
to say the least, he could draw no just conclusion 
from such facts as he had to start from ; " for every 
one of his calumnies upon us is a failure. 
. (8) He adds a second story, of Greek oriffin,^ Another 

' *^ o '' Ctiluiiiuious 

which is a malicious slander upon us from beginning story: the 
to end. On this it will suffice to remark that persons nuu-'ier of 
who venture upon religious topics ought to be aware a Greek. 
that there is less profanity in violating the precincts 
of a temple than in calumniating its priests. But 
these authors are more concerned to uphold a sacri- 
legious king than to give a fair and veracious descrip- 
tion of our rites and temple. In their anxiety to 
defend Antiochus and to cover up the perfidy and 
sacrilege practised upon our nation under pressure 
of an empty exchequer, they have further invented, 
to discredit us, the fictitious story whicli follows. 
Apion, who is here the spokesman of others, asserts 
that :— 

Antiochus found in the temple a couch, on which 
a man was reclining, with a table before him laden 
with a banquet offish of the sea, beasts of the earth, 
and birds of the air, at which the poor fellow ^ Mas 
gazing in stupefaction. The king's entry was 
instantly hailed by him with adoration, as about 
to procure him profound relief; falling at the 



extensa dextra poposcisse libertatem ; et iubente 
rege ut confideret et diceret. quis esset uel cur 
ibidem habitaret uel quae esset causa ciborum eius, 
tunc hoininem cum gemitu et lacrimis lamentabiliter 

93 suam narrasse necessitatem. Ait, inquit, esse quidem 
se Graecum, et dum peragraret prouinciam propter 
uitae causam direptum se subito ab alienigenis 
hominibus atque deductum ad templum et inclusum 
illic, et a nullo conspici, sed cuncta dapium prae- 

94 paratione saginari. Et primum quidem haec sibi 
inopinabilia beneficia prodidisse et detulisse laetitiam, 
deinde suspicionem. postea stuporem,. ac postremum 
consulentem a ministris ad se accedentibus audisse 
legem inefFabilem ludaeorum, pro qua nutriebatur, 
et hoc illos facere singulis annis quodam tempore 

95 constitute : et compraehendere quidem Graecum 
peregrinum eumque annali tempore saginare, et 
deductum ad quandam siluam occidere quidem eum 
hominem eiusque corpus sacrificare secundum suas 
sollemnitates, et gustare ex eius uisceribus, et 
iusiurandum facere in immolatione Graeci, ut inimi- 
citias contra Graecos haberent, et tunc in quandam 

96 foueam reliqua hominis pereuntis abicere. Deinde 
refert eum dixisse paucos iam dies de uita^ sibimet 
superesse atque rogasse ut, erubescens Graecorum 
deos et superans^ in suo sanguine insidias ludaeorum, 
de malis eum circumastantibus liberaret. 

97 Huiusmodi ergo fabula non tantum omni tragoedia 
plenissima est, sed etiam impudentia crudeli redundat. 

^ de iiita conj. Boysen : debita mss. 
- superantes mss. : text doubtful. 



king's knees, he stretched out his right hand and 
implored him to set Iiim free. The king reassured 
him and bade him tell him who he was, why he 
was living there, what was the meaning of his 
abundant fare. Thereupon, with sighs and tears, 
the man, in a pitiful tone, told the tale of his 
distress. He said that he was a Greek and that, 
while travelling about the province for his liveli- 
hood, he was suddenly kidnapped by men of a 
foreign race and conveyed to the temple ; there 
he was shut up and seen by nobody, but was 
fattened on feasts of the most lavish description. 
At first these unlooked for attentions deceived 
him and caused him pleasure ; suspicion followed, 
then consternation. Finally, on consulting the 
attendants who waited upon him, he heard of the 
unutterable law of the Jews, for the sake of which 
he was being fed. The practice was repeated 
annually at a fixed season. They would kidnap a 
Greek foreigner, fatten him up for a year, and then 
convey him to a wood, where they slew him, 
sacrificed his body with their customary ritual, 
partook of his flesh," and, while immolating the 
Greek, swore an oath of hostility to the Greeks. 
The remains of their victim were then thrown into 
a pit. The man (Apion continues) stated that he 
had now but a few days left to live, and implored 
the king, out of respect for the gods of Greece, to 
defeat this Jewish plot upon his life-blood and to 
deliver him from his miserable predicament. 

A tale of this kind is not merely packed with all 
the horrors of a tragedy ; it is also replete with the 

" Lat. uiscera : i.e. all except skin, bones and blood. 



Xon tamen a sacrilegio priuat Antiochum, sicut arbi- 
tral! sunt qui haec ad illius gratiam conscripserunt ; 

98 non enim praesumpsit aliquid tale, ut ad templum 
accederet. sed sicut aiunt inuenit non sperans. Fuit 
ergo uoluntate iniquus impius et nihilominus sine 
dec, quantauis sit^ mendacii superfluitas, quam ex 

99 ipsa re cognoscere ualde facillimum est. Non enim 
circa solos Graecos discordia leguni esse dinoscitur, 
sed maxime aduersus Aegyptios et plurimos alios. 
Quern enim horum non contigit aliquando circa nos 
peregrinari, ut aduersus solos < Graecos >^ renouata 
coniuratione per efFusionem sanguinis ageremus^ .' 

100 Vel quomodo possibile est ut ad has hostias omnes 
ludaei colligerentur et tantis milibus ad gustandum 
uiscera ilia sufficerent, sicut ait Apion ? Vel cur 
inuentum hominem quicumque fuit, non enim suo 

101 nomine conscripsit,* aut quomodo eum in suam 
patriam rex non cum pompa deduxit, dum posset 
hoc faciens ipse quidem putari pius et Graecorum 
amator eximius, assumere uero contra ludaeorum 

102 odium solacia magna cunctorum ? Sed haec relinquo ; 
insensatos enim non uerbis sed operibus decet 
arguere . 

Sciunt igitur omnes qui uiderunt constructionem 
templi nostri qualis fuerit et intransgressibilem eius 

103 purificationis integritatem. Quattuor etenim habuit 
in cux'uitu porticus, et harum singulae propriam 
secundum legem habuere custodiam. In exteriorem 
itaque ingredi licebat omnibus etiam alienigenis ; 
mulieres tantumniodo menstruatae transire pro- 

^ quanta ius.sit .mss. 

- ins. Hudson. 

^ egeremus mss. : Reinach would here insert §§ 121-124. 

* Xiese suspects a lacuna. 



cruelty of impudence. It does not, for all that, its 
acquit Antiochus of sacrilege, as its obsequious character^ 
authors imagined. He suspected nothing of the 
sort when he invaded the temple ; the discovery 
admittedly surprised him. His iniquity, impiety, 
and godlessness were, therefore, none the less 
gratuitous, however many lies may be told about him. 
These reveal their character on their face. Greeks, 
as is well known, are not the only people with whom 
our laws come into conflict ; those principally so 
affected are Egyptians and many others. Is there 
one of these nations whose citizens have not happened 
at some time or other to visit our country ? \^'hy 
should Greeks be the only objects of our periodic- 
ally repeated conspiracy and bloodthirsty assault ? 
Again, how is it conceivable that all Jews should 
assemble to partake of these victims, and that the 
flesh of one should suffice for so many thousand 
participants, as Apion asserts ? ^ Why in the v, orld 
after discovering this man, whoever he was (his name 
is not given in the story), did not the king convey 
him in triumph to his country, when by so doing he 
might have gained a reputation for piety and rare 
devotion to the Greeks, and encountered Jewish 
hatred with the powerful support of public opinion } 
But I refrain to pursue these inquiries ; fools must 
be refuted, not by argument, but by facts. 

All who ever saw our temple are aware of the The 
general design of the building, and the inviolable la\Vs°onhe 
barriers which preserved its sanctity. It had four temple 
surrounding courts, each with its special statutory ''^^"^^• 
restrictions. The outer court was open to all, com-ts.™^ "^ 
foreigners included ; women during their impurity 

» Not £^s reported above. 



104 hibebantur. In secundam uero porticum cuncti 
ludaei ingrediebantur eorumque coniuges, cum 
essent ab onmi pollutione mundae ; in tertiam masculi 
ludaeorum mundi existentes atque purificati ; in 
quartam autem sacerdotes stolis induti sacerdotali- 
bus ; in adytum uero soli principes sacerdotum 

105 propria stola circumamicti. Tanta uero est circa 
omnia prouidentia pietatis, ut secundum quasdam 
boras sacerdotes ingredi constitutum sit. Mane 
etenim aperto templo oportebat facientes traditas 
hostias introire et meridie rursus, dum ciauderetur 

106 templum. Denique nee uas aliquod portari licet in 
templum, sed erant in eo solummodo posita altare 
mensa turibulum candelabrum, quae omnia et in 

107 lege conscripta sunt. Etenim nihil amplius neque 
mvsteriorum aliquorum ineffabilium agitur, neque 
intus ulla epulatio ministratur. Haec enim quae 
praedicta sunt habent totius populi testimonium 

108 manifestationemque gestorum. Licet enim sint tribus 
quattuor sacerdotum et harum tribuum singulae 
habeant hominum plus quam quinque miUa, fit 
tamen obseruatio particulariter per dies certos, et 
his transactis alii succedentes ad sacrificia ueniunt 
et congregati in templum mediante die a prae- 
cedentibus claues temph et ad numerum omnia uasa 
percipiunt, nulla re. quae ad cibum aut potum 

109 adtineat, in templo delata. Talia namque etiam ad 

" Or " the victims delivered to them." 
^ Cf. Mark xi. 16. The sequel shows that the Holy Place 
(the vab%) is intended. 

" C'/'.B.v.2 16 (where only three objects are named, no altar). 
<* The four priesth' clans which returned with Zerubbabel 



were alone refused admission. To the second court 
all Jews were admitted and, when uncontaminated 
by any defilement, their wives ; to the third male 
Jews, if clean and purified ; to the fourth the priests 
robed in their priestly vestments. The sanctuary 
was entered only by the high-priests, clad in the 
raiment peculiar to themselves. So careful is the 
provision for all the details of the service, that the 
priests' entry is timed to certain hours. Their duty 
was to enter in the morning, when the temple was 
opened, and to offer the customary sacrifices," and 
again at mid-day, until the temple was closed. 
One further point : no vessel whatever might be 
carried into the temple,^ the only objects in which 
were an altar, a table, a censer, and a lampstand,^ 
all mentioned in the Law. There was nothing 
more ; no unmentionable mysteries took place, no 
repast was served within the building. The fore- 
going statements are attested by the whole com- 
munity, and conclusively proved by the order of 
procedure. For, although there are four priestly 
tribes,^ each comprising upwards of five thousand 
members, these officiate by rotation for a fixed period 
of days ; when the term of one party ends, others 
come to offer the sacrifices in their place, and 
assembling at mid-day in the temple, take over 
from the outgoing ministers the keys of the building 
and all its vessels, duly numbered. Nothing of the 
nature of food or drink is brought within the temple ; 
objects of this kind may not even be offered on 

(Ezra ii. 36 ; Neh. vii. 39). Elsewhere Jo.sephus mentions only 
the division into twenty-four courses {]^ita, 2 ; cf. A. vii. 
365 f.), which was normal from the time of the Chronicler 
(1 Chron, xxiv. 7) onwards. 



altare offerre prohibitum est, praeter ilia quae ad 
sacrificia praeparantur. 

Quid ergo Apionem [esse] dicimus nisi nihil horum 
examinantem uerba incredula protulisse ? Sed turpe 
est : historiae enim uerani notitiam se proferre 

110 grammaticus nonproniisit ? At^ sciens templi nostri 
pietatem hanc quidem praeterniisit, hominis autem 
Graeci compraehensionem finxit et pabulum in- 
effabile et ciborum opulentissimam claritatem et 
seruos ingrredientes ubi nee nobilissimos ludaeorum 

111 licet intrare, nisi fuerint sacerdotes. Hoc ergo 
pessima est impietas atque mendacium spontaneum 
ad eorum seductionem, qui noluerint discutere 
ueritatem. Per ea siquidem mala et ineffabilia, quae 
praedicta sunt., nobis detrahere temptauerunt. 

112 (9) Rursumque tamquam piissimus deridet adiciens 
fabulae suae Mnaseam. Ait enim ilium rettulisse, 
dum helium ludaei contra Idumaeos^ haberent longo 
quodam tempore, in aliqua ciuitate Idumaeorum,^ qui 
Dorii nominantur, quendam eorum qui in ea Apol- 
linem colebat uenisse ad ludaeos, cuius hominis 
nomen dicit Zabidon, deinde quia^ eis promisisset 
traditurum "^e eis Apollinem deum Doriensium 
uenturumque ilium ad nostrum templum, si omnes 

113 abscederent. Et credidisse omnem multitudinem 
ludaeorum ; Zabidon uero fecisse quoddam machina- 
mentum ligneum et circumposuisse sibi et in eo tres 
ordines infixisse lucernarum et ita ambulasse,- ut 

1 conj. : et mss. 

^ Hudson : ludaeos (-orum) mss. 

^ Boys en : qui 3iss. 

« Ap. i. 216. 


the altar, save those which are prepared for the 

Are we then left to conclude that Apion put out 
this incredible story without any investigation of 
these facts ? But that is disgraceful ; as a learned 
doctor, did he not profess to present an accurate 
historical picture ? No ; he knew the pious rites of 
our temple, but passed them over when he concocted 
this story of a kidnapped Greek, an unmentionable 
banquet of the richest and most sumptuous fare, and 
slaves entering precincts to which even the highest 
Jewish nobles are not admitted, unless they are 
priests. Here, then, we have rank impiety at its 
worst, and a gratuitous lie, designed to mislead persons 
who do not trouble to investigate the facts. For the 
one aim of the inventors of the unspeakable horrors 
to which I have alluded is to bring us into odium. 

(9) This model of piety derides us again in a story a third 
which he attributes to Mnaseas." The latter, accord- sJ;ory":^"theft 
inff to Apion, relates that : — of the ass's 

^ head by an 

in the course of a long war between the Jews and ^ressed^as 
the Idumaeans, an inhabitant of an Idumaean Apoiio. 
city, called Dorii,^ who worshipped Apollo and 
bore (so we are told) the name of Zabidus, came 
out to the Jews and promised to deliver into their 
hands Apollo, the god of his city, who would visit 
our temple if they all took their departure. The 
Jews all believed him ; whereupon Zabidus con- 
structed an apparatus of wood, inserted in it three 
rows of lamps, and put it over his person. Thus 
arrayed he walked about, presenting the appear- 

^ Dor or Dora on the coast of Palestine, some ten miles 
north of Caesarea, south of Mt. Carmel. 

VOL. I Z 337 


procul stantibus appareret, quasi stellae per terrain^ 

114 rrjv TTopecav TTOLOVfievajv, rovs fJiev 'lovSacovs vtto 
rod TTapaho^ov rrj? dea^ /caraTreTrAr^y/xei^ous' rroppoj 
fjbevoprag 'qavx^iav dyecv, rov 8e Zct^iSov irrl ttoXXtjs 
r]crv)(La5 elg rov vaov TrapeXdelv Kai rr]v -)(pVGrjv 
aTToovpai rov kolvOowos' Kecj^aXrjv, ovroj yap 
d(jr€'Cl,6jJL€VOS yeypa(j)ev, koL ttoXiv els Xaypa^ ro 
rd^os d.n-eXdeiv. 

115 'Apa ovv Kai rj^ielg dv eiTTOiiiev on rov KavOojva, 
rovreariv iavrov, 'Amojv eTTKhoprit^ei Kai TToiel 
rr]g jxajpoXoytas a/xa Kai row ipevGfiarojv Kara- 
yojxov ; Kai yap roTrov? ovk ovras ypdcjyei Kai 

116 TToAeis" OVK elhoj? fierarid-nGLv. tj jiev yap 'ISou/xata 
rrfs Tjpierepas )(ojpas iarlv dpiopos, Kara Td^av 
K€LpL€vrj, Kai Xojpa ravrrjs iarlv ovSefxia ttgXls. 
rrjs pLevroL ^olvlkti? Trapd ro Kap^T^Atoy opos 
Aojpa TToXis dvopidLerai, p.rjd€V irrLKOLvajvovoa rots' 

Attlwvo? (fyXvap-qpLaof reGodpojv yap rjpiepcov 

117 o86v rrjs 'ISou/xata?* d(j)€orr]K€V. rl 8' rjp,cov en 
Karrjyopel ro pL-q kolvovs e)(€LV roXs a'AAot? 9eovs, 
€L paSiOjg ovrojs irreiudrjuav ol rrarepes rjp^dov 
7]^€LV rov ATToAAoji'a rrpog avrovs Kai pierd row 
dorpojv 6771 rrjs yrjS dnqd-qoav opdv avrov Trepi- 

118 TTarovvra ; Xv-xyov yap ovScttoj SijXov on Trpoadev 
eojpaKaoLv ol ras" rocrauras" Kai rrjXiKavra? Xv)(VO- 
Katas imreXovvres. gAA' ovSe ns avro) ^a'dit.ovri 
Kara rrjv )(ojpav rcov roaovrow pLvpidSoDV vrr^vrr]- 
<J€V, eprjpia 8e Kai rd TeixTj cf)vXdKcov evpe TToXepLov 

119 avvearrjKoros' idj rdAAa. rod vaov 8' at dvpat 
ro pL€v vijjos TjGav i^-fjKovra rrrj-x^ujv, €lkogl 8e ro 

^ End of lacuna in L. 
- Hudson : aKavdi^vos L (and so below). 


AGAINST APION, 11. 113-119 

ance to distant onlookers of stars perambulating 
the earth. Astounded at this amazing spectacle, 
the Jews kept their distance, in perfect silence. 
Meanwliile, Zabidus stealthily passed into the 
sanctuary, snatched up the golden head of the 
pack-ass (as he facetiously calls it), and made off 
post-haste to Dora. 

May we not, on our side, suggest that Apion is 
overloading the pack-ass, that is to say himself, with 
a crushing pack of nonsense and lies ? He writes of 
places which do not exist, and shifts the position 
on the map of cities of which he knows nothing. 
Idumaea, in the latitude of Gaza, is conterminous 
with our territory. It has no city called Dora. 
There is a town of that name in Phoenicia, near 
Mount Carmel, but that has nothing in common 
with Apion's ridiculous story, being at a distance of 
four days' march from Idumaea. Again, how can he 
continue to accuse us of not having the same gods 
as the rest of the world, if our forefathers were so 
easily induced to believe that Apollo would visit 
them, and imagined that they saw him walking with 
a train of stars upon the earth ? Obviously they 
had never before seen a lamp, these people whose 
festivals are such a blaze of illumination ! " Not one 
of all those myriads encountered him as he paraded 
the country ! He found the walls unguarded in war- 
time ! I refrain from further comment, merely re- 
marking that the gates of the sanctuary were sixty 

'^ In particular the Feast of Tabernacles (see the vivid 
description of the all-night illumination in the Mishnah, 
Sukkah, v. 2-1-) and the Feast of Dedication, popularly known 
as the " Feast of Lights," A. xii. 335. Cf. § 282 below. 

3 So Lat. : AQpiv L. * Niese: 'lovdaias L. 



TrXdrog, KaraxpvaoL Se Trdaai kol fiLKpov Selv 
(j(f)vprjXaroL' ravras €KXeiov ovk iXdrrov^ 6vr€s 
dvSpe? hiaKOGioi KaO" iKdarrjv rjpiepav Kal ro 

120 KaraXi7T€LV T^voiy/xeVa? rjv dOefJurov. paStco? ovv 
avrds 6 Xvxyo<^6po9 eKelvos dvew^ev, otfjLaL, fxovo^^ 
Kal rrjv rod Kdvdcovog a))(€ro^ K€(f)aXrjv e^o^v- 
TTorepov ovv avrrjv rrdXtv ojs rjfjLdg dvearpeifjev rj 
Xa^ojv Amdw avrrjv elo'eKOfiiaev, Iva Wvrloxos 
evpfi TTpos Sevrepav W.77lojvl pLvdoXoylav ; 

121 (lo) Kara^/feuSerat Se^ Kal opKov rjpLwv ojg ofMvvov- 
Tojv rov deov rov TTOLrjaavra rov ovpavov Kal rrjv 
yrjv Kal rrjv OdXaGuav pLTjSevl evvo-qaeiv d/\Xo(j)vXco , 

122 fidXio-ra §e "KXXtjglv. eSec 8e KaraipevSofievov 
drra^ etVetv fi-qSevl evvo-qcreiv dXXo(f)vX(p, /xaAtcrra 
S AlyvTTTLOLS- ovrcog yap dv rots i^ ^PXV^ aurou 
TrXdcrfiaGLV rjppiorrev rd rrepl rov opKov, etrrep 
TjGav V7TO AlyvrrrLcov rcov avyyevcov ol narepes 
TjijLOjv ov)(L 8ta rrovqpiav dXX iirl crufX(popa'i9 

123 i^eX-qXaa/ievoi. row 'KXXt^vojv 8e irXeov rols 
roTTOLS' T] rots' €77 LrrjSevfJLacTLV d(l)€GrrjKa}i€V , ojore 
pbr^hepiiav rjfilv elvat rrpdg avrovs €)(9pav /xrySe 
t,rjXorv7riav . rovvavriov fievroi rroXXol Trap' avro)V 
et? rovs rjjjLerepov? vofiov? avve^-quav elaeXde'LV, 
Kai nves fiev evefieivav, elal 8' ot rrjv Kapreplav 

124 ov-)( i)770fJL€ivavre? TiaAty dTriariquav . Kal roTjrojv^ 

^ Text emended by Niese. 

^ ed. pr. : Kara'-pevcraadai rtva L. 

^ TovTov L (corrector's hand) Lat. 

•* The dimensions given in B. v. 202 are 30 x 15 cubits. 

* Or perhaps " all overlaid Avith gold, almost of the solidity 
of hammered gold plates." 

<^ In B. vi. 293 we are told that it took ticenfy men to close 
the east gate of the inner court. Hudson, according!}-, 




cubits high and twenty broad ,^ all gilded and almost 
entirely covered with, plates of wrought gold ^ ; it took 
no fewer than 200 ^ men to close them every day, and 
it was forbidden to leave them open. Our lamp- 
carrier, I presume, had no difficulty in opening them 
by himself and making off with the pack-ass's head. 
But did he return it to us, or was it Apion who re- 
covered and reinstated it in the temple for Antiochus 
to find, in order to provide him with a second good 
story ? 

(10) Then'^ he attributes to us an imaginary oath, Alleged 
and would have it appear that we swear by the God of hostimy 
who made heaven and earth and sea to show no good- ^^ Greeks, 
will to a single alien, above all to Greeks. Having 
once started false accusations, he should have said, 
" show no goodwill to a single alien, above all to 
Egyptians " ; for then this reference to the oath 
would have been in keeping with his original fiction, 
if, as we are given to understand, the cause of 
the expulsion of our forefathers by their Egyptian 
" kinsmen " was not their malice, but their mis- 
fortunes. From the Greeks we are severed more 
by our geographical position than by our institutions, 
with the result that we neither hate nor envy them. 
On the contrary, many of them have agreed to adopt 
our laws ; of whom some have remained faithful, 
while others, lacking the necessary endurance, have 
again seceded.^ Of these not one has ever said that 

corrects the figure here to twenty ; but Josephus may mean 
that separate gangs of twenty men each were employed to 
close the ten gates of the temple. 

^ Reinach transfers this paragraph (§§ 121-124), which 
opens abruptly, to the end of § 99 above, where it seems more 
in place. Cf. Tac. Hist. v. 5, " adversus omnes alios hostile 
odium." « Cf. M 280 if. below. 


JOSEPHUS ^ -^^^^ 

ouSet? TTOJTTore tov bpKov elTrev aKovaai Trap rn^lv 
(LfJLOcrfJLevov,^ dXXa fjbovos ^Attlojv, ojs €olk€v, 
TjKovoev avTos yap o GvvOeL? avrov rjv. 

125 (ll) Y.<j}6hpa roLVVv rrjs ttoXXtjs ovveorecus^ Kai em 
TO) ixeXXovri priOrjoeadai davfidt^eiv d^iov ecmv 
^ATTLCova. TeKjiTjpiov yap eivai (jn-jULV rod fx-qre 
vofiois rjpid^ XPV^^^^ SiKaloLS jjLi^re rov 9eov 
€VGel^€iv (jjs 77poo"fJK€V [ro fjLTj dpx^iv],'^ SovXevcLv 
Se fidXXov edveacv Kal dXXore d'AAots" xrat ro 
K€XpT]o-6aL (JvpL(f)opal9 riGL 7T€pl rTjV TToXiVy avrwv^ 
hrjXov on TToXeojs rjyefjLovLKOjrdriqg €k rcov dvcoOev 
dpx€Lv dXXd [JLTj 'PcD/xatot?^ SovXeveiV ovveLdiafxe- 

126 vojv. KalroL ro-urcov dv ng dvao^oiro^ roiavrrjg 
pLeyaXavx^a? J row pLev yap dXXojv ovk eariv oar is 
dvdpcoTTOJV ovx LKavdjs Ka6^ avrov (f)airj rovrov 

127 U77' ^Attiojvos XeXexOaL rdv Xoyov oXiyoLg ixkv yap 
VTTTjp^ev e^' TjyepLovLas Sid Kaiporrrias yeveodai, 
Kal rovrovs at piera^oXal TrdXiv d'AAots" hovXevetv 
V7T€L,€V^av, ro TrXelcrrov Se (f)vXov dXXojv VTraKrjKoev 

128 TToXXaKLS. AlyvTTrioi 8' dpa pLOVoi hid rd Kara- 
(f)vy€LV, ojs (f)aaLV, ets" rr)v x^P*^^ avrojv rovs deovg 
Kal GOj9i]vai p^eraj^aXovras €ls piopcjias drjpicov 
e^atperov yepas evpovro rd iJLrjSevl SovXevGac rcov 
rrj? Waias tj rrjs Y^vpojTTiqs Kpar-qaavrojv, ol paav 
rjpiepav e/c rov rravrds aldjvog eXevOepias ov 
rvxdvr€£, dAA' ouSe rrapd rcov OLKoSeaTTorcov . 

129 ovriva piev ydp avrols ixp'qcravro IlepaaL rpoTTOv, 
ovx dna^ puovov dXXd Kal TToXXaKis TTopOovvres Tas 

^ d/xoja fxeuou L. ^ ed. pr. : avvdeaews L. 

^ ins. ed. pr. * ed. pr. : avrol L. 

^ So ed. pr. : in L Pw^tat'ois is placed before ck. 

^ Xiese : airocxoi-ro L (= perhaps "Even a Roman would 
refrain from so loftv a claim "). 


he had heard the oath in question pronounced by any 
of us. Apion is apparently the only man who has 
heard it, for the good reason that he invented it. 

(11) In the argument to which I now proceed Anti- 
Apion's extraordinary sagacity is most astonisliing. ar"ument 
P' A clear proof, according to him, that our laws are drawn from 
unjust and our religious ceremonies erroneous is that misfortunes. 
we are not masters of an empire, but rather the 
slaves, first of one nation, then of another, and that 
calamity has more than once befallen our city. As 
if his fellow-countrymen from time immemorial had 
been the masters of a sovereign state, and had never 
known what it was to serve the Romans ! On 
Roman lips such a lofty claim might be tolerated. 
For the rest of the world, there is not a man who 
would not admit that tliis argument of Apion closely 
touches himself. It has been the lot of few, by 
waiting on opportunity, to gain an empire, and even 
they have, through the vicissitudes of fortune, been 
reduced once more to servitude beneath a foreign 
yoke ; most races have frequently had to submit to 
others. The Egyptians alone, so at seems, because 
the gods, according to their account, took refuge in 
their country and saved themselves by assuming the 
forms of wild animals,^ gained the exceptional 
privilege of never being the slaves of any of the 
conquerors of Asia or Europe — the Egyptians, who 
have never, since the world began, had a day of 
liberty, even from their domestic masters ! For 
the rough handling which they received from the 
Persians, who not once but on many occasions sacked 

« Cf. Ovid, Metamorph. v. 331-331. 

' Niese : fj-eyaXoxj/vxlcLS L. 



TToXeLS, L€pa KaraGKaTrrovres , tovs Trap avrots 
vojJLit,oii€vovs Oeovg KaraG(f)dLovr€? , ovk av ovet8t- 

130 aaifiL' fiifieladai yap ov rrpoGrjKev rrjv Wttlojvos 
arraLhevuiav , 6s ovre rag Xd'qvaiujv rv)(as ovre 
ras" AaKedaLfjLOVLOJV evevorjoev, ow tovs /xey avbpeio- 
rdrovs elvat, rovs Se e-UGe^eardrovs rcov 'KXX-qvow 

131 arravres XeyovoLv. eto ^aaiXeas rovs Itt" evae^eLo. 
SLa^orjdevras jhv eva Kpoicrov / otais ixp'Qcro.^ro 
(jvjK^opals ^lov. ecu rrjv KaTaTTp-qodelGav Wd-q- 
valojv aKpoTToXiv y rov iv E</>ecraj vaov, rov iv 
^€X(i>ols, dXAovs {JLvpiovs, Kal ovhels oweLdLGev 

132 ravra rols rradovGLV, aAAa rols dpdGaoLV. Kaivos 
be Kar-qyopos rjpiojv Attlow -qvpeOr] row Ibiow 
avrov TTepi rr]v Atyvrrrov KaKow €KXa96pi€vos, 
aXXd HeGOjGrpLS avrov o /ivdevopicvos AiyvTrrov 
^aGiXevs irvcbXojGcv . 

'H/xets" Se rovs rjfjLerdpovs ovk dv €irroLjX€v ^acrt- 
Xeas, AavlSrjv Kal ^oXopbOJva, TToXXd ^^eipcoGa- 

133 ^eVous" ^dvq; rovrovs p^ev ovv rrapaXiTTCupiev rd 
Se yvcopLpLa TraGiv Attlojv rjyvorjKev, on Y\€pGa)V 
Kal /Lter' eKeivovs rjyovpLdvcov rrjs Acrta? Ma/ce- 
Sovcov AlyvTTrLOL pi€v iSovXevov dvhparrohojv ovhkv 

13i hia<i)epovres> Tjpi€ls Se 6vr€S iXevOepoL TrpoGen Kal 
rajv rrepL^ ttoXeodv -qp)(opL€V errj G^^bov €lkogl ttov 
Kal p' P-^XP'- ^^d'^/vov HopLTTTjLov. Kal Tfdvrojv 
iKTroXepLTjdevrow Trpos Vcop^aiajv' row Travraxov 

^ Perhaps a gloss. 
^ iKTToXeLLwdevTwv irpbs Poj/juiiovs Xiese. 

° Cf. Acts xvii. 32 (quoted in the margin of the ms.). 
* By Xerxes, Herod, viii. 53. 

*^ The temple of Artemis, burnt down by Herostratus on 
the night, as was said, of Alexander's birth, 356 b.c. 


their cities, razed their temples, and shiughtered the 
creatures they took for gods, I will not reproach 
them. I must not imitate the ignorance of Apion, 
who never thought of the misfortunes of the 
Athenians or the Lacedaemonians, the latter, by 
common consent, the bravest, the former the most 
pious,^ of the Greeks. I pass over the calamities in the 
lives of monarchs (like Croesus) renowned for piety. 
I pass over the burning of the acropolis of Athens,^ 
the temple of Ephesus,^ that of Delphi,'' and myriads 
more ; no one ever reproached the victims, rather 
than the perpetrators, for these atrocities. It was 
left for Apion to bring this novel type of accusation 
against us, quite forgetting the disasters of his own 
Egypt. Its mythical king Sesostris has doubtless 
blinded him.^ 

For our part, might we not quote our kings, David 
and Solomon, who subjugated many nations ? But 
let us pass them over and merely refer to a notorious 
fact, ignored by Apion : that is, that the Egyptians 
"were the slaves and veritable menials, first of the 
Persians, and then of the Macedonians, the next 
rulers of Asia ; while we were not merely inde- 
pendent, but had dominion over the surrounding 
states for about 120 years ^ up to the time of Pompey 
the Great. And when war had been declared by the 
Romans on all the monarchs in the world, our kings 

^ The older temple was accidentally burnt down c. 548-547 
B.C. ; Josephus refers to some later occasion of incendiarism. 

'^ Both Sesostris and his son (Herod, ii. Ill) are said to 
have been struck blind. 

f A slightly exaggerated estimate of the period from the 
Maccabaean insurrection to Pompey 's entry into Jerusalem 
(168-63 B.C.) ; eighty years, from c. 143 b.c. (1 Mace. xiii. 41), 
would have been more accurate. 



^aaiXeajv fiovoL Sua ttlgtlv ol Trap "qfuv ovfJLijLaxoL 
KOL (fylXoi hLe(j)v\a')(d-qGav . 

135 (12) 'AAAa OavfMaorrovs avhpas ov Trapeax'riKaiiev, 
OLOV re)(ycov tlvojv eupera? 7) cro^ta hia(j)ipovTas. 
KOL KarapLOfxet HojKparrjv Koi Z.rjVOJva koL \\Xe- 
dvO'qv Koi TOiovrovs TLvdg. elra to ^au/xacrtotrarov 
rots' elprijilvois^ avrog iavrov TTpoGTiOrjUL kul 
fiaKapiCei rrjv WXe^dvdpeLav , on roLovrov €X€i 

136 77oAtrr]v_, opOojs ttolqjv •" edei yap avroj iidprvpo? 
iavrov. toIs fJL€v yap aAAot? avraaiv o^Xayajyos 
iSoKet TTovqpos elvaL, Kal rco ^ico Kal toj Xoycp 
SL€(f)9apfJiepo£, ojare etVoroj? iXerjoai tls dv r-qv 
WXe^dvdpeLav, etTrep irrl roirroj fieya ecjypovei. 
vepl 8e ra)v Trap' rjiilv dvSpojv yeyovorojv ovSevog 
r^rrov i.7Taivov rvyxdveiv d^iow luaaiv ol rats* 
rjfjLerepaLg dp-xaioXoyiaig evTvyxavovres . 

137 (13) Ta he Xoiird row ev rfj Karriyopia yeypapLfievwv 
d^Lov Tjv Igoj? dvaTToXoyqra TrapaXiTTeXv , lv avros 
avrov Kal tcov dXXojv AlyvTmcov f] o Kar-qyopow. 
iyKaXel yap on t,oja dvofiev yjp^epa^ Kal x'^lpov 
ovK iadiopiev, Kal T-qv row alhoiow x^evdt^ei Trepi- 

138 ropLiqv. ro pAv ovv rrepl r-qs row rjpLepajv^ ^coojv 
dvaip€G€OJS Koivov ecrrt Kal Trpos rovs dXXovs 
dvdpojTTOVs aTTavras, \^7tlojv 8e rols Ovovglv iyKaXcov 
avrov i^-qXey^ev ovra ro yevos Aiyvrmov ov yap 
dv "EAAt^v d)V Tj ^laKeSdw e^o-Xerr aiv €v . ovroi yap 
ev^ovrai Bveiv e/caro/x/Sa? rols Oeols Kai ;Ypa>yTat 
rol<s lepeioLS rrpo? evoj^'-o.v, Kal ov hid rovro 
Gvp.^e^7]Kev ip-qpiovGOai rov KOGpcov row ^ogkyj- 

^ Xiese (after Lat.) : rCbv eiprifj.evwv L. 

2 Niese (after Lat.) : om. L. 

^ Ins. Xiese (after Lat.). 



alone, by reason of their fidelity, remained their 
allies and friends. 

<, (12) " But " (urges Apion) we " have not produced Argument 
any geniuses, for example, inventors in arts and have pro- 
crafts or eminent sages." ^ He enumerates Socrates, ^^"ced no 

o ^ HIGH oi 

Zeno, Cleanthes,^ and others of that calibre ; and genius. 
then — most astounding master-stroke — adds his own 
name to the list, and felicitates Alexandria on 
possessing such a citizen ! Indeed he needed this 
testimonial from himself ; for the rest of the world 
took him for a low charlatan, whose life was as 
dissolute as his language, insomuch that Alexandria 
might fairly be pitied if she prided herself upon him. 
Our own famous men, who are entitled to rank with 
the highest, are familiar to readers of my Antiquities. 

(13) The remaining: counts in his indictment had other in- 
better perhaps have remained unanswered, so that an^jmai" ^ ' 
Apion might be left to act as his own and his country- sacrifices, 

, . TT J r -n • abstention 

men s accuser. He denounces us tor sacrincing from pork, 
domestic animals and for not eating pork, and he 
derides the practice of circumcision. Well, the custom 
of slaughtering domestic animals we share with the 
rest of mankind ; and Apion, by criticizing those who 
practise it, betrays liis Egyptian birth. No Greek or 
Macedonian would have been moved to indignation. 
Their nations, indeed, vow sacrifices of hecatombs 
to the gods,'' and make a feast off the victims ; yet this 
has not had the result, apprehended by Apion, of leav- 

" A charge repeated by Apollonius Molon, § 148 below. 
^ Cleanthes in 263 b.c. succeeded Zeno as head of the 
Stoic school, founded by the latter. 
" Cf. Horn. Od. xvii. 50. 

* ed. pr. : Tjfxerepoop L Lat. 




139 fjLOLTOJV, OTTep Attlojv eSeiGev. et fievroc tois 
Xlyvrrriojv edeuiv tjkoXovOovv auavTes, rjprjiJLajTO 
ixkv av 6 KOGfJLos rwv dvdpojTTOJV, rcov aypicordrojv 
he d-qpicov iTTXrjdvvdr] , d deovs ovtol voixit^ovres 

140 €7TLjl€Xoj£ €KTp€(f)OV(JLV. Kol pbTjV €L Tt? aVTOV 

rjpero, tojv TrdvTOJV \iyv7TTLLOv rivas elvai Kai 
GO(f)OJTarov£ Kal deoae^el? i^o/xt^et, TravTcos" av 

141 d){JioX6y7-jG€ roijs Upels' Svo yap avrovs (jyaaiv vtto 
row ^acjiXeajv i^ ^PXV^ ravra tt poorer d)(d at, rrjv 
re row Oeow Beparreiav Kal rrjg ao(f)La£ rrjv em- 
IxeXeiav. eKeivoL roivvv aTravres Kal TTepirepivovraL 
Kai -)(0ipei0jv a7Te-)(ovraL ^pojjidrojv' ov jxtjv ovhe 
ro)v dXXojv XtyvTTriojv ovde el? vv Ovei^ rols OeoZs. 

142 dp' ovv rv(j)X6s tjv rov vovv ^Attlojv vjrep AlyvTrrlcov 
rjfJLas XoiSopelv avvOepLevo?, eKeivojv he Karrjyopojv, 
OL ye jjLTj fjLovov )(powraL rols vtto ro'urov Xoiho- 
povfievoLS edeGiv, dXXd Kal rovs d'AAous" ehlha^av 
TTepLrefjLveaOaL, Kaddrrep e'lprjKev ^Upohoros ; 

143 ' Odev eLKorojs fJLOL hoKel rrJ£ els rovs rrarpLOvg 
avrov v6p.ovs ^Xaacj^rjiJiias hovvai hLKTjv Attlojv 
rrjv TTpeiTovaav TTepLerpL-qd-q yap e^ dvdyKTjs, 
eXKojoeojs avrqj Trepl ro alhoZov yevofxevr]s, Kal 
IXTjhev (I)(f)eXrj9els vtto rrjs TTepLropLrjs dXXd (jtjtto- 

14:4: p^evos ev heivals ohvvats aTredavev. hel yap rovs 
ei) (fjpovovvras rots pi^ev oiKeioLS vopbois Trept rrjv 
evaefSecav aKpL^ojs ipLpbeveiv, rovs he ra)v dXXojv 
pLTj XoihopeZv. 6 he rovrovs p^ev e(f)vyev, rojv 
'qp.erepojv he Kareijje-UGaro . rovro p.ev Wttlojvl 
rov ^Lov ro reXos eyevero, Kal rovro Trap* rjpbojv 
evravda ro Trepas earoj rod Xoyov. 

^ vv dvei Niese : crvvBvei L Lat. 


ing the world without cattle. If, on the other hand, 
mankind had adopted Egyptian customs, the world 
would have been left without human beings, and 
been overrun with those wildest of beasts, wliich 
they sedulously rear in the belief that they are gods. 
Again, had Apion been asked who, in liis opinion, 
were the wisest and most god-fearing of all the 
Egyptians, he would undoubtedly have made the 
admission, " the priests " ; for they, as is said, 
originally received two commissions from royalty : 
divine worsliip and the charge of learning. But all 
those priests are circumcised, and all abstain from 
swine's flesh.^ Even among the rest of the Egyptians 
there is not a man who sacrifices a pig to the gods. 
Was, then, Apion's mind blinded when, in the interest 
of the Egyptians, he undertook to revile us and 
actually condemned them ? For not only do they 
practise the customs which he abuses, but, as 
Herodotus has informed us,^ they have taught 
others to adopt circumcision. 

I cannot, therefore, but regard the penalty which Apion's end. 
Apion paid for maligning his country's laws as just 
and appropriate. An ulcer on his person rendered 
circumcision essential ; the operation brought no 
relief, gangrene set in, and he died in terrible 
tortures. A wise man's duty is to be scrupulously 
faithful to the religious laws of his country, and to 
refrain from abuse of those of others. Apion was a 
defaulter to his country's laws and told lies about 
ours. Such was his end, and here let me bring my 
remarks [upon him] to a close. 

^ On the Egyptians' practice of circumcision see Herod, 
ii. 37, 104 ; on their abstinence from pork, except on certain 
occasions, ib. ii. 47. 

^ Herod, ii. 104 (quoted in A}), i. 169). 



145 (14) 'Ettci 8e^ Kal ^AnoXXcovLog 6 MoAcov Kal Avai- 
lia-x_os Kal TLveg dXXoL ra [lev vtt^ ayvocag, ro 
TrXeloTOV Se Kara SvcrfieveLav, Trepi re tov vojxo- 
deTT^aavros r^jiiv Mcucrecus" Kal Trepl tojv voixojv 
TTeTToi-qvTai Xoyovs ovre hiKalovs oure aXr^delg, tov 
fjL€v d)S yoTjra Kal aTrarecova Sia^aXXovreg, rovg 
vqijlovs he KaKias rffiTv Kal ovSejJLidg aperrj? (f)d- 
GKGvreg etvai SiSao-KOiXov?, ^ovXojjbaL ovvrofjiajg Kal 
rrepi rrjs 6Xr]g rjfxojv Karacrrdcreajs rod TToXirev- 
fxarog Kai rrepu rGiv Kara p.ipos, ws dv oj SvvaroSy 

146 €L77€LV. olpLai ydp eaecrdai <f)av€p6v on Kal rrpos 
€VG€^€iav Kal rrpog Koivcoviav rrjv fier^ dXXrjXcov Kal 
TTpos r-qv KaOoXov (j^tAay^pcoTTtW, eVi §e Trpog 
OLKaioGvvrjv Kal rrjv eV rots' ttovols Kaprepiav Kal 
davarov irepK^pov-qGLv dpicrra Keijxevovs exofJiev 

147 Tovg vofJLOvs. TTapaKaXd) Se rovs ivrev^opbivovs 
rfj ypa(f)T] jitj pierd cfydovov rroieluQai rrjv avdyvcoaiv 
01) yap iyKOjpLLOv rjpLLov avroJv TTpoeiXopirjv ovy- 
ypd(f)6Lv, dXXd TToXXd Kal ipevSrj KarrjyopovpievoLg 
TjpXv ravrr]v aTToXoytav hiKaiordrrjV elvai vopiit^co 
rrjV arro row vofxojv, Kad^ ovs Lcovre? SiareXovpiev. 

148 d'AAcDS" re Kal r-qv Karrjyopiav 6 ^ XttoXXojvlos ovk 
aopoav ojurrep o A^ttlow eragev, aAAa CTropao'qv 
Kat Sta Tida-qs rijs crvyy pacjyi^s^ rrork pLev cos ddiovs 
Kau pLiaav9pcoTrov£ XoiSopel, rrore 8' av 8etAtav 
■qptlv oveihilei, 'Kal rovpLTraXiv eariv ottov roA/xav 
Kar-qyopeZ Kal drrovoiav. Xeyet Se Kal d(f>veGrd- 
rovg elvai row ^ap^dpojv Kal Sid rovro pbTjSev ets" 

149 rov ^Lov €vprjpLa ovpL/Se^Xrj ad at pbovovs. ravra 3e 
Travra SteAey;)(^7^crecr^at vopuL^oj cra^ajs", €t rdvavrCa 


(14) Seeinff, however, that Apollonius Molon, (v.)Propcsed 

T-i 1.1 .1 r • method of 

Lrysmiachus, and others, partly irom ignorance, refuting 
mainly from ill will, have made reflections, which are mo1o"> etc., 

• 1 • 1 • A T T by an 

neither just nor true, upon our lawgiver Moses and account of 
his code, maligning the one as a charlatan and constitu-*^^ 
impostor, and asserting that from the other we tion. 
receive lessons in vice and none in virtue, I desire 
to give, to the best of my ability, a brief account of 
our constitution as a whole and of its details. From 
tliis, I think, it will be apparent that we possess a 
code excellently designed to promote piety, friendly 
relations with each other, and hmiianity towards the 
world at large, besides justice, hardihood, and con- 
tempt of death. And I beg any into whose hands 
these pages may fall to read them without bias." 
My object is not to compose a panegyric upon our 
nation ; but I consider that, in reply to the numerous 
false accusations which are brought against us, the 
fairest defence which we can offer is to be found in 
the laws which govern our daily life. I adopt this 
line the more readily because Apollonius, unlike 
Apion, has not grouped his accusations together, but 
scattered them here and there all over his work, re- 
viling us in one place as atheists and misanthropes, 
in another reproaching us as cowards, whereas else- 
where, on the contrary, he accuses us of temerity 
and reckless madness. He adds that we are the 
most witless of all barbarians, and are consequently 
the only people who have contributed no useful in- 
vention to civilization. All this tirade will, I think, 
be clearly refuted, if it be shown that the precepts 

« Or "jealousy." 

^ eirel Be Dindorf after Lat. : iireidr] L. 
^ dia . . (Tvyypacprjs ed. pr. : 5t] e'iiras L. Text doubtful. 



Tcov elpr] fJLev ojv cf)av€L'q /cat Sua row vofjiojv r][juv 
TT poorer ay p^eva kol Trparro/xeva per 6. Trao-qg o.Kpi- 
\oQ jjeLOs vcf)'' rjpojv. el 8' dpa ^taa^eu^v pv-qadr^vai 
Tcov Trap' erepoLS vrrevavrioj?^ vevopaapievow, rov- 
Tov hiKaLOL rrjv atrtay ^X^^^ etaiv ot ra Trap rjplv 
oj? X^^P^^ TTapajjoXXeiv a^LOVvres. olg ovberepov 
arroXei(l)0'qcr€Gdai vopil^oj Xeyeiv, ov9 ws" o^X'' 
rovrov? exop^ev rovg v6p.ovg, cov eyoj Trapau'qcropbaL 
roijs Ke(l)aXaLOjdeGrdrovg , ovd" wg ovx'i- /xaAtcrra 
TTOvrow ep.p.evop.ev rol? eavrow vopiois. 

1-^1 (l5) MtAcpov ovv dvaXa^ojv rov Xoyov rovr av 
eirroLpi Trpcorov, on row dvopoj? Kal ara/croj? pcovv- 
rojv OL rd3eojs Kal vopov KOLVowla? emSvp-qraL yevo- 
puevoL Kal TrpojroL Kardp^avreg ecKorajg dv rjpLeporiqrL 

152 Kal (f)VGeojg ^P^'^fl Steyey/citv pLaprvpi]9elev. dpeXei 
Treipdjvrai rd rrap avrolg eKaaroL irpos ro apx^-f^o- 
rarov dvdyetv, Iva p.rf pLLpLelaOai So^ojglv erepovs, 
dAA'^ avrol rod Lrjv voiJLLpojg dXXotg ix^-qy-qaaadaL. 

153 rodrojv Se rovrov ixovrow rov rpoTTOv, aperrj pev 
eon vopLoOerov rd ^eXnara avvihelv Kai Treloai 
TOV£ ;)^pr]cro/^(,eVou? rrepl rojv vtt' avrov nOepLeuajv, 
rrXridovs 6e ro rrdui rols So^acriv epLpLelvai Kai pLiqre 
e-urvxiO.Ls P^'>'j^^ uvpSopals avrojv jX'qoev pera- 

154 ^Yjpl roivvv rov -qperepov vopioderrjv row ottov- 
hr]7Torovv fxvrjpovevopevwv vopioOerojv Trpoayeiv 
dpxo.L6rr]n. \vKovpyoi ydp Kal SoAcDves" Kai 
Z.dXevKog 6 rcov \oKpdw Kal rrdvre? ol davpiaL,o- 

^ ed. pr. : virevavTlwv L Lat. 
2 ed. pr. : om. L Lat. 
^ ed. pr. : + ovk L Lat. 


AGAINST APION, 11. 149-154 

of our laws, punctiliously practised in our lives, are 
in direct conflict Avith the above description. If I 
may be forced to allude to legislation of a contrary 
nature in vogue elsewhere, the blame must rest with 
those who claim that our laws are, by comparison, 
inferior to their own. These critics will, I think, 
have no excuse in future for denying either that we 
possess these laws, the most salient of which I propose 
to cite, or that we are the most law-abiding of all the 

(15) Resuming, then, after this slight digression, I Law versus 
would begin with the remark that persons who have ^^^ essne&s. 
espoused the cause of order and law — one law for 
all — and been the first to introduce them, may fairly 
be admitted to be more civilized and virtuously dis- 
posed than those who lead lawless and disorderly 
lives. In fact, each nation endeavours to trace its 
own institutions back to the remotest date, in order 
to create the impression that, far from imitating 
others, it has been the one to set its neighbours an 
example of orderly life under law. That being so, 
the virtue of a legislator is to have insight to see 
what is best, and to win over to the laws which he 
introduces those who are to live under them ; the 
virtue of the masses is loyally to abide by the laws 
adopted and, in prosperity or in adversity, to make 
no change in them. 

Now, I maintain that our legislator is the most ^o^es the 


ancient of all legislators in the records of the whole ancient of 
world. Compared with him, your Lycurguses and legislators. 
Solons, and Zaleucus, who gave the Locrians their ^33^5^58 b.'c. 
laws, and all who are held in such high esteem by c. eeo e.g. 

VOL. I 2 A 353 


ixevoi TTapa rots "EAAr^crtv ixOes^ Stj kol Trpoj-qv cu? 
TTpos eKelvov Trapa^aXXofj^evoL (f)aLvovraL yeyovores, 
OTTOV ye ix'qh^ avro rovvofjua TrdXai eyiyvojGK€TO 

155 Tov vojJLOv rrapa rots "EAAr^crt. Kal fidprvs 'O/xT^pos" 
ovhajiov TTjs TTOiTjueajs avroj -x^prjudiievos . ovhk 
ydp rjv Kara tovtov, dXXd yvco/xat? aopiorroig ra 
TrX'/jdrj hicpKelro Kal 7Tpoardyp,acrL rcbv ^auiXicov 
d^' ov Kal lJL€)(pL TToAAou StefMeLvav edeaLv aypaSoig 
-X^pojjJL€voL Kal TToAAd rovTOJV del rrpos to gvv- 

156 Tvyx^dvov iieraridevres. 6 8' -qp^erepos vop^oOerrjg 
dp^o-Loraros yeyovws, rovro ydp hrjTTOvBev opLO- 
Xoyelrat Kal rrapd toIs rrdvra KaO^ rjpLcov XiyovGLV , 
eavTov re 7Tapeu)(ev dpiarov rols TrXrjOeGiv rjyeixova 
Kal Gvpb^ovXoV) ri^v re KaraaKevrjv avroZs dXrjv 
rod ^Lov ro) vopbcp rrepiXa^cbv^ erreioev rrapa- 
he^aaOai Kal ^e^aiordrrjv el? del^ (f)vXa)(9i]vaL 

157 (16) "ISojfiev 8e row epyojv avrov ro irpoyrov pueya- 
Xelov. eKelvos ydp rovs rrpoyovovs rjpidjv, eTreirrep 
edo^ev avrols rrjv A'lyvTrrov eKXiTTOvaiv IttI rrjv 
Trarpiov yrjv eTravievaiy TToXXds rds pLvpudSas rrapa- 
Xajidjv eK TToXXow Kal dixrj)(dvajv Stecrcocrev els 
aG(j)dXeiav Kal ydp rrjV dvvhpov avrovs Kal TToXXrjV 
ipapipLov ebei BLoSoLTTopiJGai Kal VLKYjoai rroXepLiOVS^ 
Kac reKva Kal yvvaiKas Kal Xeiav opLov Gcjt^eiv 

loS piaxop^evovs. ev ols dVacrt Kal Grparrjyos dpiGros 
eyevero Kal Gvp.^ovXos Gvvercoraros Kal rrdvriDV 
K-qhejJicov dXrjdeGraros. aTrav Se ro ttXtjOos els 
eavrov avqprrJGdai TrapeGKevaGev , kol rrepl Travros 

^ cl's exOes L. ^ Bekker : irapaka^b^v L. 

^ els det Bekker : fo-acrt L. 

* Niese : iroXijj.ovs L Lat. 


the Greeks appear to have been born but yesterday. 
Why, the very word " law " was unknown in ancient 
Greece. Witness Homer, who nowhere employs it 
in his poems. ^ In fact, there was no such thing in 
his day ; the masses were governed by maxims not 
clearly defined and by the orders of royalty, and 
continued long afterwards the use of unwritten 
customs, many of which were from time to time 
altered to suit particular circumstances. On the 
other hand, our legislator, who lived in the remotest 
past (that, I presume, is admitted even by our most 
unscrupulous detractors),^ proved himself the people's 
best guide and counsellor ; and after framing a code 
to embrace the whole conduct of their life, induced 
them to accept it, and secured, on the firmest footing, 
its observance for all time. 

(16) Let us consider his first magnificent achieve- The work of 
ment. When our ancestors decided to leave Egypt generafand 
and return to their native land, it was he who took as religious 
command of all those myriads and brought them 
safely through a host of formidable difficulties. For 
they had to traverse a vast, waterless and sandy 
desert, to defeat their eneraies, and to protect their 
wives, their children and their chattels while engaged 
in battle. Throughout all this he proved the best of 
generals, the sagest of counsellors, and the most 
conscientious of guardians. He succeeded in making 
the whole people dependent upon himself, and, 

" The word vbiios appears first in Hesiod ; older terms 
were de/uLcares (Homer) and dea/noi, " ordinances." 

^ Apion, however, brought his date down to the eighth 
century (§ 17). 



e-x^ujv rreiuOivras avrl rov KeXevaOevros i^ etV 
ovhefjiiav OLKelav eXaj^ev ravra TrXeove^iaVy dAA' eV 
oj fxdXiGra rod Kaipov hwdiieis fJi€V avrol? Trepi- 
^dXXovTai Kol Tvpavvihas ol 77 poeGrr^Kor eg, idl^ovcrL 

159 8e rd TrX-qdrj pLerd TToXXrjg <LrjV >' dvopLias, iv 
rovrqj rfjg i^ovatas eKeivog KadearrjKCijg rovvavrlov 
oyi'jO'Q helv evG€^€Zv kol ttoXXt^v evvofxiav^ rols 
Xaols ipiTTapau^^eZv , ovrojs airrog re rd p^dXtara 
rrjv dperrjv imhei^eiv ttjv avrov,cx)v kol 
oajr-qpiav rols avrov rjyepiova TreTTOLiqpiivoLS ^e/Sato- 

160 rdrrjv Tjapl^eiv. KaX-qs ovv avrw TrpoaLpeaecos^ 
Kol TTpd^eojv ii€ydXcov eTTLrvyxoLVopLevcov elKorojs 
iv6p,it,€v TjyepLova re Kal avp.^ovXov dedv^ ^X^^^> 
Kal 7T€LGas rrporepov iavrov on Kard r-qv eKeivov 
^ovXrjcnv drravra rrpdrrei kol hiavoelrai, raTjrrjw 
ojero Selv Trpd jravros ipLTTOLrjaai rrjv VTToXrjipLV rol? 
TrXrjdeGLV ol ydp 7nGr€VGavT€£ irrLGKOTrelv dedv 
rovg iavrcov ^lov? ovdeu dvexovrau i^apiaprelv. 

161 TOLOVTOg p,€V hi] TLS avTos ^^ T^/xcov o vofJLoderrjs , 
ov yorjg oi5S aTrareayv, direp XoiSopovvreg XiyovGiv 
ah'iKOJS, oAA olov rrapd rots "EAAr/CTtv a'd^ovGLV 
rov }^[lvoj yeyovevai Kai jxer avrov' rovs dXXovg 

162 vojxoOeras. ol p.ev ydp avrow rovg vopLovs vtto- 
rlOevrai "fAu, ol 8* et? rov 'AttoAAoj /cat rd AeA^t/cov 
avrov puavrelovf^ dve(j)€pov, rjroL raXiqOkg ovrojs 
e;^ety vop^itovreg 7) rreiGeiv paov VTroXap^^dvovres . 

163 ns h 'qv o puaXiGra KaropOojGas rovs vojxovs Kai 
rrjg hiKaiordr'qs^ rrepl Oeov TTiareois €7Tirv)(CJVy 

^ Om. Lat. : o.vtovs tou k€\. ed. pr. 

2 Xiese after Hudson with Lat. : om. L. 

3 Xiese (cf. B. i. 403j : eHvoLav L. ^ Text doubtful. 

s Lat. : ddov L. 6 Om. Lat. 



having secured their obedience in all things, he did 
not use his influence for any personal aggrandize- 
ment. No ; at the very moment when leading men 
assume absolute and despotic power and accustom 
their subjects to a hfe of extreme lawlessness, he, 
on the contrary, having reached that commanding 
position, considered it incumbent on him to live 
piously and to provide for his people an abundance 
of good laws, in the beUef that this was the best 
means of displaying his own virtue and of ensuring 
the lasting welfare of those who had made him their 
leader. With such noble aspirations a.nd such a 
record of successful achievements, he had good 
reason for thinking that he had God for his guide 
and counsellor. Having first persuaded himself 
that God's will governed all his actions and all his 
thoughts, he regarded it as his primary duty to 
impress that idea upon the community ; for to those 
who believe that their lives are under the eye of God 
all sin is intolerable. Such was our legislator ; no 
charlatan or impostor, as slanderers unjustly call 
him, but one such as the Greeks boast of having had 
in Minos'* and later legislators. For among these 
some attributed their laws to Zeus, others traced 
them to Apollo and his oracle at Delphi,^ either 
believing this to be the fact, or hoping in this way to 
facilitate their acceptance. But the question, who 
was the most successful legislator, and who attained 
to the truest conception of God, may be answered 

^^ Reputed king and legislator of Crete. 
^ " Some," e.g. Minos ; " others," e.g. Lycurgus. 

'' jxer avTOV ed. pr. with Lat. : /xeTO. raura L. 
^ Text emended by Niese ; that of the ms. is corrupt and 

^ TTJs dLKatoTdrris Eus. : rls 6 dLKo.ioTaTa L Lat. 



TTapeoTLV i^ avrojv Karavoeiv rd>v voixcov avrirrapa- 
^dXXovras' rjSi-j yap Trepl rovrow XeKrlov. 

164 OvKovv arreLpoi puev at Kara [lepos raw idwv 
Kal row VGfjLOJV Trapa rols arraGiv avOpojirois 
hLa(f)opai. K€(f)aXaLOjSa)S <S'> dv eTTioi rts"^ ol 
[jL€v yap pLOvapxi'O.Lg, ol 8e rats' oXlywv hvvaGreiais , 
d'AAot he rols TrXrjdeoiv ^Trerpeipav rrjv e^ovGiav 

165 row TTOAirevfjiarojv . o 6 rjfjLerepog vojjLoderrjs cts" 
fxev rovrojv ovhonovv drrelhev, ojs" 3' dv n? etTTOt 
/Stacra/xevos" rov XoyoVy deoKpariav drreheL^e rd 
7ToXir€vpLa, deoj rrjv dp^rjv Kal rd Kpdros dvadeis. 

166 Kac TTctcras" €ls eKelvov drravras dcpopdv ojs atrtov 
/xev aTTavrojv ovra rojv ayaOow, a kolv^ re TrdoLV 
avOpojTTOis VTTapxei Kal daojv erv^ov avrol derj- 
9evres ev dfjurj^dvoLs, Xadelv he rrjv eKeivov yvcojjirjv 
ovK evdv ovre row Trparrofxevow ovBev ov9^ (Lv dv 

167 TLS Trap avroj hiavoriOelrj, eva yovv^ o.vrdv aTT- 
ecjyTjVe Kal dyevTjrov Kal rrpds rdv dihtov )(pdvov 
avaXXoiojrov y Trdcrrjs Ihea? dvrjrijs KaXXei hia- 
(f)epovra Kal hwdjiei fiev tj/jlIv yvojpLjjiov, OTTolog 
he Kar ovuiav eurlv dyvojarov. 

168 Tavra rrepi Oeov (fypovelv oC Gocfywraroi Trap 
'EAA7]CTtv on fjbev ehihd-)(driGav eKeivov rds dp)(ds 
TTapaaxdvros , ioj vvv Xeyeiv, on 8' eorl KaXd Kal 
rrperrovra rfj rod deov (f)VGeL Kal pbeyaXeLor-qn, 
Gcf)6hpa pLejjLaprvprjKaai' Kal ydp Hvdaydpas Kal 
W-va^ayopas Kal YlXdrojv ol re [ler^ eKeivov aTTO 
rrjs Grods ^tAocro^ot Kal puKpov helv aTravres 

^ ^-e0. av iirioL ns Eus. : ora. L Lat. 
^ eVa yovv L : dX\' Eus. 

" The word was apparently coined by Josephus ; the 
idea goes back to the O.T. 


AGAINST APION, 11. 163-168 

by contrasting the laws themselves with those of 
others, and to these I must now turn. 

There is endless variety in the details of the Hisconsti- 
customs and laws which prevail in the world at large, "theo- 
To give but a summary enumeration : some peoples ^racy." 
have entrusted the supreme political power to 
monarchies, others to oligarchies, yet others to the 
masses. Our lawgiver, however, was attracted by 
none of these forms of polity, but gave to his con- 
stitution the form of what^if a forced expression be 
permitted— may be termed a " theocracy," " placing 
all sovereignty and authority in the hands of God. 
To Him he persuaded all to look, as the author of 
all blessings, both those which are common to all 
mankind, and those which they had won for them- 
selves by prayer in the crises of their history. He 
convinced them that no single action, no secret 
thought, could be hid from Him. He represented 
Hini as One, uncreated^ and immutable to all 
eternity ; in beauty surpassing all mortal thought,^ 
made known to us by His power, although the nature 
of His real being *^ passes knowledge. 

That the wisest of the Greeks learnt to adopt these a religion 
conceptions of God from principles with which Moses many, not 
supplied them,^ I am not now concerned to urge ; but (^l^f Greek 

1 ^^ 1 111 • 1 11 philosophy) 

they have borne abundant witness to the excellence for the few. 
of these doctrines, and to their consonance with the 
nature and majesty of God. In fact, Pythagoras, 
Anaxagoras, Plato, the Stoics who succeeded him, 
and indeed nearly all the philosophers appear to have 

^ Not born like the Greek gods (see § 240 below). 
" Or "form"; cf. § 190. '^ Or " essence." 

« This theory, first propounded by Aristobulus (2nd cent. 
B.C.), was adopted by Philo and later writers. 



ovTco (^aivovrai Trepl rrj? rod Oeov ^ucreaj? 7re- 

169 (f)povr]K6r€g. dAA' ol fiev rrpos oXiyovg ^lXo- 
GO(j)OVvr€s €LS TrXrjOr] Sd^at? TTpoKareiXiqpLiJLeva ttjv 
aXrjOeLav rod SoypLarog i^eveyKeiv ovk iroXpLTjcrav, 
o S' rjpierepos vopLoOer-qs, are S-q ra epya rrapey^uw 
GvpL(j)Ojva rots Xoyois^ ov pLovov rovs Ka6^ avrov 
eTTeiueVy aAAa kol roZs i$ eKeivwv det yevqoo- 
puevoi'^ rrjv rrepl deov TTLcmv €ve(j)VGev dpLeraKivq- 

170 rov. auTLOv o on Kau rco rporrcp rijg vopboOeGtag 
rrpos ro ■)(priaL}ji,ov rravrajv idel/ rroXv Survey k€V' 
ov yap pLepo? dperijs eTToiqGev rrjv evGe^euav, dXXd 
ra-ur-q? l-^^P'q rdXXa, Xeyoj Se rrjV SiKaiOGVvqv, r-qv 
G(D(f)poGvvqv, r-qv Kaprepiav, rrjV ra)V TToXirow 

171 TTpos dXX-qXov? iv ciTraGi GVi-L(j}Ojviav. dVacrat yap 
at rrpd^€LS Kal hiarpi^al Kal Xoyoi Trdvres €7tI 
ri-jv TTpos rov Oeov rjpuv evGe^eiav ey^ovGi r-qv dva- 
(fyopdv ovhev yap roijrcov dve^eraorov ou8' dopiGrov 
TTapeXiTTev . 

Afo /xev yap €lglv arraG-qs TratSetas" rporroi Kal 
rrjs TTepi ra r)9rj KaraGKevijg, ow 6 jjlcv Xoycp 
ScSaGKaXiKos, 6 8e Sua rrjs dGKTjGeojs rcov rjOojv. 

172 OL pL€i' ovv dXXoL vopLoOeraL rals yvcopLais hieoriqGav 
Kal rov erepov avrwv, ov eSo^ev eKaGrois, eXoptevoL 
rov erepov rrapiXirroVy olov Aa/ceSat/xdytot pL€v Kal 
¥s.prjr€? eOeGiv irraihevov , ov Adyots", ^ AdrivaloL Se 
Kat Gx^oov OL aAAoL Travres r^AArjves a piev "x^p-q 
7Tpdrr€LV t) pb-q rrpoGeraGGOV Std rcov vopLOJV, rov 

173 Se TTpog avrd Sid rcl)v epycov eOiteLV cbXLyojpovv. 

(17) 8' rjpLerepos vop^odinqs dpL(f)a> ravra Gvvqp- 

^ cv^KJ}. T. \oy. L I. at. : rots vo/xols av/j-cpuya Eus. 
2 Ora. del Eus. 



held similar views concerning the nature of God. 
These, however, addressed their philosophy to the 
few, and did not venture to divulge their true beliefs 
to the masses who had their own preconceived 
opinions ; whereas our lawgiver, by making practice 
square with precept, not only convinced his own 
contemporaries, but so firmly implanted this belief 
concerning God in their descendants to all future 
generations that it cannot be moved. The cause of 
his success was that the very nature of his legislation 
made it [always] far more useful than any other ; 
for he did not make religion a department of virtue, 
but the various virtues — I mean, justice, temperance, 
fortitude, and mutual harmony in all things between 
the members of the community ^ — departments of 
religion. Religion governs all our actions and occupa-. 
tions and speech ; none of these things did our law- 
giver leave unexamined or indeterminate. 

All schemes of educatior> and moral training fall Moses 
into two categories ; instruction is imparted in the precepTand 
one case by precept, in the other by practical exercis- practice. 
ing of the character. All other legislators, differing 
in their opinions, selected the particular method 
which each preferred and neglected the other. Thus 
tlie Lacedaemonians and Cretans employed practical, 
not verbal, training ; whereas the Athenians and 
nearly all the rest of the Greeks made laws enjoining 
M'hat actions might or might not be performed, but 
neglected to familiarize the people with them by 
putting them into practice. 

(17) Our legislator, on the other hand, took great 

" The four cardinal virtues of the Platonic School, except 
that Harmony {avfj.cpwi'ia) here replaces the usual Wisdom 



[jLOG€ Kara ttoXXi-jv eTTLixeXeiav ovre yap KOJ(f)ir]v 
arreXLTTe ttjv row tjOwv aGK-qcriv ovre rov €K rod 
vofiov Xoyov arrpaKrov etaaev, dAA' €vdi)s ano rijg 
rrpajr'qs dp^apLevos rpo(f)ijg /cat rrj? Kara rov olkov 
iKrlarow^ Sialr-qg, oijBev ovSe row jipay^vrdrojv 
avre^ovGLOv errt raZ? ^ovX-qoeGL rcov )/p-qc7opLevcov 

174 KareXiTTev , dXXd Kal rrepl Giriow, ogow drre-x^eodai 
XpTj Kal TLva TTpoa^ipeadai, Kal rrepl row kolvojvt]- 
Govrow rij^ SiaLr'qs, epyow re Gvvrovias Kal rovp.- 
rraXiv dva—avoeojs dpov edrjKev avros' Kal Kavova 
rov v6p.ov, tv' ojorrep vtto rrarpl rovroj Kal heGTTorrj 
L,6jvre? p^'qre ^ovXopbevoL [JLTjOev /xry^' vrr ayvoias 
apiapravojpLev . 

175 Ovoe yap rrjv arro" rrjg ayvotag VTToripi'qGiv 
KareXiTTev,^ dXXd Kal /cciAAtarov Kat avayKaio- 
rarov drrehei^e rraihevpia rov vopLov, ovk eladrra^ 
aKpoaGOfievois ovhe his tj TToXXaKis , aXX eKaarris 
e^hopidhog row dXXcov * epyow dSepievovs em riqv 
aKpoaGLV eKeXevGe rov v6p.ov GvXXeyeGdai Kai 
roOrov dKpi^oj? eKp.av6d.veiv' 6 8r] rrdvres eoiKaGiV 
ol vojioOer ai TrapaXiTrelv . 

176 (18) l\al roGOvrov ol TrXelGroi row avOpojrrow arr- 
e^ovGL rod Kara rov? OLKeiovs vopLOvg t,rjv, coore 
G'x^ehov avrovs ol'S' 'iGaGLV, dAA' drav i^apidp- 
ravojGL, rore Trap' dXXow pbavOavovGiv on rov 

177 vojiov Trapa^e^-qKaGLV . ol re rds jJieycGrag Kat 
Kvpiojraras Trap avrol? ap)(as diOLKOvvres opLO- 

^ EllS. : Kara to (ed. pr. : t'ov L) oiKelov eKdano L. 
^ ainoLs Xiese. " virb Eus. 

* Eus. : rjveuX^TO KaToKLirelu L. 
" Cf. Philo's eulogy of Moses for avoiding the one-sided 
extremes of other legislators {De opif. mundi 1). 
'" Lit. " dumb." " « Or " diet." 



care to combine both systems.'* He did not leave 
practical training in morals inarticulate ^ ; nor did 
he permit the letter of the law to remain inoperative. 
Starting from the very beginning with the food of 
which we partake from infancy and the private life ^ 
of the home, he left nothing, however insignificant, 
to the discretion and caprice of the individual. What 
meats a man should abstain from, and what he may 
enjoy ; with what persons he should associate ; what 
period should be devoted respectively to strenuous 
labour and to rest — for all this our leader made the 
Law the standard and rule, that we might live under 
it as under a father and master,'^ and be guilty of no 
sin through wilfulness or ignorance. 

For ignorance he left no pretext. He appointed au Jews 
the Law to be the most excellent and necessary form j^^w. 
of instruction, ordaining, not that it should be heard 
once for all or twice or on several occasions, but that 
every w^eek men should desert their other occupations 
and assemble to listen to the Law and to obtain a 
thorough and accurate knowledge of it,'' a practice 
which all other legislators seem to have neglected. 

(18) Indeed, most men, so far from living in 
accordance with their own laws, hardly know what 
they are. Only when they have done wrong do they 
learn from others that they have transgressed the 
law. Even those of them who hold the highest and 
most important offices admit their ignorance ; for 

^ Cf. Gal. iii. 24 for the law as " tutor " (7rat5a7c<;76s). 

* Josephus follows the Rabbinical tradition (Talm. Jer. 
Meg ilia, iv. 1), which ascribed to Moses the introduction of 
the custom of public reading of the Law on Sabbaths and 
festivals. Cf. A. xvi. 43 ; Philo, Be opif. mund. § 128 (Cohn) : 
and Dr. Biichler's art. in J.Q.B. v. 427 (1893). Deut. xxxi. 10 
provides merely for a septennial reading. 



XoyovcTL rrjv dyvoLav imcrrdrag yap TrapaKad- 

LUTavTai TTJg TOW rrpayjxarojv oLKOvojJLLa? tovs 

ITS e/X77€tptai-' €)(eiv tojv vgjjlojv V7TiG)(yovjxivovs . rjyiojv 

h OVTIVOVV TL£ kpOLTO TOV£ v6[J.OV9 pdoV dv €17701 

TTavra? tj rovvofia ro iavrov. Toiyapovv 6.776 rrjg 
77p(jjTrjS evdvs aludrjU^ajs avrovs €Kjiav9dvovr€S 
€xofJL€v ev rats ipv)(Ous dj(j77€p iyK€XOipayiJL€vovg, 
Kal (T77avLO? ixkv 6 TrapajjaivojVy dSuvaros" S' r] rrjs 
/coAacrcojS" 77apairiqGis . 

179 (19) TobTo 77p6jrov d77dvrojv rrjv OavjJLacrrrjv opLO- 
voiav 'qplv eiX77€77oi-qK€V. to yap jJLLav fiev ep^etv 
Kal TTjV avTTjv ho^av 77epl deov, to) ^lo) he Kal 
Tol? edecjL jiTihev a)\XrjXow hia(j)€peLv , KaXXicmrjV 

180 iv yjdeGLv avOpojrrojv uvjx(l)0jviav aTroT^Aet. Trap' 
Tjfiiv yap iiovois ovt€ rrepl deov Xoyovs OLKOvaeTai 
TLs aXXrjXoLS VTrevavTLovs, OTTota ttoAAo, Trap' 
eTepoLS ou;^ V770 tojv tv^ovtow jjlovov Acara to 
77pou77£Gov €Ka(JTOj Xly^Tai 77ddos , dXXd Kal 77apd 

TLCTL TOJV (hlXoG6(j)OJV d77 OT €T oXlXTjT ai , TOJV fJL6V TTjV 

oXrjv Tov Oeou (jyvaiv dvaipelv Tolg XoyoLS eVt- 
' KexeLpTjKOTOJV, dXXojv be ttjv V77ep dvdpw77a)v avTov 

181 rrpovoiav a<j)aipovpbivojv' ovt' iv tols eVtTTySeJ- 
ixaat TOJV ^Lojv oipeTac Siachopdv, dXXd Koivd /xev 
epya 77avTOJV 77 a,p ripbiv, els he Xoyos o to) vofioj 
(jvp.(j)OJVojv rrepl 9eov, Travra Xeyojv eKelvov ecjiopdv. 
Kal iiTjV 77epl TOJV KaTa tov ^iov e77LTrjhev}JLdTOjv , 
OTL Set 77dvTa TaXXa TeXos ^X^^^ '^W ^^cr^'/3etay, Kal 
yvvaiKOJV aKovaeuev dv tls Kai tojv OLKeTOJv. 

182 (20) "OOev hrj Kal to 77 po(f)ep6pLevov rjfjblv utto tlvojv 
eyKX-qjjLa, to hrj [irj Kaivojv evpeTas epywv 7) Xoywv 



they employ professional legal experts as assessors 
and leave them in charge of the administration of 
affairs .'^ But, should anyone of our nation be 
questioned about the laws, he Vvould repeat them 
all more readily than his own name. The result, 
then, of our thorough grounding in the laws from the 
first dawn of intelligence is that we have them, as 
it were, engraven on our souls. A transgressor is a 
rarity ; evasion of punishment by excuses an im- 

(19) To this cause above all we owe our admirable Harmony 
harmony. Unity and identity of religious belief, froIn^"ufty 
perfect uniformity in habits and customs, produce a of creed. 
very beautiful concord in human character. Among 

us alone will be heard no contradictory statements 
about God, such as are common among other nations, 
not only on the lips of ordinary individuals under the 
impulse of some passing mood, but even boldly pro- 
pounded by philosophers ; some putting forward 
crushing arguments against the very existence of 
God,* others depriving Him of His providential care 
for mankind.^ Among us alone will be seen no 
difference in the conduct of our lives. With us all 
act alike, all profess the same doctrine about God, 
one which is in harmony with our Law and affirms 
that all things are under His eye. Even our women- 
folk and dependants would tell you that piety must 
be the motive of all our occupations in life. 

(20) This, in fact, is the origin of the reproach 
brought against us by some critics ^ of our having 

'^ Assessors {wdpeSpoL) were attached to the Athenian 
archons ; Roman provincial governors had legal advisers. 
^ Sceptics such as Pyrrhon and his disciple Timon. 
" ^.^'.^the Epicureans. ^ Cf. §§ 135, 148. 



avhpag Trapacrx^lv y ivrevdev uvjij^i^-qKev. ol [lev 
yap d'AAot ro {x-qhevl tojv TrarpLow ep^jieveiv koXov 
elvai voixiLovcn koL toIs toXjjlojgi ravra Trapa- 
fjaiv€iv pAXicrra GO(^ias heivoT-qra p^aprvpovGiv, 

183 rjp.eis he Tovvavriov /xtW elvai koI Spoviquiv kol 
dperrjV v7T€LXrj(f)ap.€V to ixTjbev oAojS" VTrevavnov 
pLijre TTpd^ai jx-qre h lav otj 6 rjv a l rols i^ ^PXV^ 
voiioOeTridelcTLV . orrep eLKorojg av ecr] reKjxripLov 
rod KaXXiora tov v6[iov reOrjvaf tcl yap {xtj rovrov 
exovra rov rporrov al rrelpac deojieva SiopOojoreco? 

184 (21) 'HiJilv he Tols TTeLadelGLV i^ dpxrjs rediivai rov 
vojiov Kara deov ^otjXtjgiv ouS' e'dGej^eg tjv rovrov 
p^-q (f)vXdrr€LV. ri yap avrov rt? d.v pLeraKLvq- 

G€L€V, Tj ri KoXXlOV i^€Vp€Vy Tj Tt TTap irepOJV OJ5 

dpL€Lvov pier-qveyKev ; dpd. ye rrjV oX'qv KaraGraGLV 

185 TOV TToXirevpiarog ; Kal ris dv KaXXicov rj St/cato- 
repa yivoiro rrjs Oeov puev -qyep.ova row oXojv^ 
'TTeTTOiTjp.evqs , rol? lepevGi 8e kolvtj p.ev rd pAyiGra 
biOLKelv emrpeTTOVG'qs, roj de Trdvrojv dp^iepel 
irdXiv av TremGrevKVLOs rrjV row dXXow lepeojv 

186 -qyep.oviav ; ou? ov Kard TrXovrov ovde riGtv dX- 
Aats" TTpov^ovrag avrojxdrois rrXeove^iais ro Trpwrov 
evdvs d vojioderrjS errl rrfv rLfjbrjv^ era^ev, dAA' 
OGOL row jxer^ avrov rreiOoZ re koX GOj(f)poGVvr] rwv 
dXXow dte</)€pov, rovrois r-qv rrepi rov Oeov p^aXiGra 

187 Oeparreiav eve^^^p'-^^'^ • rovro^ h rjv Kai rov vo- 
jiov Kal row d.XXow eTnriqhevpidrojv dKpi^r^s ein- 
p^eXeia' Kai yap erroTTraL rravrow Kai biKaGrai row 

^ + if^eicfdaL Eus. ^ TT]S tl/jltjs Niese. 

^ Eus. : TovTov L : tovtols ed. pr. (so Lat. apparently). 



produced no inventors in crafts or literature. In the Our 
eyes of the world at large there is something fine in expiahil our 
breaking away from all inherited customs ; those alleged 
who have the temerity to defy them are credited inveiitive- 
with the possession of consummate ability. To us, '^^^s- 
on the other hand, the only wisdom, the only virtue, 
consists in refraining absolutely from every action, 
from every thought that is contrary to the laws 
originally laid down. This may fairly be claimed as a 
proof of their excellent draftsmanship ; codes which 
are not of this character are proved by experience 
to need amendment. 

(21) For us, with our conviction that the original Our 
institution of the Law was in accordance with the will constitution 
of God, it would be rank impiety not to observe it. could not be 
What could one alter in it ? What more beautiful ™P^°'^'^ • 
one could have been discovered ? What improve- 
ment imported from elsewhere ? Would you change 
the entire character of the constitution ? Could 
there be a finer or more equitable polity than one 
which sets God at the head of the universe, which 
assigns the administration of its highest affairs to the 
whole body of priests, and entrusts to the supreme 
high-priest the direction of the other priests ? These 
men, moreover, owed their original promotion by the 
legislator to their high ofl^ce, not to any superiority 
in wealth or other accidental advantages. No ; of 
all his companions, the men to whom he entrusted 
the ordering of divine worship as their first charge 
were those who were pre-eminently gifted with per- 
suasive eloquence and discretion. But this charge 
further embraced a strict superintendence of the Law 
and of the pursuits of everyday life ; for the appointed 
duties of the priests included general supervision, the 



afJL(l)L(jl3rjroviJL€VOJV koL KoXaaral rcov KareyvojcrfJie- 
vow ol lepeis irdxOrjcrav. 

188 (22) Tts" av ovv dpx'^ yevoiro ravrr]? ocncorepa; ris 
8e Tijjb-q 0€a) ixaXXov dpjjiolovcra, Travrog fxev rod 
ttXtjOovs KareGKevaGjJLevov Trpog ttjv evue^^iav, 
i^aiperov Se rrjv eTTiijAXeiav tojv Upeojv TreTTLcrrev- 
fievojv, oj<777€p Be reXerrjg nvo? rrjs oXrjs iroXireia^ 

189 OLKOvoiJLOvjJLevrjs ; d yap oXlyow rjiJiepwv dpiOfjiov 
i77Lri]S€vovr€? dXXoi^ (hvXdrreiv ov hvvavTai, jjlv- 
UT-qpia Kol TeXerds eTTOvojJidt.ov'Te?, Tavra jjueO^ 
TjSovT]? Kol yvcojJLTjg djjLeraderov^ (^vXarropiev rjiieis 
8ta rod rravrds alwvos.^ 

190 Tives ovv elrjLV at rrpoppi^GeLS /cat aTrayopevaeL?* ; 
(XTrAat re /cat yvojpifJiOL. Trpojrrj 8' rjyelrai tj rrepl 
Oeov Xeyovaa 6Vt° Oeo? €X€l rd avp^Travra, TravreXrjS 
/cat /xa/captos", auro? avro) /cat Trdcnv avrapKT]?, 
dpxj] /cat fieaa /cat reXog ovros rwv Trdvrojv, epyoLS 
fjL€v /cat xP-piuLv evapyqs /cat rravrog ovtivogovv 
(^avepojTepoSi fiopc^rjv 8e /cat fxeyedo? rjpLlv d(f)a- 

101 ro£.^ rrdua fiev ydp vXt] Trpo^ eiKova rrjv rovrov 
Kav fj TToXvreXrj? drL/JLO?, rrdcra Se r€)(v-q Trpo? 
pbLlxrjG€(jJS imvoLav dT€)(yos' ovBev 6/xotov ovr 
etdofxev ovr e7nvoovp.ev oirr^ et/ca^€tv ecrrtv buiov, 

^ Eus. : a\\6(pi\oL L Lat. 

^ Eus. : afJATair{e)l(TTov L, ed. pr. 

^ bC aiQvos Eus. codd. * TrpoayopevaeLS Eus. 

^ Niese : 6 L. ® 6.(paverrTaTos Eus. 

" There is a similar passage in Hecataeus's sketch of 
Judaism {ap. Diod. Sic. xl sub fin.), which Josephus 
apparently has in mind, on the selection of the priests 
and their duties, and the supremacy of the high-priest. 



trial of cases of litigation, and the punishment of 
condemned persons." 

(22) Could there be a more saintly government 
than that ? Could God be more worthily honoured 
than by such a scheme, under which religion is the 
end and aim of the training of the entire community, 
the priests are entrusted with the special charge of 
it, and the whole administration of the state re- 
sembles some sacred ceremony ^ ? Practices which, 
under the name of mysteries and rites of initiation, 
other nations are unable to observe for but a few 
days, we maintain with delight and unflinching 
determination all our lives. 

What, then, are the precepts and prohibitions of The first 
our Law ? They are simple and familiar. At their m"nt!^"The 
head stands one of which God is the theme. The Jewish con- 
universe is in God's hands ; perfect and blessed, self- God. 
sufficing and sufficing for all, He is the beginning, 
the middle, and the end of all things.^ By His works 
and bounties He is plainly seen, indeed more manifest 
than ought else ; but His form and magnitude 
surpass our powers of description. No materials, 
however costly, are fit to make an image of Him ; 
no art has skill to conceive and represent it. The 
like of Him we have never seen, we do not imagine, 
and it is impious to conjecture. We behold His 

'^ Or " rite of initiation." 

" For " the beginning and the end " cf. Apoc. i. 8, xxi. 6. 
For " the middle " Reinach quotes a rabbinical tradition 
(Talm. Jer. Sanhed. 18a) that God is represented by the 
word for " truth " (n:^^)^ because it consists of the first, 
" middle " (incorrect), and last letter of the Hebrew alphabet, 
but suspects that the three letters (Aleph, Mem, Taw) are 
really a transcription of the initials of the Greek words 
dpxVi /J-€(TOP, reXos. 

VOL. I 2 B 369 


192 epya [jXeTrojJLev avrov (fyojs, ovpavoVy yrjv, rjXtov, 
uSara, tojojv yeveueis, Kaprrow avaSoGecg. ravra 
deos e7ToirjG€V ov xepGiv, ov ttovol?, ov tlvojv gvv- 
epyaGOfjLevojv^ eTTiberjdeLS, aAA' avrov OeXrjGavrog 
KaXojs TjV €v9v9 yeyovora. rovrov Oepajrevreov 
aGKovvras aperrjv rpoiros yap deov depaTreias 
ovTog OGLOjraro? . 

193 (93) Ets" vao? ivos Beov, cJ^lXov yap det Travrl to 


Tovrov depaiTevovGiv jJLev Slol Travros ol tepets", 

194 rjyelraL Se rovrow 6 rrpajTOS ael Kara yevos. ovtos 
fxera row Gvviepiow BvGei roj Oeqj, (pvXd^ei rovs 
vofjiovs, dLKCiGeL TTepl row aiJb(j)iGJi'qrovyL€VOJv , ko- 
Xa.G€L rov£ eXey)(6ivrag, 6 rovr oj jxtj 7T€id6pLevo£ 

195 v(he^€i diKrjv ojg elg Oeov avrov OLGe^ow. Ovopiev 
ras dvGias ovk €is pLedrjV eavrolg, aj^ovXrjrov yap 

196 deqj roSe, dAA' elg GOJchpoGVvrjv. Kai eVt rats' 
OvGLais ^prj rrpojrov VTrep rrjs Koivrj? €V)(9G9ai 
GOjrrjpias, eW vrrep iavrow irrl yap KOivojvia 
yeyovapiev, Kal ravrrjv 6 rrporiiiow rod Kad^ avrov 

197 LOLOV /xaAtcrr' <av> eliq deep KC'x^apiGpiivog . SirjGig 

€Groj TTpos rov ueov, ov)( ottoj? dtp rayatfa, 

^ Niese : avfepyaaa/Jievcov L Eus. 
2 otow Eus. 

" Plato (Tiin. 4-1 c, 43 z) represented God as employing 
collaborators in the work of creation. He was followed bj' 
Philo {De opif. mund. § 72 Cohn), who from Gen. i. 26 (" let 
V.S make man ") infers a plurality of orjuLovpyoi for the 
creation of man, whereas for the rest of creation ovdei^bs 
iof-qBr) rod (TvvepyrjcrovTos. Josephus has used the Timaeus 
above {Ap. i. 7 ) : but his language is here so similar to that 
of Philo that he mav be combating the latter. 

^ Gen. i. 31. 



works : the light, the heaven, the earth, the sun, 
the waters, the reproductive creatures, the sprouting 
crops. These God created, not witli hands, not with 
toil, not with assistants of whom He had no need ; " 
He willed it so, and forthwith they were made in all 
their beauty.^ Him must we worship by the practice 
of virtue ; for that is the most saintly manner of 
worshipping God. 

(23) We have ^ but one temple for the one God The temple 
(for Hke ever loveth like),^ common to all as God is cult. 
common to all. The priests are continually engaged 
in His worship, under the leadership of him who for 
the time is head of the line. With his colleagues he 
will sacrifice to God, safeguard the laws, adjudicate 
in cases of dispute, punish those convicted of crime. ^ 
Any who disobey him will pay the penalty as for 
impiety towards God Himself. Our sacrifices are 
not occasions for drunken self-indulgence — such 
practices are abhorrent to God — but for sobriety.-'' 
At these sacrifices prayers for the welfare of the 
community must take precedence of those for our- 
selves ; for we are born for fellowship, and he who 
sets its claims above his private interests is specially 
acceptable to God. We should beseech God not to 
give us blessings, for He has given them spontane- 

" The Greek has no verb here ; the present and future 
tenses in §§ 193-5 are noteworthy in a work written after 
A.D. 70, which brought the temple cult to an end. 

'^ Cf. Aristot. Eth.ix. 3. 3 (" like is dear to like ") ; Sirach 
xiii. 15 (19). 

" Cf. § 187. 

^ So Eusebius. Cod. L, which throughout this portion has 
interpolations, reads " and would be an excuse for insolence 
and extravagance — but sober, orderly, noble (perhaps read 
' simple '), in order that we may show special sobriety when 



SeSojAce yap airros Ikow kol ttolglv els fxeaov Kara- 
redeiKeVy dAA' ottoj? Se-^^eordat SwcoixeOa Kal Xa- 

198 ^ovre? (pyXdrrajfJiei' . ayveias inl rat? dvaiais 
hLeiprjKev 6 vojios arro Ki^hovs, arro Ae;)^o{;s"/ <X7ro 
Koivuwias TTjs TTpo? yvvoiKa KOL 7ToXXa)v d'AAcuv 
[a firiKpov av etrj ypdcj^etv. tolovtos /xey 6 irepl 
deov Kal Trjs eKeivov depaTreias \6yos rjfjuv iariv, 
o o avrog a/xa Kai voiios^. 

199 (24-) Ttves" S' ol irepl ydficov vojjlol; pu^LV p.6vr]v 
olo€V o vopLog TTjv KaTOL (jiVCTLv TTjv TTpos yvvalKa, 
Kai ravrrjv el p.eX\oi reKvow eveKa yiveuBai. rrjv 
8e 77p6s dppevas dppevcov ecrrvyrjKe, Kal Odvaros 

200 rovmrLpLLOv el ns eTTLX^iprjdeLev. yapielv Se KeXevet 
pL7] TrpoLKi TTpocrexovras, fi-qhe ^laiois dpTrayals, 
piTjS^ av doXqj Kal aTrdrr) TreicravTas, dXXd pLvrjor- 
reveiv Trapa rod oovvaL Kvpiov Kai Kara uvyyeveiav 

201 T'qv eTTiTrjheiov .^ JY^^^ X^^P^^> 4*'0^^v> dvhpos els 
drravra. rotyapovv VTraKoveroj, p.rj rrpos v^ptv, dAA' 
LV dpx'^raf deos yap avbpi ro Kparos eSojAcev.]* 
ravrrj Gvvelvai Set tov yrjfjiavra pLovrj, to Se rrjv 
dXXov rreipdv avoacov. el Se tls tovto Trpd^ecev, 
ovSepLta 6avd.Tov TrapairrjGLS, ovt" el ^iduano 
TTapQevov erepcp tt po oj pLoXoyrj p.ev7]v ,"" ovr" el Treiueie 

202 yeyapi-qpLev'qv. reKva rpe(f)eLV aTravra rrpouera^ev , 

1 \exoi s Xaber : Xf'xors L Eus. 

2 The bracketed words are absent from the best 3iss. of 
Eus. and are perhaps a gloss. 

^ rrjv ewLT-qo. L : eTrcTrjoeiov EuS. codd. 

* Passage suspected by Xiese ; cf. Ephes. v. 22 and other 
N.T. parallels. 

^ Niese : irpocrwixoXo^-qpAvrjv L. 

" Cod. L adds : " which it would be tedious to mention. 


ously and put them at the disposal of all, but for 
capacity to receive, and, having received, to keep 
them. In view of the sacrifices the Law has pre- 
scribed purifications for various occasions : after a 
funeral, after cliild-birth, after conjugal union, and 
many others." 

(2i) What are our marriage laws ? The Law Laws 
recognizes no sexual connexions, except the natural mardage^° 
union of man and wife, and that only for the pro- 
creation of cliildren.^ Sodomy it abhors, and punishes 
any guilty of such assault with death.*' It commands 
us, in taking a wife, not to be influenced by dowry, 
not to carry off a woman by force, nor yet to win her 
by guile and deceit, but to sue from him who is 
authorized to give her away the hand of one who is 
not ineligible on account of nearness of kin.^ The 
woman, says the Law, is in all things inferior to the 
man.^ Let her accordingly be submissive, not for 
her humiliation, but that she may be directed ; for 
the authority has been given by God to the man. 
The husband must have union with his wife alone ; 
it is impious to assault the wife of another. For any 
guilty of this crime the penalty of death is inexorable, 
whether he violates a virgin betrothed to another or 
seduces a married woman.-'' The Law orders all the 
offspring to be brought up, and forbids women either 

Such is our doctrine, and the Law is to the same effect, con- 
cerning God and His worship." 

* Restriction not specified in the Pentateuch, but implied 
by the Talmud (passages cited by Reinach). Cf. the practice 
of one order of Essenes, B. ii. 161. 

« Lev. XX. 13 ; xviii. 22 with 29. 

^ For the forbidden marriages of near of kin Lev. xviii. 
6 ff. ; the other injunctions in this sentence rest on tradition. 

^ Gen. iii. 16. 

f Lev. XX. 10 ; Deut. xxii. 22-27. 



Kai yvvai^lv a—elTre firjr^ dfjij^Xovv ro oirapev fJufjTe 
OLa<f}6€Lp€LV, dAA' rjv (fiavecrj t€Kvokt6vo^ av e'lr], 
ipv)(riv d(f)aviL,ovGa /cat ro yivos iXarrovaa. tol- 
yapovv oi35' et tl? IttI X^xovs^ (f)dopdv TrapeXOoiy 

203 Kadapog elvai rore TrpocrrjKei. /cat p^erd rr]v vopi- 
pov crvvovGiav dvSpos /cat yvvaiKog dTToXovGaoOaL. 
ipvx'f]? ydp ex^iv Tovro puepLcrpLov Trpos dXXriv x^P^^ 
vrreXa^ev'^ /cat yap ep^chvopAvq GcopauL KaKOTraOel, 
/cat rovTCDV av davdroj dta/cpt^etcra. dtoTrep dyvelas 
em TrdoL rols roLovrocg era^ev. 

204 (25) Ou pLT]v ouS' irrl rats" rcJov TTatScuv yeveaeGiV 
€7T€Tp€ip€v €vojx^cig (jvvTeXelv /cat TTpo^daeis TTotel- 
cr^at pidrjs, dXXd aaxjypova rrjv dpxrjv evOv? rrjs 
Tpo(f)rJ9 cVa^e. /cat ypa/x/xara rraSeveLV eKeXevaev 
<KaL>^ ra rrepi rovg vopLovs^ /cat rcov Trpoyovojv rd? 
77 pd^etg i—LcrraorOaL, ras" p€v Iva pipowraL, roXg 8* 
tva Gvvrpe(ji6pi€Voi p'^re Trapa^aivcoGi pLrjre gktjiLlv 
ayvoia? exojGu. 

205 (26) Ti]£ €tV rovs rereXevTrjKorag TTpovvo-qGev ocrta? 
OX) TToAureAetats" ivracbLow, ov KaraGKevals P^^'^' 
peiojv i7TL(f)ava)v, dXXd ra pev vrepl rrjv Krjheiav 
rots' OLK€LoraroL£ eTTLreXelv, rraGi he rols TrapiovGi^ 
KO.L rrpoGeXdelv /cat GvvaTToSvpaGdaL. KaOaipeiv 

^ Xexofs Xaber : Xe'xoi s L Eus. 

2 Text of this clause uncertain : I follow Eus. with Xiese. 
The other texts are : y'l'X'js re yap sal crw//.aTos eyyiveraL 
uoXicruoj ws Trpos aWrjp ^tipav viro^aXouTwv L : Aoc ^/ii'm 
partem animae pollitere iudicauit Lat. 

^ Ins. Xiese. 

* Eus. : irepi re rovs v6/xovs dua(jTpe(p€(jdaL L. 

^ Eus. : irepiovai, " survivors," L Lat. 

° Not in the Law. ^ Lev. xv. 18. 

'^ " There is transference of part of the soul or life-principle 


to cause abortion or to make away with the foetus ; 
a woman convicted of this is regarded as an in- 
fanticide, because she destroys a soul and diminishes 
the race." For the same reason none who has inter- 
course with a w^oman who is Avith child can be con- 
sidered pure. Even after the legitimate relations 
of husband and wife ablutions are required.^ For 
the Law regards this act as involving a partition of 
the soul [part of it going] into another place ^ ; for 
it suffers both when being implanted in bodies,'^ and 
again when severed from them by death. That is 
why the Law has enjoined purifications in all such 

(25) Again the Law does not allow the birth of our Education 
children to be made occasions for festivity and an °^ dnWien. 
excuse for drinking to excess." It enjoins sobriety 

in their upbringing from the very first. It orders 
that they shall be taught to read, and shall learn both 
the laws and the deeds of their forefathers,^ in order 
that they may imitate the latter, and, being grounded 
in the former, may neither transgress nor have any 
excuse for being ignorant of them. 

(26) The pious rites which it provides for the dead Funeral 
do not consist of costly obsequies or the erection of ceremonies. 
conspicuous monuments.^ The funeral ceremony is 

to be undertaken by the nearest relatives, and all 
who pass while a burial is proceeding must join the 
procession and share the mourning of the family.^ 

from the father." I am indebted for this explanation of an 
obscure passage to Dr. T. E. Page. 

^ An Essene (and Platonic) view ; cf. B. ii. 154 f. 

* The Talmud, however, recognizes family feasts at birth 
and circumcision (Pteinach). •'' Deut. vi. 7, xi. 19. 

9 Talmudic regulations, not in the Law. For sharing in 
mourning cf. Sir. vii. 34. ' 



§e /cat TOP oIkov Kat rovs IvoiKovvras arro K-qhovg 
Viva TrXeldTov OLTrexD rod hoKelv KaOapos elvai ng 
(f)6vov ipyacrdfjbevos j.^ 

206 (27) Toveojv TLfJLrjv /xera rrjV rrpos Oeov devrepav 
era^e kol rov ovk dfieL^ofxevov rag Trap' avTa)V 
■^dpiTas dAA' etV otlovv eXXeiTTOvra XevGd-qaojievov 
TTapahibojGi. /cat Travros rov Trpea^vrepov riiiriv 
e\'€iy roijs veov? (j^-quiv, eTrel rrpecrl^VTarov 6 deog. 

207 KpvTTreLV ovhkv id Trpos <I)lXgv£' ov yap elvai ^tAtav 
ri-jV /jlt] rrdvra Tncrrevovaav . Kav crupL^fj rig exOpa, 
TdTTopprjra^ Xeyeiv k€KCi)Xvk€. St/ca^coy et bcopd 
TLS Xa^OL, ddvaros r) Lrjpiia. Trepiopdw iKer-qv 

208 ^OTjOelv ivdv VTrevOvvos . o pirj KaridiqKe ris ovk 
avaiprjcreTaL, tojv a\Xorpia)v ovbevos diperau, tokov 
ov Xrjiperai. ravra /cat ttoAAo, tovtols o^tota ttjv 
rrpos dXXrjXov£ 'qpudw avve)(€L Koivowiav. 

209 (:28) Yiojs he /cat rrjs Trpos dXXo(j)vXovs eViet/cetas" 
i(f)p6i'rLG€v 6 vopioOlr-qs, d^iov Ihelv ^avelrai yap 
aptcrra rrdvrojv rrpovor^adpLevos drrcos pbijre rd 
OLKela OLa(bO€ipajp.ev p^rjre (f)9ovrj(TOjpL€V rotS" jier- 

210 ex^Lv row rjjieripojv rrpoaipovp^evois . ogol piev ydp 
iOeXovGLV VTTO rovs avrovs rjpuv vopLovs l,rjv vtt- 
eXOovres de;^erat (fyiXocbpovajs, ov rd) yevei pLovov, 

^ Probably a gloss. 
^ Xiese : tovtujp dTropp-qra JEus. 

« Cf. Numb. xix. 11 if. 

^ The fifth commandment (Ex. xx. 12 : Deut. v. 16) 
follows first after those relating to God. Cf. Aristeas, § 228 
{(vToXr) /j.eyi(rT-q) ; Piabbinical parallels in Abrahams, Stud, 
in Pharisaism^ i. 26. 

' Deut. xxi. 18 ff. '^ Lev. xix. 32. 

* Cf. Dan. vii. 9 (the " ancient of davs"), and perhaps 
Lev. xLx. 32. 

^ An Essene doctrine, i?. ii. 141 ; not in Pentateuch. 



After the funeral the house and its inmates must be 
purified "' [in order that anyone guilty of murder may 
be very far from tliinking liimself pure]. 

(27) Honour to parents the Law ranks second only Honour of 
to honour to God,^ and if a son does not respond to ^f j^^"^*^ ^"*^ 
the benefits received from them — for the slightest regulations. 
failure in his duty towards them — it hands him over 

to be stoned.^ It requires respect to be paid by the 
young to all their elders/ because God is the most 
Ancient of all.^ It allows us to conceal nothing from 
our friends, for there is no friendship without absolute 
confidence ; ^ in the event of subsequent estrange- 
ment, it forbids the disclosure of secrets. A judge 
who accepts bribes suffers capital punishment.^ He 
who refuses to a suppliant the aid which he has power 
to give is accountable to justice.'^ None may appro- 
priate goods which he did not place on deposit,^ lay 
hands on any of his neighbour's property,^ or receive 
interest .'^^ These and many similar regulations are 
the ties which bind us together. 

(28) The consideration given by our legislator to Attitude to 
the equitable treatment of aliens also merits atten- ^^^^"^• 
tion. It will be seen that he took the best of all 
possible measures at once to secure our own customs 

from corruption, and to throw them open ungrudg- 
ingly to any who elect to share them. To all who 
desire to come and live under the same laws with us, 
he gives a gracious welcome, holding that it is not 

^ Ex. xxiii. 8 ; Dent. xvi. 19, xxvii. 25 ; but capital punish- 
ment is nowhere mentioned. 

* Deut. XV. 7 ff. (as a moral precept only). 
< Cf. Lev. vi. 2. 

» Ex. XX. 15, etc. 

* 76. xxii. 25 ; Lev. xxv. 36 f. ; Deut. xxiii. 20 (except 
from a foreigner). 



aAAa Kol rfj TrpooApeaei rod fSiov vofJLi^ow elvat ttjv 
OLK€LOT'Qra. Tovg d €K TTapepyov TrpoGLovras ava- 
pLiyvvcrOaL rfj Gvvqdeia ovk rjOeXr^aev. 

211 (29) TciAAa Se rrpoeiprjKev, wv rj fxerdSoGLg ianv 
ava'/Kaia' Trdai 7Tap€X€LV rols SeofxevoL? TTvp vScop 
rpo(f)ijv, 600VS SpateLV, dra(f)ov {jltj Trepiopdv, 
€7rL€LK€Lg de KCL ra rrpos rovg TToXejiiovs Kpidivras 

212 ^Ivar ov yap id ttjv yijv avrcov TTvprroXeiv ovhe 
refjiveLV rjpLepa Sevhpa, dXXd kol GKvXeveuv drreiprjK^ 
rovs €V rfj P'O'XO Treaovras Kat tojv alxf^o-Xcorcov 
TTpovvoTjGev, orrojs avrow v^pis arri], pidXiGra he 

213 yvpaLKOJv . ovrojs d rjjiepoTrjra kol ^iXavOpcoTTiav 
"qfjidg €^€77aLdevG€V, oj£ pbrjSe row dXoyow Iojojv 
oXiyojpelv, aAAa p.6vqv i(f)ijK€^ rovrcov y^p-qGLV rrjv 
vopLipbov, rraGav d' irepav iKcoXvGev' d 5' ojGTrep 
LKerevovra TrpoGcjyevyeL rat? olKiais drrelTrev dveXeiv. 
ovde veorrols rovs yovea? avrow irrerpeijje gvv- 
e^aipelvy ^etSecr^at de Kav rfj TToXeiiia rwv ipya- 

214 l,opLevojv Lojow Kal p,-q (f)0V6V€LV. ovroj Travraxodev 
ra rrpos eTTieiKeiav TrepLeGKeiparo, diSaGKaXtKols 

pL€V r0L£ TTpO€Lp-qpL€VOLS XPV^'^I^^^^^ VOfJiOiS, rOVS O 

av Kara row Trapa^aivovrow ripiOjprjrLKovs rd^as 
dvev rrpo(j)aG€Oj£. 

215 (20) TLrjiua. yap irrl roZs TrXeiGrois rojv irapa^aivov- 
rojv 6 OdvaroSi av pLOix^vGTj ns, av ^LdorjraL KoprjVy 

^ d(prJKe Eus. 

° For " the stranger within the gates " cf. Ex. xx. 10, 
xxii. 21, etc. 

*• Perhaps alluding to the exclusion of the alien from 
Passover, Ex. xii. 43 (Reinach). 

^ So A. iv. 276 (generally) : Deut. xxvii. 18 (to the blind). 
Josephus had doubtless heard the calumny upon his nation 



family ties alone wliich constitute relationship, but 
agreement in the principles of conduct.'* On the 
other hand, it was not his pleasure that casual 
visitors should be admitted to the intimacies of our 
daily life.^ 

(29) The duty of sharing with others was inculcated iinmanity 
by our legislator in other matters. We must furnish ° ^^ ^'^' 
fire, water, food to all wlio ask for them, point out 

the road,^ not leave a corpse unburied,'^ show con- 
sideration even to declared enemies. He does not 
allow us to burn up their country ^ or to cut down 
their fruit treesjj'' and forbids even the spoiling of 
fallen combatants ; ^ he has taken measures to 
prevent outrage to prisoners of war, especially 
women. ^ So thorough a lesson has he given us in j 
gentleness and humanity that he does not overlook ' 
even the brute beasts, authorizing their use only in I 
accordance with the Law, and forbidding all other 
employment of them.'' Creatures which take refuge 
in our houses like suppliants we are forbidden to 
kill.^ He would not suffer us to take the parent 
birds with their young ,^ and bade us even in an 
enemy's country to spare and not to kill the beasts 
employed in labour.^ Thus, in every particular, he 
had an eye to mercy, using the laws I have mentioned 
to enforce the lesson, and drawing up for trans- 
gressors other penal laws admitting of no excuse. 

(30) The penalty for most offences against the Law Penalties. 
is death : for adultery,^ for violating an unmarried 

mentioned in Juvenal, Sat. xiv. 103 f.(" non monstrare uias," 

<^ Of. Deut. xxi. 23 ; Tobit i. 17 ff. 

« Not in the Law. ^ Deut. xx. 19. 

» lb. xxi. 10 ff. ^ i.e. on the Sabbath, ib. v. 14. 

* Ib. xxii. 6. ' Lev. xx. 10. 



av dppevL ToXjjLiJGrj Trelpav 7Tpoa(f)€p€LV, av VTTOpLeLvr] 
TraOelv 6 rreLpaadei?. ecm 3e /cat em SouAots" 

216 ofiOLOJS 6 vopLos aTTapaLTTiTos . dAAa Kai rrepL 
fxerpcDv el'^ rts" KaKov py i^aeiev tj oraOp^ajv, rj Trepi 
rrpdaecos olSlkov Kal SoAoj yevopLevrj?, Kav v^eXriTai 
Tis aXXorpiov, Kav o firj KaredrjKev aveXr^rau, 
rravTcov elal KoXdoeis ovx olai Trap kripoiSy aAA 

217 ItA to jJL€lt,ov. rrepl pikv yap yoveojv aSt/cta? tj 
TTJs €ts" Oeov dae^elas, Kav ixeXXiqoTf tls, evdvs 
0,770 AAurat. 

Tots" pLevroL ye vo/xt/xo)? ^lovotl yepas icmv ovk 
dpyvpos ovhe XP''^'^^^> <^^ kotlvov ove^ayos" r] 

218 oeXivov Kal roLavrr] ns dvaKTjpv^ig, aAA avrog 
eKaaros avrqj to Gweihos ky(^ojv p^apTvpovv 7T€7tl- 

OT€VK€V, TOV pL€V VOpioOeTOV 7TpO(f)rjT€'6GaVTO? y TOV 

he deov ttjv ttlgtlv loxvpdv^ Trapecrx'^KOTog, otl 
Tols Tovs vopLovs hiac^vXd^auL Kav el SeoL dviquKew 
VTTep avTow TrpodvpLOJ? drrodavovuL SeSojKev 6 deos 
yeveuB ai t€ irdXiv Kal ^iov apbelvoj Xa^elv €K 

219 TTepLrpoTTrjg. ojkvovv S' ai^ eyoj raura ypdcj^euv, ei 
pUT] Sta tcov epycov aTracnv rjv <l>avep6v otl ttoXXoI 
Kal TToXXdKis rjSrj tcov rjpieTepojv rrepl tov /x7]Se 
prjpia (f)9ey^aadaL rrapd tov vopLOv irdvTa iradeZv 
yevvalojs TrpoelXovTO. 

220 (31) Katrot ye el pLTj Gvp.^e^i^KeL yvcopipLOV rjpLcov to 

^ ijv EUS. cod. 2 fj^^Wrj Eus. 

2 Eus. : ex^'pav L. 

" Deut. xxii. 23 (if betrothed). ^ Lev. xx. 13. 

<^ Cf. Lev. xix. 11-13, 35-36 ; Deut. xxv. 13 ff. ; no punish- 
ments are there named. 

^ Cf. Deut. xxi. 18 ; Lev. xxiv. 13. 
^ As in the Olympic games. 



woman,^ for outrage upon a male,^ for consent of 
one so tempted to such abuse. The Law is no less 
inexorable for slaves. Even fraud in such matters 
as weights or measures, or injustice and deceit in 
trade, or purloining another man's property, or 
laying hands on what one did not deposit — all such 
crimes have punishments '^ attached to them which 
are not on the same scale as ^vith other nations, but 
more severe. For example, the mere intention of 
doing wrong to one's parents or of impiety against 
God is followed by instant death.'^ 

For those, on the other hand, who live in accord- The reward 
ance ^vith our laws the prize is not silver or gold, no J'jf^ 
crown of wild olive ^ or of parsley f with any such 
public mark of distinction.^ No ; each individual, 
relying on the witness of his own conscience and the 
lawgiver's prophecy, confirmed by the sure testimony 
of God, is firmly persuaded that to those who observe 
the laws and, if they must ne'eds die for them, 
willingly meet death, God has granted a renewed 
existence and in the revolution of the ages the gift 
of a better life.^ I should have hesitated to wi-ite 
thus, had not the facts made all men aware that many 
of our countrymen have on many occasions ere now 
preferred to brave all manner of suffering rather than 
to utter a single word against the Law.* 

(31) Now suppose that our nation had not happened 

f As in the Isthmian and Nemean games. 

^ Greek " public proclamation." 

^ Here, as in his speech at Jotapata [B. iii. 374), Josephus 
gives expression to the belief, which he held as a Pharisee, 
in a future life ; in the latter passage he uses the full phrase 
e'/c irepLTpoirrjs alibucoi', which explains f/c TrepcTpoTrrjs here. For 
the Pharisaic belief c/. A. xviii. 14. 

< Of. Ap. i. 43, ii. 233 ; B. ii. 152 f. (of Essene martyrs). 



eOvos rxTTauiv dvdpojTTOL? V7rdp)(€LV Kov (jyavepoj 
KelcrOaL r-qv ISeXovGiov rjiicov rot? vojjlols olkoXov- 

221 Olav, aAAa rt? r) GvyypdipriL Xiyojv auro? dveyivojGKe 
rots' "EAA/ycrtv, Tj 7TOV ye^ rrepLTvy^eiv e^oj rrjg yivo)- 
GKOjiivTjs yrjs e(j)auK€V dvOpojTTOis roLavrrjv fiev 
k)(0VGi ho^av ovtoj crefJLvrjv rrepl rov Oeov, toloxjtols 
3e vojioLs TToXvv alcjva ^e^alcog ifjLfiefievTjKocn, 
rravra? dv oi/iaL Oavjiaaai hid rds (Tuvex^ls Trap 

222 avTols fJ.era^oXd? . dfJieXeL row ypdipau n napa- 
TrXrjGLOV els TroXirelav Kal vofiovs e7TL)(eipr]GdvTCx>v 
(jjs davfiaurd uvvdivrcov Karrjyopovcn, (f)d(jKovr€9 
avToijs Xal^elv dBvvdrovg vTroBiueLs. Kal rovs l-iev 
d'AAous" TrapaXeLTTOj (juXoGo^jjovs > ocrot tl tolovtov 

223 i:v Tois ypdjijiauiv'^ eTrpay/xareucravro, IlXdrojv 8e 
6aviiai6p.evo? rrapd rol? "KXXrjGiv oj? Kal aefx- 
voTTjTL f^Lov hieveyKojv Kal Svvd/JbeL Xoywv Kal 
rreido'l Trdvra? VTrepdpas rov? iv <hiXouo(l)ia yeyo- 
voras, VTTO row (j^auKovrow hetvojv elvai rd rroXiriKa 
pLLKpov helv ■)(Xevat.6ii€vos Kal Kwixajhovfievog 

224 diareXel. Kairoi raKelvov okottojv gv^^vojs^ ns 
dv €vpoL pdova dvra^ Kal rrjs^ row ttoXXojv eyyiov 
ovvrjOelag.^ avrog he HXdrow ojfJLoXoyrjKev on 
rrjv dXrjdrj Trepl 6eov ho^av els rrjv rojv o'xXojv 
ayvoiav' ovk -qv aacfiaXes e^eveyKelv. 

225 'AAAd rd fiev IlXdrowos Xoyovs rives etvat 
Kevovs vojxitovGi, Kard rroXXrjV e^ovoiav KeKaXXt- 
ypa(f)-qiievovSi jxaXiara he row vojioderow Avk- 

^ Om. ',e Eus. 
2 a I'y' L Lat. Eus. cod. 

^ I suggest (jvxvip' 

* efJ. pr. : paov ovra L, paov EuS. 

° Naber : ras Eus., rats L. 

^ avvTjdeiais L. ' L Lat. : dvotau Eus. 



to be known to all the world and our voluntary We put into 
obedience to our laws were not a patent fact, and what Greeks 
suppose that some one had delivered a lecture to the ^''^SF^ ^^ 

-I A visionary 

Greeks which he admitted to be the outcome of his ideals. 
own imagination, or asserted that somew^here outside 
the known world he had met with people who held 
such sublime ideas about God and had for ages con- 
tinued steadily faithful to such laws as ours ; his 
words would, I imagine, astonish all his hearers, in 
view of the constant vicissitudes in their own past 
history. In fact, those who have attempted to draft 
a constitution and code on any such lines are accused 
of inventing something miraculous, based, according 
to their critics, on impossible premisses. I pass over 
other philosophers who have handled such topics 
in their writings. I need name only Plato, who, current 
admired, as he is, by the Greeks for his outstanding criticism of 
dignity of character, and as one who in oratorical nepuUic. 
power and persuasive eloquence outmatched all other 
philosophers, is yet continually being, I may almost 
say, scoffed at and held up to ridicule by those who 
claim to be expert statesmen. And yet, on examina- 
tion, his laws will be found to be frequently " easier 
than ours, and more closely approximating to the 
practice of the masses. Plato himself admits that 
it is hazardous to divulge the truth about God to the 
ignorant mob.^ 

There are, however, men who regard Plato's we are mors 
dialogues as futile,'^ brilliant but very fanciful com- tha,ftiiV°^ 
positions, and the legislator for whom they have the Spartans. 

" Or (reading (tvxv<2) " far." 

^ Plato, Tim. 28 c : " When we have found him [viz. the 
maker of the universe], to speak of his nature to all men is 

" Greek " empty." 



ovpyov reOavfJLaKaGLy /cat ttjv UTrapr-qv dVayre? 

VfJLVOVGLVy on rols €K€LV0V VOfJLOi? €776 TrXeloTOv 

226 iv€KapT€pr)G€V } ovkovv rovro /xev cLpboXoyriGdaj 
reKfJL'qpLOV dperij? elvai to TreiOeGdai toIs vo/xots" 
ol he AaxreSai/xortous" davpiaL^ovres rov eKeivow 
Xpovov dvrLTTapa^aXXerojGav roZ? TrXeioGiV rj Stcr- 

227 xtAtots" €r€GL rrJ9 rjp.€T€pas TToXireias y /cat TrpoGerL 
XoyileGOojGav , on Aa/ceSat/xovtot ogov i<f)^ iavrojv 
)(p6vov €L)(ov rrjv eXevOepiav aKpi^ajs eho^av rov? 
vopuovs dLa(f)vXdrr€iv, eVet /xeVrot Trept avrovs 
iyivovTO pLera^oXal rrj? rvxT^^y p^iKpov Sety arravrajv 

228 irreXadovro rcJov vop^cov. rjp.els S' ev nj-xp-i? yeyo- 
vores pLvpuaL? Sua ra? rcov ^aGuXevGavrow rrjs 
'Acrtas" pLera^oXds ovh ev rols eG^cirois row 
heivow Tov? vopLOVs TTpovhopiev, ovK dpyias ovhe 
rpvcfii]?^ avrovs X^P^^ TrepieTTOvres, dAA' €t ns 

iOeXoL GK07T€iV, TToXXo) TiVl TrJ9 SoKOVGTjS CTTt- 

reraxOau Aa/ceSat/xovtot? /caprepta?^ pLel^ova? d- 

229 dXov? /cat ttovou? rjpXv eTnnOevrag. ol p.eV ye pi'qre 
yrjv ipyaLopievoL p^rjre rrepl rexya? TTovovvres , 
dAAd TTaG-qs ipyaGias dcjieroi, XiTvapol /cat rd 
Gcopiara Tvpos KaXXos dGKOvvres, €7tl rrjs TToXecos 

230 Sii]yov, dAAot? UTry^peratS" rrpo? dnavra rd rod ^lov 
XpojpbevoL /cat rrjv rpo(f)r)v iroLfX-qv nap e/cetyojv 
XapL^dvovres , ec/)' ev* St) rovro pLovov rd KaXdi^ 
epyov /cat (fnXdvdpcoTTov drravra /cat rrparreiv /cat 
Trdcrp^etv vrropievovre?, rd Kparelv rrdvrcov icj) ovg 

231 dv GrparevojGLV. on Se pLTjSe rovro KaraypdojGav, 
ectj Aeyetv ov ydp /ca^' eVa pLOVov, dXXd ttoXXol 
TToAAd/cts" dSpocos rd)V rod vopLov TrpoGraypLaroju 

^ eveKaprep-qaav Eus. (Lat.). ^ Dindorf : Tpo<prjs^'L. 

^ Cotelier : /jLaprvpias L. ^ Bekker : ^j' L. 



highest admiration is Lycurgus ; the praises of Sparta 
are sung by all the world, because she remained for 
so long faithful to his laws. Be it, then, conceded that 
obedience to law is a proof of virtue ; but let the 
admirers of the Lacedaemonians set the duration of 
that state over against the period of upwards of two 
thousand years of our constitution.'^ Let them 
further reflect that the Lacedaemonians thought 
good strictly to observe their laws only so long as 
they retained their liberty and independence, but 
when they met with reverses of fortune forgot well- 
nigh all of them. We, on the contrary, notwith- 
standing the countless calamities in which changes 
of rulers in Asia have involved us, never even in the 
direst extremity proved traitors to our laws ; and 
we respect them not from any motive of sloth or 
luxury. A little consideration will show that they 
impose on us ordeals and labours far more severe 
than the endurance commonly believed to have been 
required of the Lacedaemonians. Those men neither 
tilled the ground nor toiled at crafts, but, exempt 
from all business, passed their life in the city, sleek 
of person and cultivating beauty by physical train- 
ing ; for all the necessaries of life they had others to 
wait on them, by whom their food was prepared and 
served to them ; and the sole aim for which they were 
prepared to do and suffer everything was the noble 
and humane object of defeating all against whom 
they took the field. Even in this, I may remark in 
passing, they were unsuccessful. The fact is that 
not isolated individuals only, but large numbers have 
frequently, in defiance of the injunctions of their 

" i.e. from Moses to Titus. 
VOL. I 2 c 385 


afJLeXrjGavre? avrov? jxera row ottXojv rrapeboaav 
Tols TroXejXiOLS ' 

232 (32) ^Ap* ovv Kol Trap" Ty/xtv^ ov Xiyo) togovtovs , 
dAAa hvo Tj rpelg eyvoj rt?^ rrpoSoras yevop^evovs 
row vopLow rj ddvarov (fyol^rjdevrag, oup^t rov paorov 
eKelvov Xeyoj rov GVjxj^aivovra rols /xap^o^eVots", 
dAAa rov fiera X^jp/qs row uojjiarow, orroZos elvai 

233 hoKel Trdvrow ;)(aAe7rajTaTOS' ; ov eyor/e vop^t^oj 
rivcis Kparrjoavras rjpiojv ovx vtto puGov? TrpoG- 
(^epetv rols VTrox^LploL^y dAA oj? davpLaorov n 
deapia ^ovXopiivovs IheXv, et nves €LGiv dvdpojTTOi 
ol p.ovov etvat KaKov a.vrols ireTTiGrevKores , el rf 
TTpd^ai ri rrapd rov? iavrow v6p.ovs Tj Xoyov elrrelv 

234 Trap" eKelvovs Trapa^LaGOelev. ov XPV ^^ 9avpLa- 
leLV el rrpo? ddvarov dvhpeiojs exopiev virep rojv 
vopLow rrapd rovg dXXov? drravras' ovSe yap ra 
paora SoKOVvra row rjpierepojv emrrjh€vp,droL)V 
d'AAot pahiojg vrrop^ivovGiv, avrovpyiav Xeyoj Kai 
rpo(f)rj? Xiror-qra Kal ro pLTjSev eIktj [xrjS ojs erv^ev 
€KaGro£ irrLredvpLrjKOJS^ (jiayeZv tj Tnelv, 7) GVVOVGia 
rrpoGeXdelv t) TToXvreXeia, Kal ndXiv apyia? vrro- 

235 pLelvai rd^iv dp.eraKivqrov . dAA' ol roZs ^L(f)€GiV 
opLOGe p^^ojpouyres" Kal rov? TToXepblovs i^ €<j}6hov 
rpeTTOfievoL roZ? rrpoGrdypiaGi roZg rrepl Statrr^S" 
ovK <dv> avn^XeifjeLav. rjpLZv Se rrdXcv €.k rov 
rrepl ravra roj vopLco rreidapxeZv rjSeoj? KaKeZ 
rrepieGnv eTnSeihcvvGdai ro yevvaZov. 

236 (33) Etra AvGtpLaxoi Kal MoAcoj/e? Kal roiovroi 
rives dXXoL GvyypacjyeZg, ahoKifioi GO(j)iGrai, pLeipaKiojv 


1 §'71^0; TLs ed. jyr. : eyvwv L. 
^ et T) Niese : et L : ^ Lat., ed. j/r. 


law, surrendered in a body with their arms to the 
enemy .^ 

(32) Has anyone ever heard of a case of our people, Our heroic 
not, I mean, in such large numbers, but merely two ^"^^^''^'^^^• 
or three, proving traitors to their laws or afraid of 
death ? I do not refer to that easiest of deaths, on 

the battlefield, but death accompanied by physical 
torture, which is thought to be the hardest of all. 
To such a death we are, in my belief, exposed by 
some of our conquerors, not from hatred of those at 
their mercy, but from a curiosity to witness the 
astonishing spectacle of men who believe that the 
only evil which can befall them is to be compelled 
to do any act or utter any word contrary to their 
laws. There should be nothing astonishing in our 
facing death on behalf of our laws with a courage 
which no other nation can equal. For even those 
practices of ours which seem the easiest others find 
difficult to tolerate : I mean personal service, simple 
diet, discipline which leaves no room for freak or 
individual caprice in matters of meat and drink, or in 
the sexual relations, or in extravagance, or again the 
abstention from work at rigidly fixed periods.^ No ; 
the men who march out to meet the sword and charge 
and rout the enemy could not face regulations about 
everyday life. On the other hand, our willing 
obedience to the law in these matters results in the 
heroism which we display in the face of death. 

(33) For all that, the Lysimachuses and Molons • 
and other writers of that class, reprobate sophists 

" e.g. at Sphacteria (Thuc. iv. 38). 
^ i.e. the Sabbaths. 

^ Hudson : viroTedv/jLrjKws ed. pr. {-kcv L). 



a7TaT€OJves, ojg rrdw rjjids (fiavXordrovg av9poj7TCx)V 

237 AotSopoOcrty. lyoj 8' ovk dv e^ovXojx-qv rrepl rwv 
nap iripoLS vojjlIjJjOjv i^erdCeiV ro, yap avrwv 
rjpuv (j)vXdrT€iv rrdrpiov eGnv, ou row aXXorpiojv 
Kar-qyopeZvy Kal Trepi ye rod jjajre -)(X€vdl,€LV fJ^rjre 
^Xaa^Tj pLelv tov? vopbilofjievovs Oeovs Trap ere- 
poLS dvrLKpv? TjiMV 6 vofJLoOeTTjs aTTeiprjKev, avrrjs 

238 €V€Ka 77 pocrrjyop lag rod Oeov. row Se Kar-qyopajv 
8td rrjg dvrLTrapaSecreojs rjp^ds iXey)(€LV olofievcov 
o-ux olov re KaraaicoTrdv , aAAcos' re Kal rod Xoyov 
IxeXXovrog ovx V(f)^ rjfMwv XexOrjCTeadai^ vvv avrow 
crovridevrcov, dXX vrro ttoXXojv elp-qfxevov Kal Xiav 
edboKLpLovvrtov } 

239 Ti's" yap rcov rrapd rot? ''EAAr^aty errl ao(f>La 
redavfJiaGpLevow ovk eTTirerifirjKe Kal TTOLiqrojv roZs 
e7TL(j}aveGrdroLS Kac vop^oderdw roZs /xaAtcrra TreTTL- 
crreviievois, on roiavrag Solas' rrepl decov i^ apx^js 

240 rolg TrXriOeGiv eyKareuTreipav ; dpidpjO) p,ev ottogovs 
dv avrol OeXrjGOJGiv d7TO(haiv6p.evoiy^ e^ dXXrjXojv 
he yLvopLevovs Kal Kara Travroiovs rporrovs yeveGeojv , 
rojjrovg he Kal hiaipovvres r67TOis Kal 8tatrat?, 
ojG77ep rojv Lojow rd yevq, rovs p^ev vrro yrjv, rovs 
h iv daXdrrrj, rovg iievroi TrpeG^vrdrovs avrcov 

241 ev TO) raprdpoj hehepLevovg. ogol? he rov ovpavdv 
arreveip^av y rovroLS rrarepa fxev roj Xoyqj, rvpavvov 
he rols epyoL? Kal heG776rrjv e<f)LGrdvre9, Kal hid 
rovro GVViGraixevTjV e77L^ovXrjv ctt' avrov vrro 
yvvaiKos Kal dheXcfjov Kal dvyarpos, tjv e/c ri]s 

^ Niese : eXeyx^Vf^^o-daL L. 

2 Lowth : evdoiu/j.oivTGs L. 

^ Niese (after Lat.): air o<priva<r 6 at L. 



and deceivers of youth, rail at us as the very vilest of Criticism of 
mankind. Gladly would I have avoided an in- o^^thf '^"^" 
vestigation of the institutions of other nations ; for Greeks. 
it is our traditional custom to observe our own laws ~ 
and to refrain from criticism of those of aliens. Our 
legislator has expressly forbidden us to deride or 
blaspheme the gods recognized by others, out of ■ 
respect for the very word " God." " But since our 
accusers expect to confute us by a comparison of the 
rival religions, it is impossible to remain silent. I 
speak with the more assurance because the statement 
which I am about to make is no invention of my own 
for the occasion, but has been made by many writers 
of the highest reputation. 

Who, in fact, is there among the admired sages Their gross 
of Greece who has not censured their most famous fde^™bo°ut^ 
poets and their most trusted legislators for sowing in the gods. 
the minds of the masses the first seeds of such notions 
about the gods ? They represent them to be as 
numerous as they choose, born of one another and 
engendered in all manner of ways. They assign 
them different localities and habits, like animal 
species, some living under ground,^ others in the sea,^ 
the oldest of all being chained in Tartarus.^ Those 
to whom they have allotted heaven have set over 
them one who is nominally Father, but in reality a 
tyrant and despot ; with the result that his wife and 
brother and the daughter, whom he begot from his 

<^ Ex. xxii. 28 ("Thou shalt not revile God "), as interpreted 
by the LXX {Oeovs ov KaKo\oyrjcreis), by Josephus again in A. iv. 
207, and by Philo (with the same idea of hallowing the Name), 
Vita Mos. ii. (26) 205 ; De spec. leg. i. (7) 53 Cohn. 

^ Hades, Persephone, etc. 

" Poseidon, Amphitrite, Proteus. 

<* The Titans. 



iavrov K€(f)aXrjs lyevvquev , 'Iva Srj GvXXa^ovres 
avTOV Kadeip^ojGiv, ojairep avros iKelvog rov 
rrarepa rov eavrov. 

242 (34) Taura hiKaicos [jLefiipeajg ttoAAi^s ol^lovglv ol 
(j)povqG€L hLa(j)€povT€S . Kol TTpos rovTOL? Kara- 
yeXoJGLv, €L TOW Beojv rovs /xev ayeveiovg /cat 
fieLpaKLa, rovs Se rrpeG^urepovg /cat yeveiojvras 
eivai XP'O ^oKelv, aAAou? Se Tera.'^dai rrpos rat? 
Te-xyaiSy ;)(aA/cei;oX''Ta rtj/a, r-qv 5' ix^aivovGav , rov 
he TToXe/iovvra kol /xer' avBpojrrow fxaxopLevov, 

243 rovs Se KidapiL^ovras t) ro^LKrj -x^aipovras , elr 
avrdls eyyiyvopLevas rrpos aXXr^Xovs GraGeig Kai 
rrepi avOpojTTcov (j^iXoveLKias , l^^XP^ '^^^ H'V /^^yov 
dAAT^AotS" Tas" x^lpas 7TpoG<f)ep€LV, dXXa /cat vtt 
dvdpcorrcuv rpavpLant^opievovs oSvpeGOai /cat /ca/co- 

244 TTadelv. ro 8e hr] Trdvrwv aGeXyeGrepov , rrjv Trepi 
rds /xt^ct? d/cpacrtav /cat rovs epojras ttws ovk 
drorrov pLLKpov Selv dVacrt rrpoGdipai /cat rots 

245 dppeGL raw deow koI rats OrjXeiais ; elO o yev- 
vaioraros kol Trpojros, avros d Trarrjp, rds aTTarrj- 
OeLGas VTT^ avrov kol ycvo/xeVas" eyKvovs KaO- 
€Lpyiwp.evas rj KaraTTOvriL^oiievas rrepiopa, /cat 
rot's" i$ avrov yeyovoras ovre Gojteiv hvvarai, 
Kparov[i€vos vtto rrjs elpiapiiivqs , ovr^ dSaKpvru 

246 rovs davdrovs avrdw vrropLeveiv. /caAd ye ravra 
KOL rovroLS dXXa^ erropLeva, /xot;^etas" pi^ev ev ov- 
pavoj ^XeTTopbevTjs ovrojs dvaiG)(Vvr(x>s vtto rcjv 
Oedw, d'jGre nvds /cat ^rjXovv 6p.oXoyelv rovs err 
aurv^ hehep^evovs . ri yap ovk epLeXXov, onore pnqh 

^ TovTOLs aWa Hudson (^v^th Lat.) : to7s aWois L. 

" Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, and Pallas Athene : c/. Horn. 
Iliad, i. 399 f. 



own head," conspire against him, to arrest and im- 
prison him, just as he himself had treated his own 

(34) Justly do these tales merit the severe censure 
which they receive from their intellectual leaders. 
Moreover, they ridicule the belief that some gods 
are beardless striplings, others old and bearded ; ^ 
that some are appointed to trades, this one being a 
smith,^ that goddess a weaver,*^ a third a warrior 
who fights along with men,^ others lute-players ■'' or 
devoted to archery ; ^ and again that they are 
divided into factions and quarrel about men, in so 
much that they not only come to blows with each 
other, but actually lament over and suffer from 
wounds inflicted by mortals .'^ But — and here out- 
rageousness reaches its climax — is it not monstrous to 
attribute those licentious unions and amours to well- 
nigh all the deities of both sexes ? Furthermore, the 
noblest and chief of them all, the Father himself, 
after seducing women ^ and rendering them pregnant, 
leaves them to be imprisoned or drowned in the sea ; 
and is so completely at the mercy of Destiny that he 
cannot either rescue his own offspring or restrain his 
tears at their death. Fine doings are these, and 
others that follow, such as adultery in heaven, with 
the gods as such shameless onlookers that some of 
them confessed that they envied the united pair.^ 
And well they might, when even the eldest of them, 

* " lovem semper barbatum, Apollinem semper imber- 
bem," Cic. De nat. deor. i. 30 (83). 

" Hephaestus. ^ Athene, Hom. Iliad, xiv. 178 f. 

^ x\res. ^ Apollo. ^ Apollo and Artemis. 

^ Hom. Iliad v. 335 ff., 375 if. 
' e.g. Danae, To, Leto, Semele. 
' Cf. Hom. Od.v. 118 flf. 



o TTpeG/Svrarog kol ^aaiXevg rjhvvrjOr] rijs Trpog 
TTjV yvvalKa fJbL^eojs e7TiG)(elv rrjv opiirjv ogov yovv 

247 etV TO hajyidTiov arreXOeZv ; ol he hrj hovXeiJovres 
roZs avOpo'jTTOis Oeol kol vvv fikv OLKohopiovvres 
eTTL pllgOoj, vvv he TToiiiaivovres, a'AAot he rpoirov 
KaKOvpyojv ev X'^Xkoj heopiwrrjpicp hehepievoL, rlva 
TcJov ev (^povojjvrojv ovk av Trapo^vvetav kol toIs 
ravra crvvOelaiv eTTLTTXrj^ai Kal ttoXXtiv evrjdeiav 

248 KaTayvojvaL row rrpoGepLevow ;^ ol he Kal helpLOV 
TLva Kal (f)6^ov, rjhrj he Kal X'uggo.v Kal a.Trdr'qv 
Kal TL yap ov-)(^l row KaKiGTCov Tradcov els deov 
(f)iJGLV Kal p.op(f}rjV dveTrXaGav tols S' ev(f)rjpLO- 
repoLS rovTcov Kal dveiv rds TToXeis eTreiGav. 

249 Toiyapovv els 7T0/\XrjV dvdyKTjv KaOiGTavrai tovs 
p.ev rev as tow deow vopiL^eiv horrjpas dyadojv, 
TOVS he KaXelv aTroTpoTTaiovS} etra he tovtovs, 
djGrrep tovs rrovrjpoTdTovs tow avOpcoTrojv, ydpiGi 
Kal ho'jpoLS aTTOGeiovTai, {leya tl XrjipeGdaL KaKov 
vtt" avTow TTpoGhoKOJVTes , ei pLrj {jllgOov avTols 

250 (35) Yl tolvw to aLTLOv TTjS TOGavTTjs avoj/JLaXlas 
Kal TTepl TO Oelov TrXrjfjLpieXeLas ; eyoj jiev vrro- 
XajijSdvoj TO p^TiTe T'qv dXrjdrj tov deov <pVGLV e^ 
dpx'i^jS GWihelv avTOJV tovs vo/JLoOeTas, p^'qd" ogov 
Kal Xajjelv TjhvvrjOrjGav dKpi^rj yvcoGLV huopLGavTas, 
rrpos TovTO TTOLrjGaGOaL ttjv dXXrjv Td^iv tov 

251 TToXiTevfiaToSi aAA' ojGTrep d'AAq tl tow <f)avXo- 
TdTow e(f)7]Kav toIs p^ev TTOLTjTals ovGTivas av ^ov- 

^ Xiese : irpoep-evcop L. 

« Iliad xiv. 312 ff. 
^ Poseidon and Apollo, Iliad xxi. 4^4^2-0 . 


the king, could not restrain his passion for his consort 
long enough to permit of withdrawal to his chamber." 
Then there are the gods in bondage to men, hired 
now as builders,^ now as shepherds ^ ; and others 
chained, like criminals, in a prison of brass. ^ What 
man in his senses would not be stirred to reprimand 
the inventors of such fables and to condemn the 
consummate folly of those who believed them ? 
They have even deified Terror and Fear,^ nay, 
Frenzy and Deceit (which of the worst passions have 
they not transfigured into the nature and form of a 
god ?), and have induced cities to offer sacrifices to 
the more respectable ^ members of this pantheon. 
Thus they have been absolutely compelled to regard 
some of the gods as givers of blessings and to call 
others " (gods) to be averted." ^ They then rid 
themselves of the latter, as they would of the worst 
scoundrels of humanity, by means of favours and 
presents, expecting to be visited by some serious 
mischief if they fail to pay them their price. 

{ob^ Now, what is the cause of such irregular and Cause of 
erroneous conceptions of the deity ? For my part, I moral Vdeas 
trace it to the ignorance of the true nature of God neglect of 
with w^hich their legislators entered on their task, and by^the^ 
to their failure to formulate even such correct know^- legislators 
ledge of it as they were able to attain and to make 
the rest of their constitution conform to it. Instead, 
as if this were the most trifling of details, they allowed 

« Apollo, ih. 448 f. 

^ Tlie Titans. 

" Deimos and Phobos, attendants of Ares, Iliad xv. 119. 

f Or " auspicious." 

» Greek dTrorpoTraiovs, i.e. avertentes, " averters of evil." 
Josephus, as is clear from the context, gives it a passive 
meaning, " whose evil influence is to be averted." 


Xcovrai deovg elordyeiv Trdvra Trdaj^ovras , rot? Se 
prjTopGL TToXiroypacheiv Kara iprj(f)La[Jia row ^evow 

252 Oeojv rov eTTLrrjheiov. ttoXXtj? 8e Kal L,coypd(j)OL Kal 
irXdorai rrjg et's" rovro 7T0.pd row 'EAAryvojy avr- 
eAaucrav i^ovorla?, avros eKacrros nva p.op(f)rju 
€7TLVo6jv, o fiev eK tttjXov rrXdrrojv, 6 he ypd(f)OJV, 
OL Se p^dXiura Srj 6avjJLal,6fM€VOL rcov hrjpLLOvpyojV 
rov iXicjiavra Kal rov ^pvaov €)(ov(JL rrj9 del Kaiv- 

253 ovpyias ri'jv vrrodeaiv, Kal rd jjiev rcov Upcov iv 
eprjfjLLa rravreXojs eloiv, rd he epLTTepLarrovhaara 
KaOaporeGL Travroharrals 7TepLKoaiJiovp.eva. } eW^ 
OL pLev TTporepov ev ralg rip^als aKpudaavres 6eol 
yeyqpaKaciiV' ol S VTvaKpidL^ovreg rovrow ev Sev- 
repa rd^ei vrro^e^Xi'jvraL^^ ovroj yap eixfy-qpuorepov 

254 XeyeLV dXXoi he Kaivoi nves elcrayopLevoL dprjGKetas 
rvyxavovGLV OJS" ev rrapeK^daei ow TTpoeijropLev 
rov£ roTTOUS ep'qp.ojdivras KaraXiirelv j^ ' Kal rojv 
cepow ra puev eprjpLovvrat, rd 8e veojGrl Kara rrjv 
row av9pd)770w^ ^ovXtjolv eKaaro? ISpverau, heov^ 
rovvavnov rrjv Trepl rod deov So^av avrovs Kal rrjv 
TTpos avrov rt/XT^y diJLeraKLvrjrov Sia<f)vXdrreLV. 

255 (36) ATroAAcovtos" f.i€V ovv 6 MoAcov rwv dvoiqrcjv 
els Tjv Kat rerv<f)CjpLeva}v . rov? pievroc Kar dX-qdeuav 
ev roLS ^XXrjVLKolg (f)LXo(jo(f)TJ(javra5 ovre rojv 
TTpoeiprjjjievojv ovoev bieXaOev, ovre rd? ipv^pd? 
rrpo(f)aGeLS row d/^Xrjyopcdjv rjyvorjGav' hioTrep rcov 
puev ecKorajg KareSpovqaav, els he rrjv dXrjOfj Kal 
TTpeTTOVuav TTepi rod deov ho^av -qplv Gwe(j)o'wiquav . 

256 a(j) Tjs oppTjdels 6 IlXdrojv ovre rcov dXXojv ovh- 
eva TTOLTjrow cfirjUL hetv els rrjV TToXireiav irapa- 

1 The bracketed words are glosses, which have crept into 
the text of L and are absent from the Latin. 



the poets to introduce what gods they chose, subject and licence 
to all the passions, and the orators to pass decrees pQ^*^" ^"^j 
for entering the name of any suitable foreign god on artists. 
the burgess-roll. Painters also and sculptors were 
given great licence in this matter by the Greeks, each 
designing a figure of his own imagination, one mould- 
ing it of clay, another using paints. The artists who 
are the most admired of all use ivory and gold as the 
material for the novelties which they are constantly 
producing.'* And now the gods who once flourished 
with honours are grown old,'* that is the kinder way 
of putting it ; and others, newly introduced, are the 
objects of worship." Some temples are left to desola- 
tion, others are but now being erected, according 
to individual caprice ; whereas they ought, on the 
contrary, to have preserved immutably their belief 
in God and the honour which they rendered to Him. 

{36) Apollonius Molon was but one of the crazy Analogies 
fools. The genuine exponents of Greek philosophy bt^tvveen 
were well aware of all that I have said, nor were Plato and 
they ignorant of the worthless ^ shifts to which the the^Jews 
allegorists have resort. That was why they rightly 
despised them and agreed with us in forming a true 
and befitting conception of God. From this stand- 
point Plato declares that no poet ought to be admitted 

•* The MS. at these points adds the following glosses : 
" Some temples are completely desolate ; the most celebrated 
are being renovated, with all manner of purifications " ; 
" and those who flourished after them have been relegated 
to a secondary position " ; "so that, as (?) we said before 
in a digression, the sites are left desolate." 

" Greek " frigid." 

^ tQv dud. L : avTuiv Lat. 
^ + Toivvu L (om. ed. pr.). 


hi)(€G9aiy Koi Tov "OiJLr]pov €'U(f)ijfJLOJS aTTOTTe fiTTer ai 
GrecjyavojGas koi fivpov avrov Karax^oLS , Iva hrj (jltj 
TTjV opQ-qv ho^av rrepl Oeov rols {J^'udois a(f)avlG€i€. 

257 pidXiara Se HXdrojv pLepLipbrjraL rov rjfJLerepov 
uofJLoOerr^v Kav toj pnqhev ovrco 7ratSef/xa Trpoa- 
t6jtt€LV rols TToXcraig ws to iravras dKpi^ojs rovs 
vofJLOvs eKjiavddveiv, /cat piriv Kai Trepl rod (jltj 
Seiv cog ervx^v iTTiiiiyvvudai rivas k^codev, aAA' 
elvai KaOapov ro TToXlrevfia rcov ifJLfJLevovrcxjv rols 

258 vopLois 7rpovv67]G€v. Jjv ovSev Xoyiadfjievos 6 MoAcov 

AttoXXcovlos r]fi6jv Karrjyop'qcrev, on {jlt] Trapa- 
hexopL^Oa rovg dXXais TrpoKareLXrjpLpLevovs So^ai? 
rrepl deov, pLrjhe Koivowelv eOeXopiev rols Kad 

259 irepav avvi^decav ^lov t,rjv Trpoaipovp^ivois . dXX 
ovhe rovr kariv Iolov rjpLOJV, kolvov he rravrojv, 
ovx '^XXrivcov he pbovojv, dXXd kol rojv ev rols 
"EAA7/C7tv evhoKipicordrojv . AaKehaipLovioi he Kai 
^evTjXacrLas TroLovpbevoL hiereXovv kol rols avrcov 
drrohnpLelv TroXirais ovk eirerpeTTOv, hcacfiOopdv i^ 
diJL(j)olv V(j)op(jjpievoi yevrjGeuOai rrepl rovs vopuovs. 

260 eKeivois p^ev ovv rdx dv^ hvuKoXlav ris dveihlaeiev 
eiKorcos' o'uhevl yap ovre rrjs iroXireias ovre rrjs 

261 TTOLp civrols j-ierehihoGav hiarpi^rjs- rjpiels he rd 
p.ev rcov dXXojv t,r]Xovv ovk d^LOvpiev, rovs pLevroi 
pLerex€LV row rjpierepajv ^ovXopbevovs rjhecos hexd- 
pieOa. Kai rovro dv etr] reKpnqpioVy olp,ai, </>tA- 
avdpojrrias dpia Kai pLeyaXoipvxiOs . 

262 (37) Ecu TTepl AaKehaipiovLOJV IttI rrXeioj Xeyeiv. ot 
he KoivTjv elvai rrjv eavrojv ho^avres ttoXlv ^ AOiqvaloi 

^ Niese : rdxa L. 


to the republic, and dismisses even Homer in lauda- 
tory terms, after crowning and anointing him with 
unguents, in order to prevent him from obscuring by 
his fables the correct doctrine about God." In two 
points, in particular, Plato followed the example of 
our legislator.^ He prescribed as the primary duty 
of the citizens a study of their laws, which they must 
all learn word for word by heart. Again, he took 
precautions to prevent foreigners from mixing with 
them at random, and to keep the state pure and 
confined to law-abiding citizens.'' Of these facts 
Apollonius Molon took no account when he con- 
demned us for refusing admission to persons with 
other preconceived ideas about God, and for declining 
to associate with those who have chosen to adopt a 
different mode of life. Yet even this habit is not 
peculiar to us ; it is common to all, and shared not 
only by Greeks, but by Greeks of the highest reputa- 
tion. The Lacedaemonians made a practice of The 
expelling foreigners and would not allow their own of foreigners 
citizens to travel abroad, in both cases apprehensive by the 
of their laws being corrupted. They might perhaps 
be justly reproached for discourtesy, because they 
accorded to no one the rights either of citizenship or 
of residence among them. We, on the contrary,! 
while we have no desire to emulate the customs of 
others, yet gladly welcome any who wish to share 
our own. That, I think, may be taken as a proof 
both of humanity and magnanimity. 

(37) Of the Lacedaemonians I will say no more. 
But the Athenians, who considered their city open 

"■ Plato, Rep. iii. 398 a ; and on poets generally ih. ii. 
suh fin. 

^ Of. Aristobulus ap. Eus. P.E. xiii. 12. 
'^ Plato, Legg., esp. xii. 949 e fF. 



TTchs TTepi Tovrojv etxov, 'ATroAAojvtos" rjyvo-qoreVy 
on /cat rovg pijfia [xovov rrapa rovs eKeivojv vofjbovs 
(jidey^afievovs rrepl Oewv drrapaLr-qrajg eKoXaaav. 

263 TtVo? yap i-ripov X'^P'-^ T.ojKpdTrjg drridavev ; ov 
yap hrj rrpoeblSov ttjv ttoXlv rolg TroXeploL? ouSe 
Twv lepojv i(7vXrj(j€V ou8eV, dAA' on Kaivovs opKovg 
ojpLvve Ka'i n haijMovLOV avrco aiqpLaiv€LV €(f)a(JK€ 
VTj Aia rraiLow,'^ oj? kvLoi Xeyovai, Std ravra Kar- 

264 eyvojod'q kow€lov mow aTTodavelv. Kal hiacfjOelpeiv 
8e rot's" veovs 6 Kar-qyopos avrov fjndro, ri]? 
TrarpLOV TToXureiag Kal row vopLOjv on TrpoTJyev 
avrovs Kara^povelv. HcoKparrj? p.€v ovv 7toXlt7]s 

265 AOrjvalog a)V^ roiaTjrrjv VTrefiecve npLajptav. 'Aya^- 
ayopag Se I^a Co/xeVto? tjv, dAA' on vopal^ovrcov 

Xdrjvaiojv Tov tJXlov elvai deov 6 S'^ avrov €(f)r) 
iivSpov^ elvai hidrrvpovy ddvarov avrov Trap' dXiyas 

266 ipTjcpovg Kare'/vaxrav . Kal Atayopa rw MryAtoj 
rdXavrov erreK-qpv^av, €t ns avrov dveXoi, ivrel 
ra Trap avroZs fj^vor-qpia yX€vdL,€iv iXeyero. Kal 
Upojrayopas et fir] Odrrov ecbvye, uvXXrjcjydels dv 
iredvqKei, ypdipat n So^a? ovx opioXoyovfievov 

267 rol? WdrjvaLOL? Trepl dedw. ri he hel 6avpidt,€LV, 
€i 77po? dvSpag ovrcos d^ioTriorovs StereOrjaav, ol 
ye yLti^Se yvvaiKojv i(f)€lGavro; NtVov^ ydp rrjv 

^ Xiese (cf. i. 255) : ecpO-crKev r) diaTro.l^uv L. 

^ Niese : 'XdTjvaiojv L. 

^ Xaber : 65' L. ■* Hudson : fjLv\ov L. 

^ A brilliant emendation of Weil for the 3is. vvv. She is 
mentioned by Demosthenes, Adv. Boeot. 995, 1010 and by 
scholiasts on I)e falsa leg. 431 and elsewhere. 

" " Bv the dog " [vt] tov kvvo) was his favourite oath. 

^ Lit. " by Zeus." « Plato, Apol. 31 d. 

^ Meietus. « Apol. 23 d. 



to all comers — what was their attitude in this matter ? impiety 
Apollonius was ignorant of this, and of the inexorable pnn^ished 
penalty which they inflicted on any who uttered a "^y the 
single word about the gods contrary to their laws. 
On what other ground was Socrates put to death ? 
He never sought to betray his city to the enemy, he 
robbed no temple. No ; because he used to swear 
strange oaths " and give out (in jest, surely,^ as some 
say) that he received communications from a spirit,^ he 
was therefore condemned to die by drinking hemlock. 
His accuser ^ brought a further charge against him of 
corrupting young men,^ because he stimulated them 
to hold the constitution and laws of their country in 
contempt. Such was the punishment of Socrates, a 
citizen of Athens. Anaxagoras-^ was a native of 
Clazomenae, but because he maintained that the 
sun, which the Athenians held to be a god, was an 
incandescent mass, he escaped by a few votes only 
from being condemned by them to death. They 
offered a talent for the head of Diagoras of Melos,^ 
because he was reported to have jeered at their 
mysteries. Protagoras,'^ had he not promptly fled, 
would have been arrested and put to death, because 
of a statement about the gods in his writings which 
appeared to conflict with Athenian tenets. Can 
one wonder at their attitude towards men of such 
authority when they did not spare even women ? 
They put Ninus the priestess to death, because 

f Circa 499-427 ; he owed his escape to the influence of 

^ A contemporary of Anaxagoras and known in antiquity 
as "the atheist." 

* Of Abdera, 5th cent. b.c. The book on which he was 
impeached be^an with the words : " Respecting the gods, I 
am unable to know whether they exist or do not exist." 


lip€Lav a7T€Kr€Lvav, errei ns avrrj? Kanqyop-quev, 
on ^€vovs ijJiveL deovs' voiioj 6' tjv rovro Trap' 
avToZs KeKOjXvjjbevov kol rijJbOjpLa Kara tojv ^evov 

268 elaayovrcov deov ojpiGTO ddvaros. ol 8e roLovrcp 
vojJLCp ;T^poSyUevot 6t]Xov on rovg row dXXcov ovk 
ivopuLov elvai Beovs' ov yap dv avrols TrXeLovojv 
oLTToXaveLv i(f)d6vovv. 

269 To, jiev ovv W.9rjvaiojv iyeTOj^ KaXo)?. Y^KvOai 
Se (f}6voL£ -xaipovres dvOpwirajv kal ^pcix^ "^^jv 
diqpiojv 8ia(f)€povr€£, ofjbojs ra Trap avrolg o'iovrai 
helv TTepiureXXeiVy /cat tov vtto rcov 'EAAt^vcof eVt 
Gocjiia davfiaadevra, tov Avax^apaiv , irraveXOovra 
rrpos avTOVs dvelXoVy eTrel rojv '^XXrjVLKOJV edtov^ 
ebo^ev rjKeiv dvaTrXeoj?. ttoXXovs he kol irapd 
Ilepuais dv ng evpoi kol Sta rr^v avr-qv alriav k€Ko- 

270 Xaojievovs. dXXd hrjXov on rolg Ileporcljv €')(^aip€ 
vofJLOLs 6 A.7T0?C{dwL0£ KaK€Lvovs idaTjpLa^ev, on 
rrj? dvSpelas avrwv aTriXavaav ol "YJ^Xrjves kol 
TTJ? opLoyvcopLoavvr]? rj£ el^ov Tzepl deojv, ravrrjs 
jjiev _ovv] iv Tol? Upolg olg KareTrprjaav, ri]? 
dvhpeias he hovXevGai Tvapd pUKpov iXdovres. 
aTrdvrojv he Kal rcov e7nrrjhevp.dTwv /jiLfirjrrj^ 
iyevero tow IlepGLKcov yvvaiKag aXXorpias v^pii^ojv 
Kal TTalhos eKTepiVOJV . 

271 Hap' rjiilv he ddvaTos ajpicrraiy Kav dXoyov ns 


aTTayayelv ovre (j)6^os 'laxvcre twv KpaT7](jdvTOJV 
ovre L,rjXos tcov irapd toZs d'AAots" TenfjLrjfievcov. 

272 ovhe TTjV dvhpelav T^cr/CTycra/xev eTTt toj noXepLOvg 

^ Xiese : <}x^^^ L. ^ deQ:v Lat. 

" Visited Athens in the time of Solon ; cf. Herod, iv. 76. 
^ Cf. for such Persian practices Herod, vi. 32. 


some one accused her of initiating people into the 
mysteries of foreign gods ; this was forbidden by 
their law, and the penalty decreed for any who 
introduced a foreign god was death. Those who had 
such a law evidently did not believe that the gods of 
other nations M^ere gods ; else they would not have 
denied themselves the advantage of increasing the 
number of their own. 

So much may be said to the credit of the Athenians, and even by 
But even Scythians, who delight in murdering people and 
and are little better than wild beasts, nevertheless Persians. 
think it their duty to uphold their national customs ; 
and Anacharsis," whose wisdom won the admiration 
of the Greeks, was on his return put to death by his 
compatriots, because he appeared to have come back 
infected with Greek habits. In Persia, also, numer- 
ous instances will be found of persons being executed 
for the same reason. Apollonius, however, had an 
aifection for the laws of the Persians and a high 
opinion of the people ; evidently because Greece had 
a taste of their courage and the benefit of their agree- 
ment with herself in religious beliefs ! The latter 
she experienced when she saw her temples burnt to 
the ground, their courage in her bare escape from 
subj ection to their yoke . Apollonius actually imitated 
all the Persian practices, outraging his neighbours' 
wives and castrating their children.^ 

With us such maltreatment even of a brute beast Our loyalty 
is made a capital crime." And from these laws of ^° ^""^ ^^^^'^* 
ours nothing has had power to deflect us, neither fear 
of our masters, nor envy of the institutions esteemed 
by other nations. We have trained our courage, not 

" An exaggeration of the law in Lev. xxii. 24 (Deut. 
xxiii. 1); cf. A. iv. 290 f. 

VOL. I 2d 401 


dpacrdai X^P'^ irXeove^ias , aAA' ctti to) rovs vofxovs 
hia<i)vXdTr€iv . ras yovv dXXag eXarrajGeis Trpaojg 
VTTOfJLevovre?, iTreihav tlv^s Tjiids rd vo/xt/xa Kivelv 
avayKal^ojGL, Tore kol rrapd 8wa/xtv alpovjieda 
TToXepLov? KOI fJicxpi TOW iaxo-TCov Tat? (TvpL<popaL£ 

273 iyKaprepov/jiev. 8ta rl yap dv Kal IrjXdjGacp.ev 
rovs irepojv vofiovg opowres p^r^he^ Trapa rols 
d^piivois avTovs r€Tr]pT]pLevovs; ttcjs ydp ovk 
epieXXov AaKeSaLpboviOL pi€v rrjs dv€7TLpLLKrov Kara- 
yvdjueudai TToXireias Kal rrjs Trepl rovs ydpLOvs 
oXiyojpias, 'HAetot Se Kal Orj^alou r'qs Trapa 
(f)VGLv Kal [dyav]^ dveSrjv rrpos rovs dppevas 

214: p^i^eojs ; a yovv TrdXai KaXXiura Kal crvpL(f)opdjrara 
rrparreiv VTreXap^jiavov , ravr €i /cat pb~q rravraTrauL 

275 rots' epyoLs Trecbevyaatv , ovx opioXoyovcnv , aXXd 
Kal rovs TTepl avrojv v6p.ovs aTTOpLvvvraL^ rouovrov 
TTore TTapd rols "EXX7]Giv lax^Gavras, cocrre Kai 
rols deols rds rtbv dppivojv pii^€LS eVe^Ty/xtcrav, 
Kara rov avrov Se Xoyov Kal rovs rcov yviquiojv 
aheXSojv ydpovs, ravr'qv arroXoyiav avrols rcov 
droTTOJV Kal rrapd (f)VGiv rjSovojv Gvvndivres. 

276 (38) EtD vvv Trepl row ripLOjpiow Xeyeiv, oGas p^ev 
e^ dpx^js eSoGav ol TrXelGroi vop.odirai rots rrovrjpols 
StaAucret?/ IttI pLOLX^Las ftev l^rjpiias xPVf^^'^^^* 
Irrl (hdopds 8e Acat ydp^ovs vop.o6errjGavr€S , oGas 
8e° Trepl rrjS aGe^elas 7rpo(f)dGeLS rrepiexovGiv 
dpvTjGeojs, el Kal ns eTnx^iprjGeiev e^erdteiv . rjSr] 
ydp rrapd rols TrXeioGi pLeXerrj yeyove rod rrapa- 

277 ^aiveiv rovs vopLOVs. ov pLTjv Kal Trap rjpuv, dXXd 

^ Dindorf : /j.r]Te L. ^ Ora. Lat. 

^ Xiese : a.Trofj.iyi'vvTail^ l^Ri. * StaSiVets Cobet. 

^ Dindorf (with Lat.): '>«' L. 


with a view to waging war for self-aggrandizement, 
but in order to preserve our laws. To defeat in any 
other form we patiently submit, but when pressure 
is put upon us to alter our statutes, then we deliber- 
ately fight, even against tremendous odds, and hold 
out under reverses to the last extremity. And why 
should we envy other nations their laws when we 
see that even their authors do not observe them ? 
The Lacedaemonians were, of course, bound in the 
end to condemn their unsociable constitution and 
their contempt for marriage, and the people of 
Ehs and Thebes the unnatural vice so rampant 
among them. At any rate, if they have not in fact 
altogether abandoned them, they no longer openly 
avow practices which once they considered very 
excellent and expedient. But they go further than 
this, and repudiate their laws on the subject of these 
unions — laws which at one time carried such weight 
with the Greeks that they actually attributed to the 
gods the practice of sodomy and, on the same 
principle, the marriage of brother and sister, thus 
inventing an excuse for the monstrous and unnatural 
pleasures in which they themselves indulged. 

(38) In the present work I pass over the various ^^Jl^'" 

1. 1111 1 r- J' r nations 

penalties, and all the modes or compounding tor evade and 
them which the majority of legislators provided in J'^g-^^® 
their codes at the outset for offenders — accepting fines laws. 
in case of adultery, marriage in that of immorality 
— and, in matters of impiety, all the subterfuges 
which they left open for denying the facts, if anyone 
took the trouble to open an inquiry. Nowadays, 
indeed, violation of the laws has -svith most nations 
become a fine art. Not so with us. Robbed though 



Kav ttXovtov KOi TToXecov Kal rojv aXXojv ayadojv 
GTep'qdcofJLev, 6 yovv vojjlos rjfJilv adavarog Sta/xcVet, 
Kal ovh^ls ^Yovhaiojv ovre fiaKpav ovrcos av arreXdoL 
TTjs TTarpihos ovre rriKpov (jio^'qOrjGerai SeGTTorrjv, 

278 CO? [Jbrj 7Tp6 €Keivov 3eSteVat tov v6[jlov. €i [jl€V odv 
Sua rr]V dperrjv tojv vofiow ovrojs rrpos avrovs 
SiaKeifieda, uvyxcoprjuarojuav on Kpariurovs ^X^' 
[lev vopiovs. €L de SavXoig ovrcog rjjids e/x/xeVetv 
VTToXafi^dvovGL, ri ovk dv avroL SiKaLOJS uadoiev 
rov? Kpelrrovag ov (fivXarrovreg ; 

279 'Ettci Toivvv 6 ttoXvs xP^vos" TncrreveTai iravrcov 
€tvat SoKifJLacrrrjg dXr^BeoTarog, rovrov dv ttoltj- 
GaLfXTjv iyoj pidprvpa rrjg aperrj? rj/jbojv rod vopLO- 
derov Kal rrjg vtt^ eKeivov (f)TJfJLr]s rrepL rod dcov 
TTapahodeiG'qs. dTre'ipov ydp rod xpovov yeyovoros, 
€L ris avrdv napa^dXXoi ralg rcJov dXXcxjv rjXiKLai£ 

280 vojioOerajv, Trapd rrdvr"" dv^ evpoi rovrov (SQ) <ort>^ 
V(j)' Tjixdw re 8Lr]Xeyxd'rj(jav ol vopioi Kal rols dXXois 
aTTauLV dvOpojTTOLS del Kal fxaXXov avrojv l,rjXov 

281 Ylpdjroi fj,ev ydp ol Trapd rols "EAAi^crt cfyiXo- 
uo4)r}Gavres ro) puev hoKelv rd Trdrpia SLe(f)vXarrov, 
ev 8e rols TrpdyfiaoL^ Kal roj (jiiXoGocJielv eKeivco^ 
KarrjKoXovdrjGav, d/JLOLa pAv rrepl deov (f)povovvres, 
evreXeiav he ^iov Kal r-qv rrpos aXXrjXovs KOivojviav 

282 hihaGKOvres . ov fJLTjV dXXd Kal rrXrjOeGLV rjhrj 
TToXvs ^rjXos yeyovev Ik [laKpov rrjs r^puerepas 
evGejSelas, ouS' eGriv ov rroXis ^YjXXtjvojv ovh 

^ iravT av Niese : iravras L. 

2 ins, Niese. 

2 ypd/j./j.a(n conj. Niese. 

* €KdvoLs Bekker (with Lat.). 



we be of wealth, of cities, of all good things, our Law 
at least remains immortal ; " and there is not a Jew 
so distant from his country, so much in awe of a cruel 
despot, but has more fear of the Law than of him. 
If, then, our attachment to our laws is due to their 
excellence, let it be granted that they are excellent. 
If, on the contrary, it be thought that the laws to 
which we are so loyal are bad, what punishment 
could be too great for persons who transgress those 
W'hich are better ? 

Now, since Time is reckoned in all cases the surest Our laws 
test of worth,^ I would call Time to witness to the lhJtest°of 
excellence of our lawgiver and of the revelation time and 
concerning God which he has transmitted to us. An imXted.*^ ^ 
infinity of time has passed since Moses, if one com- 
pares the age in which he lived with those of other 
legislators ; yet it will be found (39) that throughout 
the whole of that period not merely have our laws 
stood the test of our own use, but they have to an 
ever increasing extent excited the emulation of the 
W'Orld at large. 

Our earliest imitators were the Greek philosophers, 
W'ho, though ostensibly observing the laws of their 
own countries, yet in their conduct and philosophy 
were Moses' disciples,'' holding similar views about 
God, and advocating the simple life and friendly 
communion between man and man. But that is not 
all. The masses have long since shown a keen desire 
to adopt our religious observances ; and there is not 

" Cf. in a contemporary work Bar. iv. 1 : " the law that 
endureth for ever." 

" Gf. Soph. Ajax 646 if. "All things the long and 
countless years of Time first draw from darkness, then bury 
from light," etc. (a play of which there are other reminis- 
cences in Josephus). " Cf. §§ 168, 257. 



rjTLorovv ovhe ^dp^apog,^ ouSe ev eOvos, evOa firj 
TO rrjs i^SojJidSog, rjv dpyovfiev rjfjiel?, eOos^ Sta- 
7T€(boLT7]K€V, Kol ttt vrjurelai Koi Xv-)(ycov aya- 
KavG€L£ Kal TToAAa rcov etV ^poJcrLV -qpXv ov vevo- 

283 fJLLcrjJLevojv Traparerrjprir at . fjufieluOaL 8e TTeipcovrac 
Kal T-qv Trpos dXXrjXov? rjfJLOJV ojJLOVOLav Kai rr^v 
rcov ovTOJv dvdSocjLV Kal to (l)iXep'y6v ev rats' 
Te-)(yais Kal to KapTepuKov iv rais virep rcov vopLCJV 

284 dvdyKaLs. to yap OavfJiaGicoTaTov , otl ;\;ojpts' tov 
TTJ? rjSovr]s eTrayojyov SeAearos"^ avTos Kad eavTov 
Icrxyoev 6 vop^os, Kal ojoTrep 6 deo? ota TravTos 


dvSpojTTOJV ^e^dScKev. avTOS Sc rug eKaoTog ttjv 
TTaTpiha Kal tov oIkov eTTiuKOTTwv TOV avTov ToTg 

285 VTT^ ipLov XeyofievoLS ovk aTTicrTriGei. XPV toivvv 
TTavTCov dv9pa)770jv KaTayvojvai rrov-qpcav ideXov- 
GLOV, €L TaXXoTpia Kal (f)avXa Trpo tojv oiKeiojv 
Kal KaX(x)v l,7]Xovv imTeOviJLrJKaGLV, tj TTavGaoOai 

28Q pOLCJKaLvovTa? rjpLLV tov? KaTTjyopovvTa?. ovSe 
yap i7n(f)66vov tlvo? avTirroiovp^eSa irpayp^aTos tov 
avTOJV tlii6jvt€s vo/JiodeT-qv Kat toIs vtt cKetvov 
77 po(l>rjT€vdelGL Trepl tov deov rrerrLGTevKOTes' Kai 
yap et p^-q ovvUpbev avTol ttjs dp^TrjS tojv vofjuajv, 
TrdvTOJS^ dv vtto tov ttXtjOovs tojv l,rjXovvTOJV pueya 
(f)pov€lv €77' aurots" 7Tporj-)(drjpi€v. 

287 (4-0) *AAAa yap Trepl p.ev tojv vofxajv Kal rrjs ttoXl- 
Teias T-qv aKpi^rj 7T€7TOLrjp.aL TrapdSoGiV iv roXs 
Trepl apxat'oXoylas puoi ypa(f>elGL. vvvt 8 avTOJV 

1 ^dp^apov Niese. ^ edo{\ to edos oe L. 

3 deXearos Niese : ov deXeaarbs L. 

* Niese : aTavruv L. 


AGAINST APION, 11. 282-287 

one city, Greek or barbarian, nor a single nation, to 
which our custom of abstaining from work on the 
seventh day " has not spread, and where the fasts 
and the hghting of lamps ^ and many of our prohibi- 
tions in the matter of food are not observed. More- 
over, they attempt to imitate our unanimity, our 
liberal charities, our devoted labour in the crafts, our 
endurance under persecution on behalf of our laws. 
The greatest miracle of all is that our Law holds out 
no seductive bait of sensual pleasure,*' but has 
exercised this influence through its own inherent 
merits ; and, as God permeates the universe, so the 
Law has found its way among all mankind. Let 
each man reflect for himself on his own country and 
his own household, and he will not disbeheve what I 
say. It follows, then, that our accusers must either 
condemn the whole world for deliberate malice in 
being so eager to adopt the bad laws of a foreign 
country in preference to the good laws of their own, 
or else give up their grudge against us. In honouring 
our own legislator and putting our trust in his pro- 
phetical utterances concerning God, we do not make 
any arrogant claim justifying such odium. Indeed, 
were we not ourselves aware of the excellence of our 
laws, assuredly we should have been impelled to 
pride ourselves upon them by the multitude of their 

(40) I have given an exact account of our laws and Recapituia- 
constitution in my previous work on our Antiquities. *^°"* 

" Aristobulus finds traces of the Sabbath even in Homer 
and Hesiod ! (Eus. P.E. xiii. 12). 

" Of. § 118. 
« Cf. § 217. 



€7T€iJivrJG9r]v i(f)^ ouov rjv avayKolov, ovre ra rcov 
aXXojv ijjiyeiv ovre ra Trap rjfjuv eyKajfiLdc^eLV irpo- 
Oefievos, dAA' tva rovs rrepl rjfJLwv aStVcus" yeypa- 
(^orag iXey^co Trpog avTTjv avaihojs ttjv dX'q9€Lav 

288 TTecjyiXoveLKiqKOTa'S . koL hrj jjlol Soko) 7T€7TX'qp6jGB ai 
8ta TrjS ypacf)!]? LKavojs a 7Tpov7T€G)(oiM'qv . Kai yap 
dpxaiOT-qTL TTpovirdpxov CTreSet^a ro yivos, rcov 
Karrjyopojv on vecLrarov icmv elprjKorojv,^ /cat 
7TO?[Xov9 iv rols (jvyypdpiiiauLV ijjLvqjjLovevKorag 
rjfjLOjv dp^x^CLiovs 7Tap€axofJLr]v^ pudprvpaSi iKeivwv 

289 OTL pLTjSeL? ian hia^e^aLOvp^evcov . dXXd ptrjv Al- 
yvTTTLOv? e(j)aGav tj/jlcov rovg rrpoyovovs' €0€i)(- 
drjuav S' els AtyvTrrov iXOovres irepojOev. Sid Se 
Xvfir]v GOJiidTOJV avrovg eK^Xrjdrjvai Kareipevaavro' 
TTpoaLpeaeL kol Trepiovaia pojpirjs i(f)dvrjGav €7tl^ 

290 rrjv oiKeiav VTrocrrpeipavres y^v. ol p.kv oj? (f)av- 
Xorarov r]p,a)v rov vopboderrjv iXoLSoprjaav to) 8e 
rrj? dperrj? rrdXai fiev 6 Oeos, /xer' €K€lvov Se 
p,dpTV? 6 xp^^os evpr^rac yeyevqp.evos. 

291 (4l) Uepl Tojv vopbcov ovk iSerjae Xoyov rrXeiovos, 
avroL yap iojpddrjGav 8t' avTOJV ovk dai^eiav 
ixev evGe^euav 8' dXrjdeGrdrrjv SiSdGKovre?, oz38 em 
fiiGavS pojTTLav , dAA' e77t ttjv tcov ovrojv Koivcoviav 
77apaKaXovvT€9, ahiKcas ixOpol, hiKaioG-uvqs €Tn- 
jieXels, dpyiav Kal TToXvreXeLav i^opit,ovT€S, avr- 

292 dpK€L£ Kal (^iXoTTovovs etvai Si^dGKOvres, iToXep.wv 

pL€v aTTeipyovTeg elg TrXeove^lav, avSpeuovs 8e VTrep 

avrcov etvai TrapaGK€vdl,ovT€S , aTrapaLT'qTOi rrpos 

^ + Ka'i yap L (om. Lat.). 

^ Cobet (with Lat.): TrapeaxoiJ-€v L. 

^ ecs Niese. 



Here I have alluded to them only so far as was 
necessary for my purpose, which was neither to find 
fault with the institutions of other nations nor to 
extol our own, but to prove that the authors who 
have maligned us have made a barefaced attack on 
truth itself. I have, I think, in the present work 
adequately fulfilled the promise made at the outset." 
I have shown that our race goes back to a remote 
antiquity, whereas our accusers assert that it is quite 
modern. I have produced numerous ancient wit- 
nesses, who mention us in their works, whereas they 
confidently affirm that there is none. They further 
maintained that our ancestors were Egyptians ; it 
has been shown that they migrated to Egypt from 
elsewhere. They falsely asserted that the Jews 
were expelled from that country as physical wrecks ^ ; 
it has been made clear that they returned to their 
native land of deliberate choice, and thanks to their 
exceptional physical strength. They reviled our 
legislator as an insignificant personage ; his sterling 
merits have found a witness of old in God, and, after 
God, in Time. 

(41) Upon the laws it was unnecessary to expatiate. Encomium 
A glance at them showed that they teach not impiety, Jewish iaw= 
but the most genuine piety ; that they invite men 
not to hate their fellows, but to share their posses- 
sions ; that they are the foes of injustice and 
scrupulous for justice, banish sloth and extravagance, 
and teach men to be self-dependent and to work 
with a will ; that they deter them from war for the 
sake of conquest, but render them valiant defenders 
of the laws themselves ; inexorable in punishment, 

« Ap. i. 2 if. 
^ Or " for bodily impurity." 



ra? TLfJLOjpLas, aG6<^iGT0L Xoycov TTapaaKevat^, rots 
epyois aet ^e^aiovfjievoL' ravra yap [del] rip^els 

293 7rapexo{J>€v tow ypafifjbdrojv ivapydarepa. SuoTrep 
eyd) daparjaag dv eirronii rrXeLGrcov d/xa kol koX- 
Xiorrojv rip^ds eLGTjyrjrdg rots d'AAots" yeyovivai. 
TL yap eucre^etas" dTrapa^arov KaXXiov ; ri Se rov 

294 7T€i9ap)(€lv ToZs vofjLOL? hiKaLOTepov ; rj ri ovp,- 
(f)opa)r€pov rov rrpos d?C\.T]Xov£ o/JLOvoeiVi /cat jUt^t' 
ev GVfi(f)opal9 hdoraaOai ix-qr iv €'urv)(Lai9 ara- 
GidLeiv e^vj^pil^ovras, dAA' iv rroXipiOJ p^ev davdrov 
Kara(f)pov€lVy iv elp-qvfj 8e ri)(yais r) yeojpyiaLS 
7TpoGave-)(€LV, rravra 3e /cat navraxov TTerreZodai 

295 Tov Oeov irrorrre-uovra Sterreti^ ; ravr et /xev 
Trap' iripoLs rj iypd(f)r] rrporepov^ tj i(j)vXdxdrj ^€- 
^aiorepov , rjpieXs dv e/cecVots" X'^P^^ (l)(j)eiXop.ev w£ 
pLadrjral yeyovores' el 8e /cat ;)^/3a>^evot /xdAtara 
TTavrojv ^XeTTop^eda /cat rrjv 7Tpd)rrjv evpeuiv avrojv 
rjp,erepav ovaav iTreSel^apLev, ATTLOJve? pLev /cat 
^loXcxJves /cat Trdvres ogol rep ipe'uSeGdaL /cat Aot- 
Sopelv p^atpoucrtv i^eXrjXeyxOojGav . 

296 2ot be, 'E7ra</)/)dStT€, /xdAtcrra ri^v aAry^etav 
ayaTTOJvrL, /cat Std ere rots" opbOLOJS ^ovXr]Gopi.evoL?^ 
TTepl rov yevovs rjp^cov etSeVat, rourd re^ /cat rd 
Trpo avrov yeypdcpdoj ^l^Xlov. 

^ Dindorf : -wpQiTov L Lat. 

^ Niese : 3ov\ev(ja,uJvovs L. 

^ ^fZ. ^>/-. : om. L. 



not to be duped by studied words ,^ always supported 
by actions. For actions are our invariable testi- 
monials, plainer than any documents. I would 
therefore boldly maintain that we have introduced 
to the rest of the world a very large number of very 
beautiful ideas. What greater beauty than inviolable 
piety ? What higher justice than obedience to the 
laws ? What more beneficial than to be in harmony 
with one another, to be a prey neither to disunion in 
adversity, nor to arrogance and faction in prosperity ; 
in war to despise death, in peace to devote oneself to 
crafts or agriculture ; and to be convinced that | 
everything in the whole universe is under the eye | 
and direction of God ? Had these precepts been \ 
either committed to writing or more consistently 
observed by others before us, we should have owed 
them a debt of gratitude as their disciples. If, how- 
ever, it is seen that no one observes them better 
than ourselves, and if we have shown that we were 
the first to discover them, then the Apions and 
Molons and all who delight in lies and abuse may be 
left to their own confusion. 

To you, Epaphroditus, who are a devoted lover of Dedication. 
truth, and for your sake ^ to any who, like you, may 
wish to know the facts about our race, I beg to 
dedicate this and the preceding book. 

"■ Or " unsophisticated in oratorical display." 
^ Slcl ae, "for your sake," but half sugg-esting " through 
your kind offices" (5ta crov) in helping to advertise the work. 



S^ulanrtis, Bstanaea etc. = Kingdom of AgrippaE. Decapolisil<l^ndent. The rest under. Roman Procurators. 



For the Life (V. — Vita) and the Contra A2nonem (Ap.) references are to 
the sections shown in the left margin of the Greek text and in the top 
margin of the English text ; for the Introduction, to the pages. 

Abbar, Ap. i. 157 

Abdastratus, Ap. i. 122 

Abdemun, Ap. i. 115, 120 

Abibalus, Ap. i. 113, 117 

Abrahams, I., Ap. ii. 206 

Acharabe (village in Galilee), V. 

Actium, battle of, Ap. ii. 59 

Acusilaus, Ap. i. 13, 16 

Adamah, V. 321 

Adria, sea of, F. 15 

Aebutius, F. 115 ff. 

Aegyptus = Sethos, eponymous 
hero of Egypt, Ap. i. 102, 231 

Agatharcides, A p. i. 205 ff. 

Agrippa (son of Josephus), V. 5. 
(For Herod Agrippa see Herod.) 

Akencheres, Ap. i. 96 

Akencheres I and II, Ap. i. 97 

Alexander the Great, Ap. i. 183 f., 
192, 200, ii. 35, 37, 62, 72 

Alexander Polyhistor, Ap. i. 216 n. 

Alexandra, Queen, V. 5 

Alexandria, V. 415 ; A}^. i. 48, ii. 
36 (palace and necropolis), 37 
{stele at) ; Alexandrian citizen- 
ship, ii. 32, 38 ff., 69, 71 f. ; 
Alexandrian Jews, ii. 33-78 
(feast of, ii. 55) 

Aliens, Jewish attitude to, Ap. ii. 

Aliturus, V. 16. 

AUogorists, Greek, Ap. ii. 255 

Alphabet, introduction of, Aj^ i. 
10 f., 22. 

Amenophis I, Ap. i. 95 

Amenophis II, Ap. i, 96. 

Amenophis III, Ap. i. 97 
Amenophis (? Ill ? IV), Ap. i. 

230 ff., 254 ff"., 288 ff. 
Amenophis, son of Paapis (seer), 

Ap. i. 232 tt\, 243 
Ameroth (village in Galilee), V. 

Amesses, Ap. i. 95 
Ammon, oracle of, Ap. i. 306, 312 
Anacharsis, Ap. ii. 269 
Ananias, V. 197, 290, 316, 332 
Ananus, high priest, V. 193 ff., 

216, 309 
Anaxagoras, A p. ii. 168, 265 
Anaximenes, Ap. i. 221 n. 
" Ancient," " the most" (of God), 

Ap. ii. 206 
Andreas, Ap. ii. 46 
Animals, Egyptian worship of, 

Ap. i. 225, 239, 244, 249, 254, ii. 

66,81, 86, 128 f., 139 ; representa- 
tion of, forbidden to Jews, V. 

65. Cf. Images 
Antigonus, Ap. i. 213 
Antioch, Ap. i. 206 f. ; Jews in 

Antioch, ii. 39 
Antiochus II, Ap. ii. 39 n. 
Antiochus IV, Epiphanes, Ap. i. 

34, ii. 80, 83 f., 90 ff. 
Antiochus VI, Theos, Ap. ii. 82 n. 
Antiochus VII, Eusebes, Ap. ii. 82 
Antiochus (Sicilian historian), Ap. 

i. 17. 
Antonia, fortress of, V. 20 
Antony, Mark, Ap. ii. 58 f. 
Apachnas, Ap. i. 80 
Apion, Ap. ii. 2-144, 295 



Apis, Ajj. i. 246 

Apollo, Ap. ii. 112, 117, 162 

Apollodorus, Ap. ii. 84 

Apophis, Ap. i. 80 

Appian, Ap. 1. 210 n., ii. 57 n. 

Arabia. Ap. ii. 25 

Arabians (the Hycsos), Ap. i. 82 

Arbela or Cave of A. (village in 

Galilee), J'. 188, 311 
Arcadians, Ap. i. 22 
Archelaus, King, V. 5 
Archelaus, Julius, Ap. i. 51 
Archives, of Galilee, V. 38 ; Jew- 
ish, containing pedigrees, Ap. i, 
31, 35 
Argos, historians of, Ap. i. 17 ; 
flight of Danaus to A., A p. i. 
103, ii. 16 
Aristeas, Ap. i. 197 n.. ii. 44 n.. 

46, 206 n. 
Aristobulus, Ap. ii. 168 n., 257 u., 

282 n. 
Aristophanes (librarian), Ap. i. 216 
Aristotle. Ap. i. 167 n., 176 ff'., ii. 

193 n. 
Armenia, Ap. i. 130 
J royra (Egyptian measure of land). 

Ap. i. 86, 195 
Arrian, Ap. i. 192 n. 
Arsinoe (sister of Cleopatra), Ap. 

ii. 57 
Artaxerxes (=Ahasuerus), Ap. i. 

Asamonaeus, the children of (=the 

Maccabees), V. 2, 4 
Asia, Ap. i. 64, 90, 145, 182, ii. 

128, 133, 223 
Asochis, plain of. V. 207 ; town of. 

V. 233, 384 
Ass, fable of Jewish cult of. Ap. i. 

164 n., ii. 80 f., 86 f., 114.120 
Assis, Ap. i. 81 

Assi-stants, literary, of Joseplius, 
Ap. i. 50 ; not needed by God in 
creation, Ap. ii. 192 
Assyrians, Ap. i. 77, 90, 99 
Astarte. worship of, at Tyre. Ap. i. 

118, 123 
Astharymus, Ap. i. 123 
Athenaeus, Ap. i. 221 n., ii. 13 n. 
Athenians, their neglect of public 
records, Ap. i. 21 ; attacked by 
Theopompus, i. 221 ; misfortune's 
of, ii. 130 f . ; laws of, ii. 172; 


severely punish impiety, ii, 
262 ff. 

Atmosphere, effect of, on presenta- 
tion of records, Ap. i. 9 

Atthides (works on Attica). Ap. i. 17 

Auaris, Ap. i. 78, 86, 237 S., 260 ff., 

Augustus (Octavius), Ap. ii. 60 f. 

Auspices, taking the, Ait. 1. 202 f. 

B.AAL, king of Tyre, Ap. 1, 156 

Babylon, Ap. i. 136 ff., 142 

Babylonian chronicles, Ap. i. 28 ; 
cf. Chaldaean 

"Babylonian Jews," V. 47, 54 
(with note), 177, 183 

Baiator, Ap. i. 157 

Balbazer, Ap. i. 121 

Balezor, Ap. i. 124 

Bank, royal, of Galilee, V. 38 

Bannus, hermit, V. 11 

"Barbarians" (opjiOsed to Hel- 
lenes). Ap. i. 58. 116, 161 

Batanaea, V. 54, 183 

Beersubai(\illage in Galilee), F. 188 

Bel, temple of, Ap. i. 139, 192 
Berenice, Queen, V. 48, 119, 180 f., 

343, 355 
Berosus. Ap. i. 129-153 
Berj-tus, V. 49, 181, 357 
Besara (near Ptolemais), V. 118 f. 
Bethmau.s (near Tiberias). V. 64, 67 
Bethsaida Julias, V. 398 f., 406 
Birthdavs. Jewish obsers'ance of, 

Ap. ii. 204 
Bituminous Lake (Asphaltitis=^ 

Dead Sea), Ap. i. 174 
Bnon, Ap. i. 80 
Bocclioris, Ap. L 305 ff., ii. 16 
Borsippa, Ap. i. 151 f. 
Bribery of judges, Ap. ii. 207 
Brigands, F. 21, 28, 46, 77 f., 105 f., 

145 ff., 175, 206 
Bubastis (on arm of Nile), Ap. i. 78 
Biichler, A., Ap. ii. 175 

Cadmcs, Greeks learnt alpliabet 

from, Ap. i. 10 
Cadmus of Miletus, Ap. i. 13 
Caesar, Julius , Ap. ii. 37, 61 
Caesarea, F. 414 ; Jews and Syri- 
ans of C. F. 52-61 
Caesarea Philippi, V. 74 f. 


Calani, Indian philosophers, Ap. i. 

Callias, Sicilian historian, Ap. i. 17 
Calliphou, Ap. i. 164 
Cana (village in Galilee), V. 86 
Capellus, Julius, or Capella, V. 32, 

66 f., 69, 296 
Capernaum, V. 403 n. 
Captivity, Jewish, Ap. i. 132 (70 

years), 154 (50 years) 
Carmania, Ap. i. 153 
Cannel, Mount, Ap. ii. 16 
Carthage, foundation of, Ap. i. 108, 

121, 125 f., ii. 17 f. 
Cassiodorus, p. xviii 
Castor, Ap. i. 184, ii. 84 
Cepharnocus ( = Capernaum?), V. 

Cerealius, V. 240 

Cestius Gallus, governor of Syria, 
V. 23 f., 28, 30, 49, 214, 347, 373, 
Chabolo (Cabul ; village), V. 213 f., 
227, 234 ; Chahulon (district), 
Ap. i. 110 
Chaeremon, A p. i. 288-303, ii. 1 
Chaldaeans, their ancient records, 
Ap. i. 8 f., 28 ; Greeks indebted 
to, i. 14; ancestors of Jewish 
race, i. 71 ; their evidence to 
antiquity of Jews, i. 128-160 
Chandragupta, Ap. i. 144 n. 
Chares, V. 177, 186 
Chebron, Ap. i. 94 
Chelbes, Ap. i. 157 
Choerilus, Ap. i. 172 ff. 
Chronological statements and cal- 
culations, Ap. i. 1, 36, 39, 93 If., 
103 f., 126, 155 ff-., ii. 19 
Circumcision, enforced on aliens, 
V. 113 ; Herodotus on, Ap. i. 
169 ff., ii. 137, 141 f. (of Egyptian 
Cleanthes, Ap. ii. 135 
Clearchus, Ap. i. 176 ff. 
Cleitus, V. 170 ft\ 
Clement of Alexandria, Ap. ii. 

14 n. 
Cleopatra, consort of Ptolemy 

Philometor, A}^ ii. 49 ff. 
Cleopatra, last queen of Egypt, 

Ap. ii. 56-60 
Coele-Syria, Ap. i. 135, 150 ff., 179 
Colchians, Ap. i. 168 f. 

Colonists take name of founders, 
Ap. ii. 38 ft; 

Commentaries of Vespasian and 
Titus, V. 342, 358, Ap. i. 56 

Compsus, V. 33 

Conon, historian, Ap. i. 216 

Constitution, Jewish, Ap. ii. 145 ff. 

Corban (as oath), Ap. i. 167 

Corinthian candelabra, V. 68 

Corn-stores in Galilee, V. 71 ft'., 
118 f. 

Crassus, Licinius, Ap. ii. 82 

Crete, V. 427 ; Cretan method of 
training, Ap. ii. 172 

Crispus, V. 33, 382, 388, 393 

Croesus, A}), ii. 131 

Crotona, Ap. i. 164 

Crucifixion, V. 420 

Crum, W. E., Ap. i. 82 

Ctesias, Ap. i. 16 n., 141 n., 142 n. 

Cyprus, Ap. i. 99 

Cyrene, ship of, V. 15 ; insurrec- 
tion in, V. 424; Jewish settle- 
ment in, Ap. ii. 44 ; ii. 51 

Cyrus, Ap. i. 132, 145, 150, 154, 
158 f. 

Dabaritta, V. 126, 318 
Damascus, massacre of Jews in, 

V. 27 
Danaus ( = Harmais), Ap. i. 102 f., 

231, ii. 16 
Darius, Ap. i. 154 
Dassion, F. 131 
David, Ap. ii. 132 
Dead Sea. See Bituminous Lake 
Decapolis, the Syrian, V. 341 f., 

Deimos, Aji. ii. 248 
Deleastartus, Ap. i. 122 
Delphi, temple of, Ap. ii. 131 ; 

oracle of, ii. 162 
Demetrius II, Ap. i. 206, ii. 43 n. 
Demetrius Phalereus, Ap. i. 218, 

ii. 46 
Demetrius Poliorcetes, Jji. i. 184 f. 
Deposits, A p. ii. 208, 216 
Destiny (17 ei/aap/aeVrj), Ajx ii. 245 
Diadochi, the, Ap. i. 213 
Diagoras, Ap. ii. 266 
Diaspora, the Jewish, Ap. i. 32 f., 

Dicaearchia ( = Puteoli), V. 16 
Dido, Ap. i. 125 



Diodorus Siculiis, Ap. i. 305 n., 

ii. 80 n., 187 n. 
Diogenes Laertius, Ap. i. 179 n. 
Dionysius of Halicarnassiis, Ap. i. 

66 n. 
Dius, Phoenician historian, Ap. i. 

112 ff. 
Domitia, V. 429 
Domitian, p. xi, V. 429 
Dora (Dorii), V. 31, Ap. ii. 112, 

114, 116 
Dositheus, Ap. ii. 49 
Dracon, Ap. i. 21 
Dreams, V. 208 f., Ap. i. 207, 211, 289 

EcBATANA (in Batanaea). V. 54 ff. 

Education of Jewish children, Ap. 
i. 60, ii. 204 ; two systems of, ii. 
171 ff. 

Egypt, Upper and Lower, Ap. i. 
77 ; satrap of, i. 135 

Egyptians, circunicLsion of, Ap. i. 
169 ff., ii. 141 ; brought into early 
contact with Greeks, i. 61, 63 ; 
their evidence to antiquity of 
Jews, i. 70, 73-105 ; libels on 
Jews, i. 223 ff. ; attitude to Jews, 
ii. 31 ; Egyjjtian priests, i. 28, 
ii. 140 f. ; Eg. records and sacred 
books, i. 8 f., 14, 28, 73, 91, 228 ; 
citizen rights refused to, ii. 41, 
72 ; Egyptian fortresses entrusted 
to Jews, ii. 44. See also Animals 

Eknibal, Ap. i. 157 

Elephants employed in persecution 
of Jews, Ap. ii. 53 f. 

Elis, ^ices of people of, Ap. ii. 273 

Er»aphroditus, p. xi, V. 430, Ap. 
i. 1, ii. 1, 296 

Ephes'os. Jews in, Ap. ii. 39 ; temple 
of, ii. 131 

Ephorus, Ap. i. 16, 67 

Epicureans, Ap. ii. 180 n. 

Essenes, V. 10 ; doctrines of, Ap. 
ii. 203 n., 207 n. 

Esther, book of, Ap. i. 40 n. 

Ethiopia, Ap. i. 246 ff., 292, 300; 
Ethiopians, circumcision of, i. 
169 f. ; Eastern Ethiopians, i, 
174 n. 

Enhemerus, Ap. i. 216 

Eupolemus, Ap. i. 118 n., 218 

Europe, Ap. i. 66, ii. 128 

Eusebius, p. x, xviii f. 


Euxine sea, Ap. i. 64 

Evilmaraduch, Ap. i. 146 

Exodus from Egvpt, distorted 
accounts of the, Ap. i. 223, 229 ff., 
ii. 8 ff. ; various dates assigued to 
the, ii. 15 ff. 

Ezechias, chief priest, Ap. L 187, 189 

Fast, announcement of public, V. 

Felix, procurator of Judaea, V, 

13, 37 
Fleet, a sham, V. 165 ff. 
Flood, the, mentioned by Berosus, 

Ap. i. 130 
P\ineral ceremonies, Jewish, Ap. 

ii. 205 
Future life, Ap. ii, 218 f. 

Gaba, V. 115, 117 f. 

Gabara, V. 44, 82, 123 ff. (one of the 
three chief cities of Galilee), 203, 
233, 235, 240, 265, 313 ; apparently 
identical with the "village" of 
Gabaroth, V. 229, 242 f. 

Gadara, V. 42, 44, 349 

Gains Caesar (Caligula), p. vii, 
V. 5, Ap. ii. 2 n. 

Galilaeans pas-sirn in V. as sup- 
porters of Josephus ; Ap. i. 48 

Galilee, Lower, V. 1S8 ; Upper, 67, 
71, 187 ; capital of, rival claim- 
ants, 37 f. ; three chief cities of, 
123 ; total number of cities and 
^^llages in, 235 ; frontiers of, 115, 
241. 270, 285, 318: et jKissim 

Gama'la, V. 46 f., 58-61. 114, 177, 
179, 183, 185, 398 

Garden, hanging, of Babylon, Ap. 
i. 141 

Garis (village of Galilee), V. 395, 

Gaulanitis, V. 187 

Gaul, historians' ignorance of, Ap. 
i. 67 

Gaza, Ap. ii. 116 ; battle of, i. 
184 ff. 

" Genealogies," the Greek, Ap. i. 16 

Gennesaret, Lake of, V. 96, 153, 
165 ff. (304), 327, 349 

Gerastratus, Ap. i. 157 

Germanicus, Ap. ii. 63 

Gischala, V. 43 ff., 70, 75 f., 101, 122, 
189, 235, 308, 317 


Glosses in text of Jostplius, Ap. i. 
83, 9-2, 98, 134, ii. 195, 198, 1^53 f. 

God, Jewish doctiine of, Ap. ii. 
165 if., 181, 190 ff., 284 

Greeks untrustworthy as anti- 
quarians, Ap. i. C ff. ; their dis- 
regard of public records, i. 20 ff., 
44 f. ; their regard for style rather 
than accuracy, i. 23 ff. ; rare 
mention of Jews in Gieek his- 
torians, i. 2 ff . ; explanation of 
their silence, i. 60 ft". ; Greek 
historians who mention the Jews, 
i. 161-218 ; Greek historians criti- 
cized by Berosus, i. 142 ; alleged 
annual murder of a Greek by 
Jews, ii. S9 ff. ; real Jewish atti- 
tude to Greeks, ii. 123 ; Greek re- 
ligion severely criticized, ii.237ff. 

Hall, H. R., Ap. i. 82 

Hands, severing of, as i^unishment, 

V. 147, 171 ff. 
Hapi, .4^). i. 232 n. 
Harmais, father of Harnesses I, 

Ap. i. 97 
Harmais, brother of Ram esses II, 

Ap. i. 98 ff. ; called Hermaeus. 

i. 231 
Harmesses Miamoun, Ap. i. 97 
Harmony, Jewish, A]}, ii. 179 ft'. 
Hashmon, V. 2 n. 
Hecataeus of Abdera, Ap. i. 183-205, 

214, ii. 43, 187 n. 
Heliopolis, Moses as native (priest) 

of, Ap. i. 238, 250, 261, 265, 279, 

ii. 10 
Hellaniciis, Ap. i. 16 
Heracles, temple of, at Tyre, Ap. i. 

118 f . ; Nabuchodonosor com- 
pared to, i. 144 
Hermippus, Ap. i. 163 ft". 
Hermogenes, Ap. i. 216 
Herod the Great, V. 54 n., 115 n. 
Herod the tetrarch, founder of 

Tiberias, V. 37 ; his palace at 

Tiberias, 65 
Herod Agrippa I ("the great 

king '■), V. 33, 37 
Herod Agrippa II ("the king"), 

V. 34, 38 f., 48, 52-61, 74, 112, 114, 

131, 149, 154 ff., 180 ft"., 220, 341-3, 

353 ft'., 359 f. (allusion to his 

death), 362-6 (two of his letters 


quoted), 381 ff., 397 f., 407, 410, 
Ap. i. 51 ; liis realm, V. 126 and 
349 (with notes) 

Herod, son of Garaalus (of Tiberias), 
V. 33 

Herod, son of Miarus (of Tiberias), 
V. 33 

Herod (of Tiberias, perhaps identi- 
cal with one of the two foregoing), 
V. 96 

Herod ("the most venerable," un- 
identified), Ap. i. 51 

Herodotus, criticized universally, 
Ap. i. 16, by Manetho, 73 ; does 
not mention Rome, 66 ; on cir- 
cumcision (quot.), 168 ft'., ii. 142 ; 
illustrations Ironi, i. 98 n., 118 n., 
142 n., 174 n., ii. 11 n., 131-2 n. 
141 n. 

Hesiod, A}^. i. 16 

Hieronymus, Aji. i. 213 ft'. 

Hierosyla (and Hierosolyma), Ajj. 
i. 311 (318 f.) 

Hierusalerae, Ap. i. 179 

High priests as keepers of sacred 
records, Ap. i. 29 ; list kept of, 
for 2000 years, i. 36 ; functions of, 
ii. 104, 185, 193 f. 

Hippodrome at Tarichaeae, V. 132, 

Hippos, V. 42, 153, 349 

Hirom ( = Hiram), Ap. i. 109 ff., 
113 ff., 117 ff., ii. 18 f. 

Hirom II, Ap. i. 158 f. 

Historian, functions of, V. 336-9; 
cf. Greeks 

Homer, posthumous collection of 
his poems, Ap. i. 12 ; birthplace 
of, ii. 14 ; nowhere uses the word 
I'o/xos, ii. 165 ; dismissed by Plato 
from his republic, ii. 256; misc., 
i. 11 n., 62 n., 174 n., ii. 138 n., 
241-8 n. 

Homicide, Athenian laws on, Ap. i. 

Homonoia (place-name), V. 281 

Hycsos dynasty, Ap. i. 75-83 

Hyperochides, Ap. i. 177 

Hyrcanus, high priest, V. 3 

Hyrcanus. son of Josephus, V. 5, 

Iberians, historians' ignorance of 
the, Ap. i. 67 ; alleged Babylonian 




subjugation of, i. 144 ; given 

Roman citizenship, ii. 40 
Idumaea(ns), Ap. ii. 112, 116 
Illuminations at Je^^^.sh festivals, 

Ap. ii. 118 (282) 
Images, making of, prohibited, Ap. 

ii. 75, 191 ; c/. Animals, Statues 
Imitation of Jewish customs by 

Gentiles, Ap. 1. 166 (c/. 225), ii. 

281 ff. 
Indian history of Megasthenes, Ap. 

i. 144 ; Indian philosophers, i. 

Inspiration of Jewish prophets, 

Ap. i. 37- 
Inventiveness, alleged lack of 

Jewish, Ap.'ii. 135, 148, 182 
Ionia, Jews in, Ap. ii. 39 
Irene. Ap. ii. 55 
Isis, Ap. i. 289, 294, 298 
Isthmian games, Ap. iL 217 n. 
Ithaca (woman), Api. ii. 55 
Ithobal I. Ap. i. 123 
Ithobal li, Ap. ii. 156 

James, bodyguard of Josephus, F. 
96, 240 

Jamnia (village in Galilee), V. 188 

Jannaeus. son of Levi, V. 131 

Jannas, Ap. L 80 

Japha (largest villaee in Galilee), 
V. 230. 233. 270 

Jebb, R. C, A2\ i. 11 

Jeremiah, officer of Josephus. V. 
241, 399 

Jerusalem : the public assemblv 
(70 KOLiov). V. 65. 72. 190, 254, 
267, 309, 341, 393; the leaders 
(oi Trpirot)- 217, 310 ; the Sanhe- 
drin. 62 ; royal palace. 46, 407 ; 
siege of, V. 348, 350, 354, 358, 412, 
416 f., Ap. i. 4S ; alleged founda- 
tion of, by the "shepherds," i. 
90, 228 ; description of, by Heca- 
taens. i. 196 ff. ; '• the holy city." 
i. 282 

Jesus, son of Gamalas, high priest, 
V. 193, 204 

Jesus, son of Sapjjhias. chief magi- 
strate of Tiberias. r.'66 f., 134 ff., 
271, 278, 294 ff., 300 f., and 
perhaps 246 

Jesus, a brigand chief. V. 105 ff., 
and perhaps 200 


Jesus, kinsman of Justus of Ti- 
berias, F. 178, 186 

Joazar (or Jozar), colleague of 
Josephus, V. 29 (63, 73, 77) 

John of Gischala, son of Levi, F. 
43 ff. . 70 ff. , 82, 85 ff., 101 f.. 122 f., 
189. 203. 217. 233. 236 ft.. 246, 292, 
301, 304, 306, 313 ff., 368 ff. 

Jonathan, high priest, brother of 
Judas Maccabaeus, F 4 

Jonathan, member of deputation 
sent to oppose Josephus, F. 197, 
201, 216 ff., 229 m, 245 ff., 301 ff., 
316, 332 

Jonathan, promoter of sedition in 
Cyrene, F. 424 

Jonathan, son of Sisenna, F. 190," 

Jordan, F. 33, 399, 405 

Joseph, the patriarch, Ap. i. 92, 
224 n., 238 n., 290 (=Pet€seph, a 
sacred scribe), 299 

Josephus the historian : life, p. 
vii ff. ; qualifications as priest, 
Ap. i. 54 ; the Antiquities, p. xi, 
Ap. i. 1 f., 54, 127, ii. 136, 287 ; 
the Jeu-i-?h War, p. xi, F. 27, 
361-367, 412, Ap. i. 47 ff.; the Life, 
p. xiii ff. (an appendix to Ant., 
links with Ant. xx.); the Contra 
Apionem, p. xvi ; projected 
works, p. xii ; his literarj- assist- 
ants, Ap. i. 50 ; his revision of 
his works, Ap. i. 83 n. 

Joseph(us), grandfather of J. the 
historian, V. 5 

Josexjhus, "the midwife's son," 
F. 185 

Jotapata. F. 188, 234, 332, 350, 353, 
357, 412, 414 

Jozar (or Joazar). opponent of 
Josephus, F. 197, 324 f., 332; 
(possibly identical with Joazar, 
former colleague of Jos., above). 

Judaea, Manetho's account of its 
occupation by the Jews, Ap. i. 
90, 228 ; its extent according to 
Hecataeus, i. 195 

Judas, colleague of Josephus, F. 29 
(63, 73, 77) 

Julias. See Bethsaida 

Justin, Ap. ii. 50 n. 

Justus, son of Josephus, I'. 5, 427 

Ju.stus, bodyguard of Jos., F. 397 

Justus of Tiberias, son of Pistus, 


V. 34, 36-42, 65, 88, 175 flF., 279, 
336-367, 390, 410 ; his history of 
the Jewish war, p. xiv, V. 40, 
357-360, Ap. i. 46 n. 
Juvenal, p. xi ; parallels from, 
V. 277, Aix i. 225, ii. 65, 211 

Kapiiarath (village of Galilee). 

V. 188 

Laborosoardoch, Ap. i. 148 

Lacedaeraon attacked by Poly- 
crates, Aji. i. 221 ; Lacedaemon- 
ians, their bravery and misfor- 
tunes, ii. 130; their training, 172 ; 
unduly admired, 225-231 ; their 
expulsion of foreigners, 259 f. ; 

Laqueur, p. ix, xii, xiv f., xix 

"Law," the word, not found in 
Homer, Aji. ii. 154 f. 

Law (laws) of Moses : copy of, pro- 
duced, V. 134 ; the five books, 
Ap. i. 39 ; given on Sinai, ii. 25 ; 
translation of, under Ptolemy 
Philadelphus, ii. 45 ff. ; Jewish 
regard for, i. 60, 190 if., 212, ii. 
149 f. ; the Law as father and 
master, ii. 174 ; Sabbath reading 
of, and Jewish familiarity with, 
ii. 175 ff. ; laws on leprosy, i. 
281 f. ; summary sketch of, ii. 
190-219 ; humanity of, ii. 211 ff. ; 
penalties, ii. 215 ff. ; exacting 
requirements of, ii. 228 ; the 
Law immortal, ii. 277 ; enco- 
mium on, ii. 291 ff. ; the oral law 
(to. vo/xifjia), V. 161 (bearing aims 
on the Sabbath), 191 (Pharisees 
experts on); misc., V. 198, Ap. 
ii. 106, 184 ff. 

Lebanon (Libanus), V. 52, Ap. i. 
110, 113, lis 

Leontopolis, temple of, Ap. ii. 
49 n. 

Lepers, Egyptian, Ap. i. 229 ff'., 
304 ;' laws on, i. 281 f. 

Levi, officer of Josephus, V. 171, 

Libya, Ap. i. 144 ; settlement of 
Jews in, ii. 44 

Lightfoot, J., Ap. i. 167 

Locrians, laws of the, .4/). ii. 154 

Lycurgus, Ap, ii. 154, 225 
Lysimachu.s, Ap. i. 304-320; ii. 16, 
20, 145, 236 

Maccabees, Fourth Book of, p. xii 
Macedonians (of Alexandria and 

Egypt), Ap. ii. 35 f., 48, 69 f., 

133, 138. 
Macrones, the, Ap. i. 170 
Manetho, Ap. i. 16 n., 73-105, 227- 

287, 294 ff., ii. 1, 16 
JLarriage of Jewish priests, Ap. i. 

31 ff. ; Jewish marriage laws, ii. 

199 ff. 
Matthias, son of Simon, ancestor 

of Josephus, V. 4 
Matthias Curtus, ancestor of 

Josephus, V. 4 
Matthias, father of Josephus, V. 5, 

7, 204 
Matthias, brother of Josephus, V. 8 
Medes, Media, Ap. i. 64, 99, 141 
Megasthenes, historian of India, 

Ap. i. 144 
Memphis, Ap. i. 77, 246 
Menahem, V. 21, 46 
Menander of Ephesus, Ap. i. 116 ff., 

155 n. 
Mephramouthosis, Ap. i. 95 
Mephres, Ap. i. 95 
Merbal, Ap. i. 158 
Methusastartus, Ap. i. 122 
Metten, Ap. i. 125 
Middle, God the, of all things, 

Ap. ii. 190 
Minos, A}^. ii. 161 
Mis])hragmouthosis, Ap. i. 86 
Mnaseas, Ap. i. 216, ii. 112 
Modius, Aequus, V. 61, 74, 114, 

ISO f. 
Molon, Apollonlus, Ap. ii. 16, 79, 

145, 148, 236, 255, 258, 262, 270, 

Mommsen, T., Ap. ii. 40 f. 
Moses, etymology of, Ap. i. 286 ; 

called Osarsiph by Manetho, i. 

250; Tisithen by Chaeremon, i. 

290; Manetho on, i. 279; Lysi- 

machus on, i. 309 ; called a native 

of Ilelinpolis by Manetho, i. 238, 

and by Apion, ii. 10, 13 ; the 

most ancient of legislators, his 

sterling merits, ii. 154 ff. ; the 

books of, i. 39. See Law. 



MosoUamus (MeshuUam), Ap. i. 

201 ff. 
Mdu — "'wateT,"Ap. i. 286 
Miiller, J. G., i>. xix, Ap. i. 183 
Mysteries, Greek, Ap. ii. 189 
Myttyu, Ap. i. 157 

Naber, S. a., p. xvii ff. 

Nabonnedus, Ap. i. 141* ff. 

Nabopalassar, Ap. i. 131, 135 f. 

Nabiichodonosor (= Nebuchadnez- 
zar), Ap. i. 132, 135 ffi, 146. 154, 
156, 159 

Nemean games, Ap. ii. 217 n. 

Neopolitanus, F. 120 

Neriglisar, Ap. i. 147 

Nero, V. 13, 16, 38, 408 f. 

Nicolas of Damascus, Ap. i. 216 n., 
ii. 84 

Nie3e, B., p. xvii f., et passim 

Nile, charge of, entrusted to Jews, 
Ap. ii. 64 

Ninus, priestess, Ap. ii 267 

Noah (in Bero8u.s), Ajy. i. 130 

Oasis, Egyjjtian, Ap. ii. 29 
Oaths, Jewish, V. 275, Ap. i. 167 

(corban) ; alleged Jewish oath of 

hostility to Greeks, ii. 95, 121 ff. ; 

of Socrates, ii. 263 
Oil, use of Grecian, prohibited to 

Jews, V. 74 
Olympic games, Ap. ii. 217 n. 
Onias, general of Ptolemy Philo- 

metor, Ap. ii. 49 ff. 
Onias. high priest. Ap. i. 187 n. 
Orus (Or). Ap. i. 96, 232 
Osarsiph ( = Moses), Ap. i. 238, 250, 

265, 286 
Osiris, Ap. i. 238 n., 250, 265 
Ovid, Metaraorph., Ap. ii. 128 n. 

Paapis, Ap. i. 232, 243 
Page, T. E., Ap. iL 203 
Palestine not a maritime country, 

Ap. i. 60 
Parents, honour of, Ap. ii. 206 
Parthenius. river, Ap. i. 170 
Pelusium. Ap. i. 78 n., 101, 274, 291, 

297, 302 
Peritius, Macedonian month, Ap. i. 


Persecution (torture) of. Jews, Ap. 
i. 43, 191 f., ii. 219, 232 ff. 

Persian dominion in Asia, Aj). i. 64, 
150 ; deportation of Jews (errone- 
ous statement), 194 ; punishment 
of impiety, ii. 269 ; practices, 
270; war with Greece, i 13, 18, 
172. ii. 270; conquest of Egypt, 
ii. 129, 138 

Peteseph ( = Joseph). Ap. i 290 

Pharisees, V. 10, 12, 21, 191, 197; 
their belief in a future life, Ap. 
ii 218 n. 

Phelles, Ap. i. 123 

Pherecydes of Syros, Ap. i. 14 

Philiii, son of Jacimus, lieutenant 
of Agrippa II, V. 46 ff., 59, 177, 

179 ff., 407 a: 

Philistus. Sicilian historian, Ap. i. 

Philo, "the elder," Ap. i. 218 
Philo of Alexandria, Ap. i. 286 n., 
ii 2n., 77n.,173n.,175n., 192n., 
237 n. 

Philosophers, Greek, disciples of 
Egjrptians and Chaldaeans, Ap. i 
14 ; in accord with Moses, ii. 168, 
281 ff. 

Philostratus, Ap. i. 144 

Phobos (and Deimos), Ap. ii. 248 

Phoenician contact with Greece, 
their alphabet and use of writing, 
Ap. i. 10, 2S ; corumerce, 61, 63 ; 
jjractice of circumcision, 169 ; 
language spoken in Ethiopia, 
173 with n. ; records, S f., 14b, 
155 ff. ; evidence to Jewish his- 
tory, i. 70, 106-127, ii 18 f. ; 
carnpaign of Ramesses II against 
Phoenicia, i 99; of Nabucho- 
donosor, 135 ; town of Dora in 
Phoenicia, ii 116 

Photius, p. X 

Phritobautes, Ap. i. 289, 295 

Piracy, Ap. i 62 

Pisistratus, Apj. i. 21 

Pistus. father of Justus of Tiberias, 
V. 34. 88, 175 

Placidns, V. 213 ff., 227, 411 

Plain, the Great (of Esdraelon), 
V. 115, 126, 318 

Plato, Timaeus, use of, Ap. i 7 ff., 
ii. 192 n., 224; current criticism 
of his Republic, ii. 223 ff. ; dis- 



misses poets from the republic, 
256 ; in accord with Moses, 108, 

Pliny, the elder, p. xi 

Pliny, the younger, Ap. ii. 41 n. 

Polybius, Ap. ii. 50 n., 84 

Polycrates, Ap. i, 221 

Pompey "the Great," Ap. i. 34, ii. 
82, 134 

Poppaea, V. 16 

Population, vast Jewish, Ap. i. 194 

Pork, abstention from, Ap. ii. 137, 

Posidonius, Ap. ii. 79 

Prayers, Jewish, Ap. ii. 196 f. 

Priests, Jewish, 24 courses of, V. 2, 
Ap. ii. 108 n. ; 4 tribes of, ii. 108 ; 
liberation of, by Jos., V. 13 ft'. ; 
marriage of Ap. i. 30 tf. ; number 
of, i. 188, ii. 108 ; hours of service 
of, in Temple, ii. 105 ; qualifica- 
tions and functions of, i. 199, 
284, ii. 185 ft'., 193 f. 

Prophets, Jewish, as writers and 
keepers of records, Ap. i. 29, 37 
(inspiration of), 40, 41 (failure of 
succession since Artaxerxes) 

Proselytes, Ap. ii. 123, 210, 261 

Proseuche (prayer-house), at Tiber- 
ias, V. 277, 280, 293 ft'. ; alleged 
to have been erected by Moses 
at Heliopolis, Ap. ii. 10 

Protagoras, Ap. ii. 266 

Ptolemais, V. 105, 118, 213 ft"., 342, 

Ptolemy I, son of Lagus, Ap. i. 
183, 185 f., 210, ii. 37, 44 

Ptolemy II, Philadelphus, Ap. ii. 

45 fr. 

Ptolemy III, Euergetes, Ap. ii. 48 
Ptolemy IV, Philopator, Ap. ii. 

55 n. 
Ptolemy VII, Philometor, Ap. ii. 

49, 51 
Ptolemy IX, Physcon, Ap. ii. 51 ft". 
Ptolemy XV, Ap. ii. 58 n. 
Ptolemy, officer of Agrippa II, V, 

126, 128 
Purifications, Jewish, Aj). i. 199, 

ii. 198, 203 
Pnrim, Ap. ii. 55 n. 
Pnteoli ( = Dicaearchia), V. 16 
Pygmalion, Af. i. 125 
Pythagoras, indebted to Egypt and 

Clialdaea, Ap. i. 13 ; imitated 
Jewish doctrines, i. 162 ft'., ii. 
168; birth-place of, uncertain, 
ii. 14 

QuARRiKs, stone, in Egypt, Ap. i, 

235, 237, 257, 267, 296 
Quiutilius Varus, Ap. i, 34 

Rabbinical traditions, Ap. ii. 175, 
190, 199, 204 f. 

Ramesses I, Ap. i. 97( 

Ramesses II ( = Sethosis), Ap. i. 
98 ft", (also perhaps 288 ft"., 292, 
300 f.) 

Rampses, Ap. i. 231, 245, 251 

Ratliotis, Ap. i. 96 

Red Sea, Ap. i. 201 

Refugees, treatment of, V. 113, 
149 ft'. 

Registers, Jewish public, V. 6 

Reinach, T., p. xix et passim 

Riddles of Solomon, Ap. i. Ill, 
114 f. 

Rome, visit of Jos. to, V. 13 ft'. ; 
Jos. at Rome after the war, 
V. 423 ft;, Ap. i. 50; Jewish re- 
volt from, V. 17 f. et passini ; long 
unknown to the Greeks, Ap. i. 
66 ; Roman citizenship given to 
Jos., V. 423 ; to various nations, 
Ap. ii. 40 ; refused to Egyptians, 
41 (with n.); magnanimity of 
Romans, 73 ; Jewish daily sacri- 
fices for R. Emperors, 77 ; Jewish 
alliance with Romans, 134 

Sabbath, soldiers discharged on, 
V. 159, cf. 275 ; bearing arms on, 
forbidden, 161, Ap. i. 209 ; meet- 
ing in prayer-house on, V. 277 ff. ; 
midday meal on, 279 ; Apion's 
false etymology of word, Ap. ii. 
20 f., 26 f. ; reading of Law on, 
175 ; observance of, ii. 234, 282 
(among Gentiles), i. 209 f. (ridi- 
culed by Agatharcides) 

Sabbo, Ap. ii. 21, 27 

Sabines, Ap. ii. 40 

Sacchaeus, V. 239 

Sacrifices, custom of, not peculiar 
to Jews, Ap. ii. 137 f. ; Jewish, 
195 f. 

Sadilncees, V. 10 



Salitis, Ap. i. 77 

Samaria, shortest route from Gali- 
lee to Jerusalem \ia, V. 260 ; 
alleged cession of, to Jews, by 
Alexander the Great, Ap. ii. 43 

Sanhedrin, V. 62 

Sceptics, the Greek, Ap. ii. 180 n. 

Schiirer, E., Ap. ii. 77 

Scriptures (" sacred books "), copy 
of, presented by Titus to Jose- 
phu8, V. 418 ; the AntvivAties 
based on, Apt. i. 1, 54 ; care be- 
stowed on, i. 29 ff. ; the 22 books, 
37 ff. ; Jewish reverence for, 42 f. ; 
unknown to Greek writers, 217 f. ; 
c/. Law 

Scvthians, Ap. i. 64, ii. 269 

Scythopolis (Bethshan). V. 26, 42. 
121, 349 

Secrets, disclosure of, forbidden by 
the Law, Ap. ii. 207 

Sedition, Alexandrian Jews accused 
of causing, Ap. ii. 6S 

Selame (village in Galilee), V. 188 

Seleucia (in Gaulanitis), V. 187, 398 

Seleucia (Pieria, Svrian port), Ap. 
i. 207 

Seleucus I, Ap. i. 144 n., ii. 39 

Seleucus II, Ap. i. 206 f. 

Semiramis, Apj. i. 142 

Sepphoris, V. 30, 37 ff. (capital of 
Galilee), 64, 82, 103 ff., 123 f., 188, 
203, 232 (largest city in Galilee) ; 
c/. 346 ff., 373-3S0, 394 ff., 411 

Septuagint, Ap. i. 54 n., ii. 46 

Sesostris, Ap. i. 98 n., ii. 132 

Sethos(is) ( = Harnesses II), Ap. i, 
98-102, 231, 245 

Sethroite nome of Egypt, Ap. i. 78 

Seventy, council of, Galilaeans, V. 

"Shepherds," the (— Hycsos dy- 
nast v). Ap. i. 82, 84 ff., 91, 94, 
230, 237 ff., 248, 251, 260, 266 

Shishak, Ap. i. 98 n. 

Sicilian historians, Ap. i. 17 

Silas, officer of Josephus, in com- 
mand at Tiberias, V. 89 f., 272 

Simon Psellus, ancestor of Jose- 
phus, V. 3 

Simon, high priest, brother of 
Judas ilaccabaeus, V. 3 f. 

Simon of Gabara, V. 124 

Simon, soldier of Josephus, V. 137 


Simon, brother of John of Gischala. 
V. 190, 195, 201 

Simon, son of Gamaliel. V. 190 ff.. 
216, 309 

Simon, member of embassy sent to 
oppose Josephu-s, V. 197, 324 ff., 

Simonias (on Galilee frontier), V, 

Simonides Agrippa, son of Jose- 
phus, V. 427 

Sinai, Ap. ii. 25 

Socrates, Ap. ii. 135, 263 f. 

Soemus, V. 52 

Sogane, in Gaulanitis, V. 187 ; in 
Galilee, 265 f. ; text and locality 
uncertain, 44 

Solomon, Ap. i. 108 ff., 114 f., 120, 
ii. 12, 19, 132 

Solon, Ap. ii. 154 

Solyma (in Gaulanitis), V. 187 ; 

Solymian hills, Ap. i. 173 f. 

Solyniites ( = inhabitants of Jeru- 
salem), Ap. i. 248 

Sophocles. Ap. ii. 279 n. 

Sorcery, V. 149 f. 

Soul and body, Ap. ii. 203 

Sparta. See Lacedaemonians 

Stadiuan at Tiberias, V. 92, 331 

Statues not erected by Jews, Ap. 
ii. 73 ff. 

Stoics have features in common 
with the Pharisees, V, 12 ; and 
with the mosaic theology, Ap. ii. 

Strabo, Ap. i. 16 n., 172 n., 192 n., 
ii. 44 n., 84 

Stratonice, Ap. i. 206 ff. 

Suetonius, p. x 

Sulla, officer of Agrippa II, V. 398, 
401, 405 

Sundials of Moses, Ap. ii. 11 

Syrians, massacres of Jews by, 
V, -lb; of Caesarea, hostile to 
Jews, 52, 59 ; of Palestine men- 
tioned by Herodotus as practising 
circumcision, Ap. i. 169, 171 

Taberxacle, Ap. iL 12 

Tabor, mount, V. 188 

Tacitus, p. xi ; illustrations from, 

Ap. i. 305 f., 309, ii. 63, 80, 121 
Talmud. See Rabbinical traditions 
Tarichaeae, V. 06 f., 127, 132 ff., 


151, 157, 159 ff., 1S8, 27G, 304, 
404 ff. 

Tartarus, Ap. ii. •240«' 

Taxation, exemption of Joseplnis's 
property from, V. 4-29 

Tekoa, V. 420 

Temple of Solomon, building of, 
Ap. i. lOS (Tyrian evidence), 126, 
ii. 12, 19 ; destruction and re- 
building of, Ap. i. 132, 145, 154 ; 
description of second temple by 
Hecataeus, i. ,108 f. ; temple of 
Herod, used as asylum, V. 20 ; 
as prison, V. 419 ; its four courts, 
Ap. ii. 102 ff. ; gates, 119 ; temple 
ritual, 193 ff. ; calumnies con- 
cerning the ritual, 79-120 

Temples, Greek, old and new, A2^. 
ii. 254 

Tethmosis (elsewhere called Thoum- 
mosis), Ap. i. 94, 231, 241, ii. 16 

Thales, Ap. i. 13 

Thebaid, the Egyptian, Ap. i. 85 

Thebes (in Greece), Ap. i. 221, ii. 

"Theocracy," the constitxition of 
Moses a, A p. ii. 165 

Theodotus, A p. i. 216 

Theophilus, Ap. i. 216 

Theophrastus, Ap. i. 167 

Theopompus, Ap. i. 221 

Thermodon, river, Ap. i. 170 

Thermus, Lucius, ^2'- "• ^0 

Thmosis, Ap. i. 95 

Thoummosis ( = Tethmosis), Ap. i. 

Thracians, Ap. i. 64, 165 

Thucydides, accused of error, Ap. 
i. 18;} does not mention Rome, 
66 ; illustrations from, i. 53, 62, 

Tiberias, V. 32 ft^, 37 (former capi- 
tal of Galilee), 64, 67 f., 82, 85 ff. 
(hot baths at), 123 f., 155 ff., 188, 
203, 271 ff., 296, 313 f., 326 ff., 
340 ff. (responsibility for revolt 
from Rome), 381-389 

Tiberius, Ap. ii. 2 n. 

Timaeus, Ap. i. 16 f., 221 

Timagenes, Ap. ii. 84 

Timochares, Ap. i. 197 n. 
Tisithen ( = Moses), Ap. i. 290 
Tithes, priestlv, V. 63, 80 ; A p. i. 

Titus, V. 358 f. (Commentaries of), 

363, 416 ff., 428, Ap. i. 48, 50, 

ii. 82 
Tonsure, Ap. i. 174 n. 
Trachonitis, F. 53, 112 
Tripoliticns, A}), i. 221 
Trojan War, Ap. i. 11 f., 104 
Tutimaeus, Ap. i. 75 
Typhon, Ap. i. 237 
Tyre, V. 44, 372, 407 ; besieged by 
^ Nebuchadnezzar, Ap. i. 144, 156, 

159 ; temple of Zeus at, 113, 118 ; 

Tyrians, enemies of Jews, 70 ; 

Tyrian archives, 107 ff. ; Tyrian 

laws, 167 
Tyrrhenians, Ap. ii. 40 

Utica, Ap, i. 119 

Varus, viceroy of Agrippa II, V. 

48 ff., 180 
Vespasian, V. 5, 342 {Commentaries 

of), 352, 355, 359, 407-415, 423, 

425, Ap. i. 48, 50, ii. 40 n. 
Vessels, carrying of, into the 

Temple prohibited, Ap. ii. 106 
Virtues, the four cardinal. A]}, ii. 


Walls built or repaired, V. 128, 

142 ff., 156, 186 ff., 817, 347 
Wolf, Prolegomena, Ap. i. ] 2 n. 

Xaloth (on S. frontier of Galilee), 

V. 227 
Xerxes, A2X i. 40, 172 

Zabidus, Ap. ii. 112 ff. 

Zaleucus, Ap. ii. 154 

Zamaris, V. 54 n. 

Zeno, Ap. ii. 135 

Zeus, Ap. ii. 162, 241, 245 f. ; 

temple of, at Tyre, i. 113, 118 ; 

"by Zeus," i. 255, ii. 263 
Zopyrion, Ap. i. 216 




References are to the Books and Sections of the Contra Apionem, 
except in the few allusions to the Life, which are indicated by V. 

Genesis i. 26, 31. 

iii. 16. 

xl. 15. 

Exodus iL 10. 

vi. 16-20. 

xii. 43. 

XX. 4. 

XX. 10. 

XX. 12. 

XX. 15. 

xxii. 21. 

xxil. 25. 

xxii. 28 (lxx). 

xxiii. 4. 

xxiiL 8. 

Leviticus vi. 2. 

X. 9. 


XV. 18. 

xviii. 6 ff. 

xviii, 22, 29. 

xix. 11-13, 35 f. 

xix. 16. 

xix. 27. 

xix. 32. 

XX. 10. 

XX. 13. 

xxi. 7ff. 

xxii. 24. 

xxiv. 13. 

XXV. 36 f. 

Numbers xix. 11 if. 

xxii. 27. 

Dfiuteronomy iv. 2. 

v. 14. 

V. ]C>. 


ii. 192 
ii. 201 
i. 92 
i. 286 
i. 299 
ii. 210 
V. 65 
ii. 210 
ii. 206 
ii. 208 
ii. 210 
ii. 208 

i. 164, ii. 23i 
V. 128 
ii. 207 
ii. 208 
i. 199 
i. 281 f. 
ii. 203 
ii. 200 
ii. 199 
ii. 216 
i. 164 
i. 174 
ii. 206 
ii. 201, 215 
iL 199. 215 
L 30 f. 
ii. 271 
ii. 217 
ii. 208 
ii. 205 
i. 164 
i. 42 
ii. 213 
ii. 206 


my vi. 7. 

ii. 204 

xi. 19. 

ii. 204 

XV. 7 ff. 

ii. 207 

xvi. 19. 

ii. 207 

XX. 19. 

ii. 212 

xxi. 10 ff. 

ii. 212 

xxi. 18ff. 

ii. 206, 217 

xxi. 23. 

ii. 211 

xxii. 6. 

ii. 213 

sxii. 22-27. 

ii. 201 

xxii. 23. 

ii. 215 

xxiii. 1. 

iL 271 

xxiii. 20. 

ii. 208 

XXV. 13 ff. 

ii. 216 

xxvii. 18. 

iL 211 

xxvii. 25. 

ii. 207 

xxviii. 27. 

i. 229 

xxxi. 10. 

iL 175 

2 Samuel 

V. 11. 

i. 109 

1 Kings 

v. 1. 

i. 109 

Vi. 1. 

ii. 19 

ix. 10-13. 

i. 110 

2 Kings 

XXV. 8. 

i. 154 

1 Chronicles xxiv. 7. 

ii. 108 


ii. 36. 

ii. 108 

iii. 8. 

i. 154 

iv. 24. 

L 154 

vi. 3. 

i. 198 

vi. 10. 

ii. 57 


L 154 

viii. 16, 

i. 201 


viL 39. 

iL 108 


ix. 26. 

i. 174 

XXV. 12. 

i. 154 

Iii. 12, 29. 

i. 154 


xliv. 21. 

i. 199 


Daniel vii. 0. 



Tobit i. 17 ff. 



Ecclesiasticus (Siiacl 


vii. 34. 



xiii. 15 (ly). 



Baruch i. 11. 



iv. 1. 



1 Maccabees ii. 34 ff. 



X. 21. 



X. 30, 38, xi. 34. 



1 Maccabees xiii. 41. ii. 134 
3 Maccabees v, vi. ii. 55 


xiii. 16. 

i. 1(J7 


vii. 11. 

i. 167 

xi. 16. 

ii. 106 


xvi. 13, 16. 

V. 277 

xvii. 22. 

ii. 130 

1 Corinthians viii. 

V. 14 


iii. 24. 

ii. 174 


i. 8, xxi. C. 

ii. lyo 

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